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"Samson Occom and the Christian Indians of New England." by W. Deloss Love
JOHNSON.--Mohegan tribe, Mohegan, Conn. This family was of the oldest Mohegan stock. In 1723 Manahawon Johnson was living at Mohegan and probably he was the Manghaughwont who signed with the tribe in 1714.
Transatlantic Encounters - American Indians in Britian, 1500 – 1776” by Alden T. Vaughan pages 162-163
“About eighteen months after the Creek delegation left England in the autumn of 1734, a much smaller contingent of Americans arrived on a very different mission. The principal figure was Mohomet (often spelled Mamohet) Weyanuma, sachem of the Mohegans of southern New England, accompanied by another Mohegan, twenty-year-old Acquont (Augh Quant) Johnson and three Anglo-Americans from one of Connecticut’s oldest and most distinguished families: Major John Mason, his eldest son Samuel, and another of John’s sons, unnamed in the records. The Mohegans and Masons sought imperial assistance in their long simmering controversy with Connecticut’s government.
At stake were the extent and ownership of the tribe’s territory, contested since the Mohegans’ designation in 1659 of an earlier Major John Mason as the “Protector and Guardian” of their lands. The tribe and its guardian had thereafter resisted unauthorized sales to land hungry settlers, backed by a colonial government that claimed it, not the Mohegans or Masons, was the legal owner. In 1703, Mohegan sachems and the Mason family petitioned Queen Anne for a judgment against Connecticut for disposing of tribal lands and for denying the eldest living male Mason’s role as guardian. The Queen appointed a commission to review the facts, which in 1705 decided in the plaintiffs’ favor. To the Mohegans’ and Masons’ dismay, the judgment was never executed.
In April 1736, more than three decades after the commission had supposedly settled the matter, the sachem Weyanuma, his tribesman Johnson, and the three Masons arrived from Boston to appeal to King George II. The King passed the problem to the Commissioners of Trade and Plantations, who agreed to reopen the case. In August, 1736, Mahomet died in London of smallpox, and in December Major John Mason, despite fleeing to the countryside to avoid the epidemic, also succumbed. The eminent theologian Dr. Isaac Watts, to whom Mason had appealed for support, predicted that with the guardian’s death “tis probable that the affair will end.” It did not. In April 1737, Captain Samuel Mason and Acquont Johnson submitted a new petition to the Crown, prompting the privy courts to order “a fresh Commission of review.” That summer, King George’s gift of L300 to the Mohegans defrayed the survivors’ living expenses abroad and their transportation back to New England, but the complicated Mohegan land case persisted until 1772. Ultimately, the colony’s argument prevailed, to the great disappointment of several generations of Mohegans who looked to Great Britian for justice.”
Manghaugwont is the first known of the Brothertown Johnson lineage. His sons were all active members of the Mohegan tribe. Zachariah, or Zachary, became a famous councilor of the tribe, and died in September, 1787, at an advanced age. Ephraim was a councilor of the tribe in 1738 and 1742; he appears to have been murdered in 1749, but he left a daughter Eliza. Joseph fought in and died in the French and Indian War and was the father of Joseph, the great Brothertown leader. John was living in Mohegan in 1742, 1749, and 1755, when he had three children, and he fought in the French and Indian War. He is recorded as "dead or captivated" in 1757. In 1774 his family was included on a list of Mohegans. His wife was Mary Johnson, who was admitted to the Groton church in 1741.
One of this woman's sons, John Johnson, was a constant companion to his cousin Joseph Johnson, on his travels back and forth to Oneida lands, when Joseph was negotiating with the tribe for land.
The Genealogy and History of the Brothertown Indians
Updated April 7, 2014


Caroline K Andler

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Family Photos

  • Oscar & Alice Baldwin Welch (33 KB)
    Oscar and Alice Baldwin and their son Platt and his wife Rachel. Picture taken in Brothertown, Calumet Co., WI.
  • Arthur Potter and his wife Sadie Quinney (25 KB)
    Sadie was the daughter of Absolum Quinney, a Stockbridge Indian. She was born in Stockbridge and died when her newborn daughter was only 4 weeks old.
