Notes for Gondioc: Gondioc (also Gundioc, Gundowech, died 473) was king of Burgundy following the destruction of Worms by the Huns in 436, succeeding Gundahar. Gondioc married the sister of Ricimer, the Gothic general at the time ruling the Western Roman Empire.
Gundobad, the son of Gondioc, succeeded Ricimer in 472, but abdicated after the death of his father in the following year as Gondioc was succeeded by his brother Chilperic I. After the death of Chilperic, Burgundy was divided among the sons of Gondioc, Gundobad, Chilperic II of Burgundy, Godomar and Godegisel.
GUNDIOC [Gondion] (-473). The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. He succeeded his father in 436 as GUNDIOC King of the Burgundians. The Romans installed the Burgundians in Sapaudia, north of Lake Geneva, in 443 or 447. The Burgundians were expelled from land around Lyon in 458 by Emperor Majorian, but Gundioc became magister militum in Gaul during the reign of Emperor Severus 461-465. Burgundian troops helped the Romans to defend Clermont against the Visigoths in 471 and 472. King Gundioc divided his territories between his four sons. King Gundioc had four children:
a) GUNDOBAD [Gondebaud] (-516). Gregory of Tours names (in order) "Gundobad, Godegisel, Chilperic and Gundomar" as the four sons of Gundioc King of the Burgunds. He succeeded his father in 473 as GONDEBAUD King of Burgundy, at Geneva.
- see below.
b) GODOGISEL (-500). Gregory of Tours names (in order) "Gundobad, Godegisel, Chilperic and Gundomar" as the four sons of Gundioc King of the Burgunds, recording that Gundobad murdered his brother Godogisel. The Liber Historiæ Francorum names "Gundeveus rex Burgundionum…ex genere Athanaric regis" and his four sons "Gundobadus, Godeghiselus, Chilpricus et Godmarus". He succeeded his father in 473 as GODEGISEL King of Burgundy, at Besançon. Gregory of Tours records that Godegisel ruled jointly with his brother Gundobad "over the territory round the Rhône and the Saône and the province of Marseille", but defected to support Clovis King of the Franks when the latter attacked Burgundy, and afterwards established himself as ruler at Vienne. He was killed when his brother attacked Vienne. The Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica records that "Godegaselo" conspired against "fratrem suum Gundobagaudum" in 500. m THEODELINDIS, daughter of ---. The primary source which confirms her marriage to King Godegisel has not so far been identified.
c) CHILPERIC (-murdered 486). Gregory of Tours names (in order) "Gundobad, Godegisel, Chilperic and Gundomar" as the four sons of Gundioc King of the Burgunds. The Liber Historiæ Francorum names "Gundeveus rex Burgundionum…ex genere Athanaric regis" and his four sons "Gundobadus, Godeghiselus, Chilpricus et Godmarus", recording that Gundobad killed his brother Chilperic. He succeeded his father in 473 as CHILPERIC King of Burgundy, at Lyon. He became magister militum in Gaul during the reign of Emperor Glycinius, exercising authority between Lyon and Geneva. m ---. Gregory of Tours records that Chilperic's wife was drowned by her brother-in-law King Gundobad, after he tied a stone around her neck. The Liber Historiæ Francorum records the same event. King Chilperic had four children:
i) son. Murdered. The primary source which established his existence has not so far been identified.
ii) son. Murdered. The primary source which established his existence has not so far been identified.
iii) SEDELEUBE [Chroma] (-). Gregory of Tours names "Chroma" as the elder daughter of Chilperic, records that she and her sister were driven into exile by their paternal uncle King Gundobad, and that Chroma became a nun. The Liber Historiæ Francorum also records that "filia…senior…Chrona" was sent into exile after her parents were murdered. Fredegar names "Sædeleuba" as the older daughter of Chilperic. Fredegar records that "Sideleuba regina" had founded the church at Geneva to which the body of St Victor was taken. Presumably this refers to the daughter of Chilperic King of Burgundy as no other reference to this name has been found. However, the text implies that Sedeleube was married to, or was the widow of, a king at the time, no other reference having been identified in Fredegar to an unmarried daughter of a monarch being referred to as "regina". If this is correct, the identity of her husband is not known. [m --- King of ---.]