  • Baptist Pilgrimage at Brothertown, WI (239 KB)
    These are 17 of 38 Brothertown Indians still living in the village in 1935. Back row: Alex Pemberton, Charles Mathers, John Hammer, Fred Niles, Arthur Potter, Carl Hammer, Walter Niles, Leon Pemberton Front Row: Belva Moser, Isabelle Pemberton, Louise fowler, Hiram Johnson, Lurie Kindness, Frances Hammer, Ilene Potter Children in front: Ervin Potter
  • Lyman Fowler (15 KB)
    The Brothertown were great musicians and enjoyed singing. Dances at the Four corners were always well attended.
  • Peter Doxtator (8 KB)
    Peter's first wife Rachel Quinney and their two children died of the flu in 1889. He then married Alvira Larsen. He was a game warden in Wisconsin and also drove a hearse. Peter was a fiddle player and Elaine Raddatz said, when she spoke to other people who knew him they would get tears in their eyes when they talked about Peter and his music. Peter won a "Best Old Time Fiddlers" contest at the Retlaw Hotel in 1928 taking first place with $125.oo and a silver cup. He competed for five weeks for the prize and almost missed the last night when his motorcycle broke down. He played with his coat and hat on. His fiddle burned in a fire at the home of his son John. Alvira divorced him and married a William Voland, by whom she had one son, Walter. He was described by all who knew him as a very gentle man and well loved by all. Alvira left Peter taking Tony, Gus and Anna with her. Peter raised John, Charlie, William and George. The daughter Alice died quite young. He was never enrolled as a Stockbridge Indian, although his father Moses was. He was a basket maker also.
  • Lyman Palmer Fowler (47 KB)
    Lyman Fowler photo taken in Washington DC on one of his many trips there "seeing about Brothertown Indians business". DIED. September 14, 1892. At his home this morning, Mr. Lyman P. Fowler, of consumption, aged 69 years. Mr. Fowler was one of the early settlers of this town and has held positions of trust, both in town and county affairs and was a man loved and respected by all who knew him. In his death he leaves a widow and seven grown up children to mourn him
  • George Bertram Shelley (154 KB)
    George was born and lived his entire life in Unity, Colby Co., WI. He was a farmer.
  • Hiram Rhodes (49 KB)
    Hiram Rhodes was a Delaware Indian. 1870 - Wisconsin - Calumet County, Stockbridge Page 304 B Line 232 Rhodes, Hiram (Indian) age 59 born NY Nancy age 50 born NY Peter age 28 born WI Alexander age 25 born WI Almira age 22 born WI Riley age 17 born WI Arnold age 14 born WI Lodusky age 19 born NY
  • Loren Murray Johnson (296 KB)
    Loren Murray Johnson served in the Civil War in Co A 2nd Wis Calvary, enlisting on the 16th of October 1861 at Fond du Lac, WI. He was honorably discharged on April 3rd, 1866. Loren Murray was the chaplain and a charter member of the GAR Post 112 when it was organized in 1883. He was born June 8th, 1840 in Brothertown, Calumet Co., WIand died March 19, 1886 in Colby, WI.
  • John Paul Dick Dix (300 KB)
    Chilton Times Reporter: JOHN PAUL DIX alias DICK One of the First Brothertowners to Set Foot in Wisconsin The Milwaukee Journal of Feb. 14th contained the following death notice of one of the first settlers of Calumet County, formerly a resident of Brothertown. The deceased was known to many of our people. The Journal says: John P. Dix, aged 79, who for several years had held the distinction of being the first of all living men to set foot within the confines of what is now the state of Wisconsin, died yesterday at a hospital at Soldier's home. Mr. Dix was a member of the tribe of Brothertown Indians, and came with his parents to Wisconsin with the forerunners of the tribe, who were sent here in 1833 to settle up government land allotted them near old Fort Howard, now Green Bay. The voyage up the Great Lakes was made in a schooner, and the party landed at the trading post at the fort. Not liking the land allotted them, the party cut out a road through the unbroken wilderness for their ox teams to the east shore of Lake Winnebago, bought the land from the aborigines for a trifle and there established the settlement which has since become famous. Mr. Dix's parents were persons of education and leaders in the tribe. In his youth he became a shingle-maker and later a carpenter, and assisted in building the first frame houses in several of the towns now mskirting Lake Winnebago. He served with honor in the civil war and afterward entered the employ of the Milwaukee Road as a mechanic, remaining with the road until compelled to retire because of old age. For several years he had lived at 3108 Mt. Vernon av. A son arrives today from Chicago to attend the funeral tomorrow afternoon. Personally Mr. Dix was reticent and it was only with his personal friends that he often talked of the many historical events of pioneer Wisconsin with which he was associated. Among other interesting incidents which he recalled was a trip through the wilderness to Milwaukee when it was little more than a trading post. Some of his relatives were prominent in the early territorial politics.
  • Brothertown Court Book, kept by Peacemakers in NY (3527 KB)
    The New York Legislature’s Act of March 4, 1796 set off a tract of land given to the Brothertown Indians by the Oneidas into 149 lots and arrangements for town government. The governor and council was to appoint five Indians as “Keepers of the Peace,” or “Peacemakers,” who should hold office as long as the governor saw fit. They were to hold court on the first Monday of the month at Brothertown and hear and determine all disputes concerning debts and trespass where damage did not exceed 5 pounds and also all violations of town laws. This is from the old court record book dating from 1797 to April 4, 1843 At the same Court of the Peacemakers held in Brothertown of the first Monday in September 1797 Present David Fowler John Tuhie John Skeesuck Isaac Wauby Samuel Scipio The last entry in the old record book reads, ”In 1843 there was no courts held in the Brothertown tribe or nation of Indians in consequence of there being no process returned.” Dated Brothertown April 4th 1843 Jas. Wiggins Clerke Thus after 46 years of service the Brothertown Court closed its books
  • Baptist Pilgrimage at Brothertown, WI (14 KB)
    The Baptist gathered at Phillips Woods in Brothertown, WI on August 19, 1934, celebrating the first Baptist Church in Wisconsin - 100 years ago. The Brothertown Indians present included John Hammer, 83; Louise Fowler, 79; Hiram Johnson, 80; Lura Kindness, 74; and Frances Hammer, 82.
  • Lewis Amazi Shelley (57 KB)
    Lewis Shelley, 57 years 4 months 9 days, born Brothertown, WI. Dark, male, Indian, Black and White, mixed. Parents, Simon Shelley, b. Mystick, Conn. and Sabrina Shelley, b. NY. Wife Mary Shelley. He was born Mar. 22, 1843 and died July 31, 1900, residence Gravesville, buried Brothertown Cemetery. He was a soldier, serving in Co. H 32nd Wis. Vols. during the Civil War
  • Wampum belt belonging to the Brothertown Indians (8 KB)
    The cultural item is a wampum belt, which is composed of purple beads with white beads forming the design of four pairs of diamonds. It is interwoven with buckskin and has fringe at the ends. The wampum belt measures 3 feet 8\1/8\ inches long without the fringe. The Field Museum of Natural History purchased the wampum belt in 1900 from Henry Hysen of Wisconsin. The Field Museum of Natural History accessioned the wampum belt into its collection the same year (catalog number 68567). Museum records indicate that Mr. Hysen purchased the wampum belt ``from the owner who lived on the Stock Ridge Reservation, one of the Brotherton Indians whose family had held the belt since it was sent to them by Chief Black Hawk as a message to the tribes of the Michigan and Wisconsin Indians assembled at Travers bay to hold them in control during his warfare.''
  • Students at Carlisle (12 KB)
    Brothertown Indians attending Carlisle Institute in Pennsylvania in 1900 included Herman Niles, born in 1879 in Brothertown, WI and Samuel Brushel, born in 1878 in Brothertown.
  • Hezekiah Fowler (21 KB)
    Hezekiah Fowler was born in the Brothertown settlement in New York on 15 Mar 1813. He was married twice, first to Fanny Francis Skeesuck and second to Pauline Pangburn.