iv) CHROTECHILDIS [Clotilde] (-Tours, monastery of Saint-Martin 544 or 548, bur Paris, basilique des Saints-Apôtres [later église de Sainte-Geneviève]). Gregory of Tours names "Clotilde" as the younger daughter of Chilperic, recording that she and her sister were driven into exile by their paternal uncle King Gundobad, but that the latter accepted a request for her hand in marriage from Clovis King of the Franks. The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that, after the murder of her parents, "filia…iunior…Chrotchilde" was kept in Burgundy where she attracted the attention of Chlodoveo King of the Franks. Fredegar states that Clotilde was driven into exile to Geneva by her uncle, after he allegedly murdered her father, and that King Clovis requested her hand in marriage as a means of controlling Gundobad's power. Gregory of Tours records Clotilde's lack of success in converting her husband to Christianity until the fifteenth year of his reign, when he and his people were baptised by St Rémy Bishop of Reims. Gregory of Tours records that Queen Clotilde became a nun at the church of St Martin at Tours after her husband died. Clotilde was canonised by the Catholic church, her feast day is 3 Jun. m (492) as his second wife, CLOVIS I [Chlodovech] King of the Franks, son of CHILDERIC I King of the Franks & his wife Basina ([464/67]-Paris [27 Nov] 511, bur Paris, basilique des Saints-Apôtres [later église de Sainte-Geneviève]).
d) GONDEMAR (-murdered 486). Gregory of Tours names (in order) "Gundobad, Godegisel, Chilperic and Gundomar" as the four sons of Gundioc King of the Burgunds. The Liber Historiæ Francorum names "Gundeveus rex Burgundionum…ex genere Athanaric regis" and his four sons "Gundobadus, Godeghiselus, Chilpricus et Godmarus". He succeeded his father in 473 as GONDEMAR I King of Burgundy, at Vienne. He was murdered by his brother Gondebaud.
The Burgundians, by legend, originated in Scandinavia. They settled east of the river Rhine where their homeland was destroyed by the Huns in . They migrated south and the Romans gave them Sapaudia, north of Lake Geneva, in the early 440s. The Burgundian kingdom which they established ruled the area south of Lake Geneva and included what later became Provence. According to Gregory of Tours, Gundioc King of the Burgunds was "of the family of King Athanaric [of the Goths]", but this seems improbable considering the probable migration pattern of the Goths from south-eastern Europe into south-western France via Italy. The Burgundian kings were converted to Christianity before the Merovingian Frankish kings, the conversion of the latter being started by Clotilde of Burgundy who married King Clovis I. Following short-lived alliances between the Franks and the Burgundians against the Visigoths, King Clodomir started the Frankish conquest of Burgundy in 523. It was completed by his brother King Childebert I in 534.
Although the Burgundian land was incorporated into the realm of the Merovingian Frankish kings, it retained its identity as a separate kingdom and was initially allocated to King Gontran as the major part of his territories. Between 603 and 627, maiores domus of the palace of the kingdom of Burgundy are recorded, indicating a degree of separate administration. After the death in 627 of maior domus Warnachar, King Clotaire II assumed direct control over Burgundy, although Burgundy is mentioned separately as part of the kingdom to which King Theoderic III succeeded in 673. Pepin "le Gros", maior domus of Austrasia and Neustria, appointed his son Drogo as dux of the Burgunds after 697.
After the Carolingian succession, evidence from the Royal Frankish Annals suggests that Burgundy was a compliant part of the kingdom, as troops from Burgundy are recorded as taking part in the conquest of northern Spain in 778 and quelling the Bohemian rebellion in 806, although the fact that the Burgunds are given a separate mention in the text indicates that they retained a degree of local national identity. The Annals record "nobles from Burgundy" as taking part in the assembly held in Frankfurt by Emperor Louis I in 823.
The first sign of a split between northern and southern Burgundy, reflected in subsequent Burgundian history, occurs when Emperor Charlemagne allocated territories between his sons Charles and Louis in 806, the former receiving northern Burgundy as part of his allocation while the latter was given southern Burgundy and Provence, together with other lands.