  • Map of Indiana Territory (49 KB)
    This is what the Brothertown and Stockbridge Indians encountered, an untouched forested wilderness sprinkled with Delaware villages along the only trail and major waterway. From the 1932 map entitled Indiana The influence of the Indian upon its History-with Indian and French names for Natural and Cultural Locations, #122, published by the Indiana Department of Conservation, the White River area of Madison County is shown as a well-developed part of the larger Delaware society in east-central Indiana. The Delaware or Lenni-Lenape, meaning “real men” had as many as fourteen villages along this west fork of the White River. Munceetown was a nickname given in the late 1700's to one of several small Indian villages, located along the East Fork of the White River, in eastern Indiana, and precisely located near the present-day Walnut Street Bridge in Muncie, that were dominated by Delaware (Lenni Lenepe) Indians.
  • Polly Johnson married to Samuel Hammer (25 KB)
    Brothertown Indians, Polly born about 1815 in Brothertown, NY, married Samuel, born 1810, in Brothertown, NY. Samuel died between 1839 and 1850 at Brothertown, Calumet Co., WI
  • Map of the Territory in 1836 (205 KB)
    The Brothertown Indians at a town meeting held on April 6, 1824 voted “that a purchase shall be made of land at Green Bay.” The Indians appointed to act for them were their Indian agent Thomas Dean, William Dick, Rhodolphus Fowler, Paul Dick, Benjamin G. Fowler, Thomas Dick, Randall Abner, John Johnson, Daniel Dick, George Scippio, George Samson, and Samuel Scippio. Some of these went to Green Bay with Thomas Dean where they bought a tract of land from the Menomonee tribe. It was on the east bank of the Fox River at Little Kaukaulin, or Little Rapids, for which they paid $950 from their annuity. It was bounded on the north by DePere, on the east by Lake Michigan, on the south by Wrightstown and on the west by the Fox River. This was a tract of land 8 miles wide and 30 miles long containing 153,600 acres. None moved to their newly acquired land immediately, but by 1827 they began to make plans to migrate to Green Bay.
  • Selona Hammer, daughter of Polly and Samuel (25 KB)
    Selona born 1838 in Brothertown, Calumet Co., WI, married George Washington Smith, on May 19, 1856 in Manchester (later called Brothertown). George was born Nov. 25, 1833 in Cato, Cayuga Co., NY. Selona died on May 3, 1868 in Gravesville, Calumet Co., WI
  • Brothertown lands in Oneida County, NY (522 KB)
    Oneida County, New York, showing original patents, grants, & c. from Surveyor General's Map 1821
  • Signatures of the Chiefs and principal men (202 KB)
    The signatures of the Chiefs, and principal men of the Brothertown tribe of Indians residing in Brothertown, county of Oneida and State of New York on January 17th, 1827 as thee began the process of removing to the Territory of Michigan.
  • A Young Lyman Fowler (29 KB)
    Lyman Palmer Fowler was born 20 Jul 1823 in the Brothertown settlement in NY. He married Aurilla Dick in April of 1845. He served in the Civil War in both the 22nd Inf Reg and the 3rd.
  • Edgar Maurice Dick (14 KB)
    E.M. Dick was a Headman of the Brothertown Indians, born 28 Oct 1843 in Brothertown, WI, he married Abba Loretta Fowler. He joined Co A of the 21st Wis Inf on Aug 13, 1862 and spent the winter on Lookout MT., TN. He accompanied Sherman on his march to the sea and fought in 27 battles in the Civil War.
  • Methodist Church, Brothertown, Calumet Co., WI (11 KB)
    The church was razed in March 1967. The original church was built on Hwy 151 in 1842. The building that was torn down was extensively remodeled in 1906. Originally made of logs, they were covered with clapboard siding. Three acres of land was purchased from Thomas Commuck for $35. In the beginning it had plain glass windows and two single doors facing the highway. Later members donated stained glass windows. Worshippers tied their horses to surrounding locust trees. Built by the Brothertown Indians, whites from the neighborhood also attended services there.
  • Lathrop Fowler and E.M. Dick (27 KB)
    The deaths of two of West Brothertown's pioneer settlers and prominent citizens, both veterans of the Civil War, Lathrop Fowler and Edgar M. Dick, occurred on the same day, Tuesday, May 14th, 1918 in the same dwelling and only nine hours apart.
  • Letitia Schooner in Front of Her Brothertown Home (18 KB)
    Written by Letitia Schooner – William Johnson and wife Charlotte Johnson, great grandparents were born in New York State and came in the early 1832 to Brothertown. Their children were William and Orrin, Esther, who married John C. Hammer and Nancy, who was the wife of Jonathan Schooner. Nancy and Johnathan Schooner, my grandparents, were born in New York State, and came by boat to Green Bay in 1840. They came by oxteam with a few household possessions to Manchester, now Brothertown. They first build a shanty near Nancy’s parents, several years later they built this log home. They cleared land that was a wilderness when they came. Jonathan Schooner was surveyor inthis town and for the county. Their children were Elisha; Elizabeth, Charlotte, my mother; Luther, a baker by trade and alwilda who died when she was 20 years old of lung trouble.
  • Thomas Keeville, husband of Charlotte Schooner (266 KB)
    Born in London, England to William and Mary Keeville, who remained in London, Thomas married Charlotte Schooner, the daughter of Nancy Johnson. He served in the Civil War. Enlisted as a Private on 18 February 1864 in Company I, 35th Infantry Regiment Wisconsin. Received a disability discharge Company I, 35th Infantry Regiment Wisconsin on 13 July 1864. Drowned in Lake Winnebago, Calumet Co., WI on April 8, 1887.
  • Solomon Niles, Billy Johnson, Luke Schooner (21 KB)
    All three Brothertown Indians were veterans of the Civil War.
  • Charlotte Fowler Potter's Home in Brothertown (13 KB)
    An early log house built by the Brothertown Indians, it stood on the south bank of the creek next to the cheese factory. It still stood in 1935.
  • Benjamin Welch (310 KB)
    The New York Indians Kansas Court of Claim application paper of Benjamin Welch, Sr., #385, dated 14th of October 1901. His address at that time was Stockbridge, Calumet Co., WI. He states his mother and father, William and Nancy Welch were born in the Mohawk Valley, state of New York, near Fort Plain. They belonged to the Stockbridge tribe of Indians. His grandfather and grandmother were Henry and Nancy Welch. They had the following children: Henry; David; William and Sarah.
  • Mary Ann Denny and Benjamin Welch (1409 KB)
    Married on October 2, 1842 to Benjamin Welch. They lived their entire lives on the same lot on the shores of Lake Winnebago, Calumet County, WI. Wisconsin Historical Society, Madison, WI Microfilm #P Chilton Times Journal Issue August 12, 1899 Mrs. Ben Welch died at her home in South Stockbridge, Wednesday noon. Mrs. Welch was an old resident here. She would have been 83 years of age the 25th of this month. Funeral to be held Friday.
  • Laton Dick Johnson and Fredericka Pemberton (25 KB)
    Laton was born in Brothertown, WI on Feb. 8, 1856. At the age of 21, he homesteaded a tract of land in Reynolds Township, Todd Co., MN. When the Great Northern Railroad extended it's line to Long Prairie, MN, he was one of the pioneers who assisted in the construction work.
  • Thomas Layton Kindness - Kanistanaux b.1 Aug 1833 (5 KB)
    Thomas Layton Kindness - Kanistanaux born 1 Aug 1833 in the Brothertown tribal community in New York; died in Greenwood, Arapahoe Co., CO. Layton (Laton) served with Co. G of the 14th Wis Inf during the Civil War. He married Almira Sampson in Brothertown, WI. He left his wife and child and returned to NY, there he took the name Kanistanaux and practiced as a physician.
  • Hannah Fowler Dick (25 KB)
    Hannah, daughter of Jacob Fowler, wife of Isaac Dick, lived with her son-in-law, Oscar Johnson when she died in Brothertown WI in 1893.
  • Wealthy Johnson, wife of Albert Madison (32 KB)
    Wealthy Johnson, born 27 Feb 1856 in Brothertown, Calumet Co., WI, was the daughter of Orrin Johnson and Mary crowell, granddaughter of William Johnson and Charlotte Skeesuck. She died in Long Prairie, Todd Co., MN on 07 Feb 1896.