The whole of the ancient kingdom of Burgundy was included as part of the newly created kingdom of Lotharingia, allocated to and named after Emperor Lothaire, under the Treaty of Verdun agreed with his brothers in 843. Under the division of territories after Emperor Lothaire's death in 855, Transjuranian or northern Burgundy, Provence and Lyon were allocated to his son Charles. On the latter's death in 863, those parts consisting of the ecclesiastical provinces of Aix, Arles, Belley, Embrun and Tarentaise fell to his older brother King Lothaire II. During the rule of King Charles and King Lothaire II, Transjuranian Burgundy was administered by Hucbert, of the Bosonid family (see PROVENCE), and after his death by Konrad, from the Swabian Welf family to whom King Louis II had granted Geneva, Lausanne and Sion.
Taking advantage of the weakness of central Carolingian rule after Emperor Karl III "der Dicke/the Fat" was deposed in 887, the nobility of Transjurania proclaimed Konrad's son Rudolf as king of "Upper Burgundy" in 888. His territory consisted of Savoy, to the south of Lake Geneva, Franche-Comté to the north and west, and Valais and Jura in present-day Switzerland. King Rudolf was unable to revive the previous kingdom of Lotharingia as he was could not retain control of Lorraine and Alsace. Meanwhile, the kingdom of "Lower Burgundy", including Provence and the areas to the north as far as Upper Burgundy, had been formed by the successors of Hucbert. The two kingdoms were combined in 930 when Ugo King of Italy ceded Lower Burgundy to Rudolf II King of Upper Burgundy, who established Arles as the capital of the united kingdom, which was thereafter sometimes referred to as the "Kingdom of Arles". King Rudolf III, in an attempt to curb the power of the local nobility, increased the temporal power of the church in his kingdom by granting the counties of Tarentaise, Vaud, Valais and Vienne to the local bishops.
On his death without children in 1032, King Rudolf III bequeathed the kingdom of Burgundy to Emperor Konrad II, who was married to one of his nieces and was crowned king of Burgundy at Payerne, near Lake Neuchâtel in present-day Switzerland, in 1033. The Burgundian nobility thereby passed under the suzerainty of the kings of Germany, although the kingdom of Burgundy remained outside the territory of the Holy Roman Empire. This transfer of suzerainty to Germany, whose kings always experienced difficulties in imposing centralised administration over their already extensive and diverse territories, presented the local Burgundian nobility with an opportunity to consolidate its power. The Counts Palatine of Burgundy became particularly influential, as demonstrated by Emperor Friedrich I "Barbarossa" who considered local Burgundian affairs sufficiently important to marry their heiress in 1156. In addition, the financial position of the Counts Palatine was secured by their acquisition of the rich salt mines in the area of Salins in the Franche-Comté. Other local nobility which prospered were the Counts of Maurienne, who eventually became counts and later dukes of Savoy (see SAVOY) and the Dauphins de Viennois (see BURGUNDIAN KINGDOM, Nobility). Emperor Friedrich was crowned king of Burgundy at Arles in 1178 in a symbolic attempt to lay claim to the territory of the whole of the ancient kingdom. The king/emperor ruled in the kingdom of Burgundy through his Rektor, a position which became hereditary in the family of the Dukes of Zähringen (see BADEN) from 1138 to 1218.
The history of Burgundy is further complicated by the existence of the geographically separate duchy of Burgundy (see BURGUNDY), located to the west of the county of Burgundy (now Franche-Comté) in the northern part of the kingdom of Upper Burgundy. The county passed into the sphere of influence of the Capetian kingdom of France with the marriage in 1307 of its heiress to the future Philippe V King of France, although it retained its separate administrative existence before being consolidated in 1383 into the extensive territories of Philippe II "le Hardi" Duke of Burgundy (Valois). The county of Burgundy was among the territories which passed to the Habsburg family as a result of the marriage in 1477 of Marie, daughter and heiress of Charles Duke of Burgundy, to the future Emperor Maximilian I