  • Lewis Amazi Shelley (57 KB)
    Lewis Amazi Shelley Military -Civil War Soldier, residence at time of enlistment, Brothertown, WI. Distinguished Service: DISTINGUISHED SERVICE Side Served: Union State Served: Wisconsin Enlisted as a Private Transferred Company H, 32nd Infantry Regiment Wisconsin on 15 November 1863 Transferred in Company D, 16th Infantry Regiment Wisconsin on 15 November 1863. Mustered out Company D, 16th Infantry Regiment Wisconsin on 12 July 1865 in Louisville, KY Death Records: Wisconsin Historical Society, Madison, WI #0588 Calumet Co. Lewis Shelley, 57 years 4 months 9 days, born Brothertown, WI. Dark, male, Indian, Black and White, mixed. Parents, Simon Shelley, b. Mystick, Conn. and Sabrina Shelley, b. NY. Wife Mary (O’Brien) Shelley. He was born Mar. 22, 1843 and died July 31, 1900, residence Gravesville, buried Union Cemetery, Brothertown, WI.. Obituary - Chilton Times Journal - Microfilm Wisconsin Historical Society, Madison, WI #P71-1557 Issue Aug. 4, 1900 Brothertown Column: Lewis Shelley died on Tuesday afternoon about 1:30 o'clock, from the effects of a cancer which has gradually been wearing his life away for years. The funeral was held Friday forenoon at 11 o'clock, at the M.E. church in Brothertown.
  • James Fowler (121 KB)
    James Fowler drove the "taxi" from Brothertown to Fond du Lac
  • Red springs Mission Church (14 KB)
    At Red Springs, Shawano Co., WI
  • William O. "Doll" Stanton (1 KB)
    Military - Civil War: Co D 6 WIS INF GAR Residence: Chilton, Wisconsin Enlistment Date: 1 Sep 1864 Service Record: Enlisted as a Private on 1 September 1864. Enlisted in Company D, 16th Infantry Regiment Wisconsin on 1 Sep 1864. Mustered Out Company D, 16th Infantry Regiment Wisconsin on 2 Jun 1865 WILLIAM O. STANTON Died at 52 years, 11 months and 14 days Single, Carpenter, died of pneumonia. Obituary - Chilton Times Journal - Microfilm Wisconsin Historical Society, Madison, WI AFTER A BRIEF ILLNESS William Stanton Dies at his Home in This City. Died, at his home in this city, on Saturday evening last, after a brief illness of two weeks. William O. Stanton, aged fifty-one years. Mr. Stanton has always been in vigorous health, not knowing what sickness meant, until he caught a severe cold while attending the funeral of Arthur Connelly on Dec. 18th. He went about for a few days but was obliged to give up work and call a physician on Saturday, the 23rd. Pneumonia had devolped and within the brief period of two weeks the struggle was over and he gave up his life. William O. Stanton, son of Moses and Catherine Stanton, was born in this city, January 23rd, 1849. He was the second male child born in Chilton and, growing up with the town, became a part of it as no other inhabitant could. He was known far and wide throughout the community and was universally liked by all classes, the smallest urchin in the city claiming friendship with him as proudly as did the oldest inhabitant. When a boy of fifteen he enlisted in Co. D of the 16th Wisconsin Regiment and served till the close of the war under General Sherman. he then returned to this city and learned the carpenter's trade, at which he worked until he died. Mr. Stanton was a direct descendant of the Indian sachem and famous warrior, King Phillip, and was proud of the royal blood that coursed through his veins. He was a loyal and true in his friendship and a more genero
  • Mary Victory Johnson (15 KB)
    Mary V. Johnson was the daughter of Emanuel and married Lorenzo David Fowler, son of Jacob in Utica, NY
  • Red Springs Indian Boarding School (14 KB)
    The school started boarding Indian children to give them a Christian education around 1908. The first employees were Gus Abrams and his wife, Abigail Welch Abrams and her sister "Sis" Welch, all of Quinney. Allison and Elizabeth Cuish Sears were employed there for awhile also.
  • Catherine Ross Stanton (34 KB)
    The Brothertown Indians called her "She Witch" believing she had magical powers! Wisconsin Historical Society, Madison, WI. Calumet County deaths Vol 1 #1166 Katherine Stanton (Ross) colored female Indian, aged 93 years 2 months 12 days Born 12-03-1810. Father Tobias Ross of R.I., mother W. Ross, also born in R.I. Widowed - Moses Stanton. Died Feb 15, 1904 of general senility. Her residence was Chilton and she was buried at Breed Cemetery, Chilton, WI.
  • Alexander Fowler, b. 28 Jan 1815 ; d. 02Dec 1879. (103 KB)
    Alexander Fowler, son of Jacob Fowler, a Montauk Indian through his father and a Narragansett Indian through his mother. His grandparents were David Fowler and Hannah Garret.
  • Harriet Lavinia DeGroat (3 KB)
    Born January 1, 1830 in New York to Jacobus DeGroat and Philinda Fowler, a Mohegan Indian. There are various dates for her death... Records Relating to the Kansas Claims of the New York Indians application #1835 filed by Edward C. DeGroat on November 14, 1901 lists her death date as June 15, 1889. Harriet married her cousin, John Morris DeGroat. Married by Methodist minister, Francis Hamilton on October 11, 1844 at South Hollow, Onondaga Co., NY. Marriage certificate is also with her Pension Papers No. 112.242.
  • Horace Welch Civil War Soldier (129 KB)
    Son of Benjamin Welch and Mary Ann Denny. He married Mary Catherine Modlin on 01 Sep 1864 in Fond du Lac, WI. U.S. Civil War Soldier Records and Profiles Residence: Rosendale, Wisconsin Enlistment Date: 31 Aug 1864 Rank at enlistment: Private State Served: Wisconsin Survived the War?: Yes Service Record: Enlisted in Company D, Wisconsin 16th Infantry Regiment on 31 Aug 1864.
  • Grace Dick Jacques (117 KB)
    Father Nathan Crosley Dick and mother Eunice Jane Johnson. Grace was born in 1853 in Brothertown, Calumet Co., WI and died in 1943 in Fond du Lac, Fond du Lac Co., WI.

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    In the January 9th, 1892 issue of the Chilton Times Journal, it was reported: “In the United States Court of Claims, Congressional case No. 151, the New York Indians vs. the United States, was argued before a full bench on Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday of the last week of November, by James B. Jenkins, Esq., for the plaintiffs. The argument occupied almost three days on the part of counsel for the Indians.” Congress passed legislation that was to have a profound effect on the Brothertown Indian Nation. In 1893, Congress passed legislation which gave the Emigrant New York Indians, including the Brothertown, permission to bring an action to the United States Court of Claims to recover damages for lands set apart for them in Kansas. The New York Indians were awarded $1,998,744.46 to be distributed among the members of the Oneida, Tuscarora, Seneca, Cayuga, St. Regis Mohawk, Onondaga, Stockbridge-Munsee and Brothertown tribes. The fund was appropriated by an Act of Congress, approved February 9, 1900, to pay the judgment of the Court of Claims in favor of the New York Indians rendered November 23, 1898, under the terms of Article 2 of the Treaty of Buffalo Creek, N.Y., January 15, 1838. In the Matter of the Appeal of the New York Indians, The Seneca Nation v. The United States. The Onondaga Tribe v. The Same. The Cayuga Tribe v. The Same. The Tuscarora Tribe v. The Same, 41 Ct. Cl. 462 (1906) (“The suit is brought under an act authorizing the court to hear and render judgment against the United States in favor of ‘the New York Indians, being those Indians who were parties to the treaty of Buffalo Creek January 15, 1838.”)
  • New York Indians v. U.S. U.S. 170 1898 (163 KB)
    April 11, 1898 This was a petition by the Indians who were parties to the treaty of Buffalo Creek, N. Y., on January 15, 1838 (7 Stat. 550), to enforce an alleged liability of the United States forthe value of certain lands in Kansas, set apart for these Indians, and subsequently sold by the United States, as well as for certain amounts of money agreed to be paid upon their removal.
  • Students at Eleazar Wheelock's Moor Charity School (29 KB)
    "Thus Doctor Wheelock was led to devise a plan for propagating the gospel among the Indians which he thought with good reason was most feasible. In its prominent feature it was different from all other schemes which had been attempted in New England. His ideal, like that of John Eliot, was the native missionary."
  • The Spirituality of the Brothertown Indians (7 KB)
    The New England Indians who became the amalgamated tribe called the Brothertown Indians were heathens, using the pipe and tobbaco in their ceremonies to their Gods.
  • Brothertown Indians Find Their Roots (15 KB)
    Descendents of the Brothertown Indians who had settled in Marshall and Kirkland gathered this summer from Wisconsin, Washington, Texas and other states to pay homage to their earliest brethren.
  • Brothertown Indians migrate to Long Prairie, MN (21 KB)
    Members of the Brothertown Nation have been meeting in April in Minnesota for many years. The story of the courageous Brothertown ancestors who created a closely knit community in the densely forested wilderness of Minnesota is one of perseverance and survival..
  • Buffalo Creek Treaty (432 KB)
    Articles of a treaty made and concluded at Buffalo Creek in the State of New York, the fifteenth day of January in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-eight, by Ransom H. Gillet, a commissioner on the part of the United States, and the chiefs, head men and warriors of the several tribes of New York Indians assembled in council
  • Letter dated Jan 17th 1827 from Brothertown Indian (29 KB)
    The chiefs and principal men of the Brothertown Tribe of Indians in New York wrote to the Secretary of War, requesting a delegation of their headmen go to a "great Council" the US Government would be having with the Menominee and Winnebago and Chippewa Indians the following summer as they had already purchased land from those tribes and planned on removing there soon. " is presumed that it would contribute greatly to the harmony and good understanding between those tribes to have a suitable proportion of the land set off to each tribe for their own separate use and occupation, and if such divisions should take place next summer, it is presumed that the presence of the commissioners on that part of the United States would greatly facilitate the proper division of the land among the several tribes..." "...and the Brothertown people are very solicitory that everything should be done to preserve the good understanding and harmony between those of our Brethren who may remove there which will greatly promote their prosperity and happiness.
  • The Steamship, the Manchester in Lake Winnebago (6 KB)
    A small steamboat called the Manchester, was the pioneer steam craft plying the waters of Lake Winnebago in 1843, was built by the Brothertown Indians under the direction of Capt. Hoteling.
  • The Failed White River, Indiana Emigration (92 KB)
    “The ultimate emigration of the Brothertown Indians to another location in the far West was foreseen by Samson Occom before his death. He looked about him on the beautiful hills and valleys of the Oneidas, and with prophetic gaze saw them thickly peopled by the whites. Doubtless he had many conversations on the subject with his friends, and prominent among them was Hendrick Aupaumut, the chief of the Stockbridge tribe. He it was who became the forerunner of the New York Indians in their subsequent removal westward.”
  • Wampum belt belonging to the Brothertown Indians (9 KB)
    The cultural item is a wampum belt, which is composed of purple beads with white beads forming the design of four pairs of diamonds. It is interwoven with buckskin and has fringe at the ends. The wampum belt measures 3 feet 8\1/8\ inches long without the fringe. The Field Museum of Natural History purchased the wampum belt in 1900 from Henry Hysen of Wisconsin. The Field Museum of Natural History accessioned the wampum belt into its collection the same year (catalog number 68567). Museum records indicate that Mr. Hysen purchased the wampum belt ``from the owner who lived on the Stock Ridge Reservation, one of the Brotherton Indians whose family had held the belt since it was sent to them by Chief Black Hawk as a message to the tribes of the Michigan and Wisconsin Indians assembled at Travers bay to hold them in control during his warfare.''
  • The Brothertown “Keepers of the Peace “or “Peacema (117 KB)
    Following is a copy of the first court meeting bearing a date. Several were held before but have no date. This is from the old court record book dating from 1797 to April 4, 1843. This is not a copy of the entire record book.

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