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Ancestors of Helen Marie Nix

      180606208. Robert De Tuberville, Sir Knt, Lord Crickhowel, born Abt. 1040 in Troubleville, Normandie, France; died Aft. 1121 in Crug Hywel, Co. Brycheinogg, Wales.
Child of Robert De Tuberville, Sir Knt, Lord Crickhowel is:
  90303104 i.   Payn De Turberville,Sir Knight, Lord of Coyty, born Abt. 1070 in Troubleville, Normandie, France; died Aft. 1129 in Coyty, Glamorganshire, Wales; married Sara=Sibyl Ferch-Morgan.

      180606210. Morgan Ap-Meurig, Lord of Coety, born Abt. 1045 in Coyty, Glamorganshire, Wales. He was the son of 361212420. Meurig Ap-Gwrgan.
Child of Morgan Ap-Meurig, Lord of Coety is:
  90303105 i.   Sara=Sibyl Ferch-Morgan, born Abt. 1070 in Coyty, Glamorganshire, Wales; married Payn De Turberville,Sir Knight, Lord of Coyty.

      180606336. Richard Talbot, born Abt. 1050 in Badleslane, Bedfordshire, England. He was the son of 361212672. William Talbot. He married 180606337. N? De Gournay.

      180606337. N? De Gournay, born Abt. 1058 in , England. She was the daughter of 361211472. Hughes III De Gournay-en-Brai, Seigneur and 361211473. Basilia De Fleitel.
Children of Richard Talbot and N? De Gournay are:
  i.   Geoffrey Talbot, born Abt. 1083 in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England.
  90303168 ii.   Hugh Talbot, born Abt. 1085 in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England; died Abt. 1126; married Beatrix De Mandeville Abt. 1119.
  iii.   Edith Talbot, born Abt. 1087 in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England.

      180606338. William De Mandeville, born Abt. 1064 in Great Waltham, Essex, England; died Abt. 1130 in England. He was the son of 361212676. Geoffrey De Mandeville and 361212677. Adeliza De Baute. He married 180606339. Margaret De Rie Abt. 1103.

      180606339. Margaret De Rie, born Abt. 1068 in Rycott, Oxfordshire, England. She was the daughter of 361212678. Eudo 'Le Dapfier' De Rie and 361212679. Rohese De Clare.

Notes for William De Mandeville:
He had two children by his wife Margaret, only daughter and heiress of Eudo, dapifer, or steward, to King William
Children of William De Mandeville and Margaret De Rie are:
  i.   Geoffrey III De Mandeville, born Abt. 1103 in Great Waltham, Essex, England; died September 14, 1144; married Rohese De Vere Abt. 1129 in , England?; born Abt. 1112 in Hedingham, E, England; died Aft. October 21, 1166 in , England.
  Notes for Geoffrey III De Mandeville:
SIR GEOFFREY De MANDEVILLE. In 5 Stephen, he had livery of his inheritance, and was advanced in 1139, by special charter from King Stephen, from the Degree of baron by tenure to the dignity of the earldom of Essex, in order to secure his services. But the Empress Maud, by a more ample charter, allured him to her party, confirming to him whatsoever his ancestors had owned or enjoyed, particularly the constableship of the Tower of London, with the lordship of the castle under it, to strengthen and fortify at his pleasure, and bestowed upon him the hereditary sheriffalty of London and Middlesex and of Hertfordshire, and the lands and office of Eudo leDapifer, his grandfather, and numerous other valuable immunities. As soon as King Stephen heard of this he seized the earl and made him disgorge everything conferred upon him, or inherited, to regain his liberty. Wherefore, the earl and his brother-in-law, William De Saye, in revenge, raided the king's property and churches whenever they could. At last, being publicly excommunicated for his many outrages, Mandeville besieged Burwell Castle, in Kent, and was mortally wounded, 14 Sep-tember, 1144. (see RounD's "Geoffrey De Mandeville") His effigy may be seen in the New Temple, London.
This noble outlaw married Rohesia, or Rohais, daughter of Alberic, second feudal Baron Vere, of Kensington, great high chamberlain of England, 1133, and Earl of Oxford.

  Notes for Rohese De Vere:
Rohese De Vere. Married Name: De Mandeville. Married Name: De Beauchamp. Rohese's second husband was Payn De Beauchamp, Lord of the Barony of Bedford. Born: before 1122, daughter of Aubrey II De Vere and Alice De Clare. Married before 1143: Geoffrey II De Mandeville. Geoffrey was Rohese's first husband (Keats-Rohan, Family Trees and Roots, Moore, John S.: Chapter 9: "Prosographical Problems of English 'Libri Vitae' Page 181).

  90303169 ii.   Beatrix De Mandeville, born Abt. 1105 in Great Waltham, Essex, England; died April 19, 1197 in Rickling, Essex, England; married (1) Hugh Talbot Abt. 1119; married (2) William II De Saye 1131 in Rickling, Essex, England.

      180606352. Thomas I Basset, born Bef. 1090 in Wellingford, Oxfordshire, England. He was the son of 361212704. Ralph Basset, Lord and 361212705. N? De Buci. He married 180606353. Alice N?.

      180606353. Alice N?

Notes for Thomas I Basset:
Thomas Basset (Stuart). Born: before 1090 Oxford, England, son of Ralph Basset and N? Thomas is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his son Gilbert was born.
Child of Thomas Basset and Alice N? is:
  90303176 i.   Gilbert Basset, born Abt. 1105 in Wellingford, Oxfordshire, England; died Aft. 1165; married Edith d'Oilly Abt. 1119.

      180606354. B'rn Hook Norton Robert II d'Oilly, Sire, Baron of Hooknorton, born Abt. 1080 in Hook Norton, Oxfordshire, England; died 1142 in Abington Abbey, Berkshire, England. He was the son of 361212708. Constable of Nigel d'Oilly, Constable of Oxford Castle and 361212709. Agnes N?. He married 180606355. Edith Fitzforne Bef. 1105 in , England.

      180606355. Edith Fitzforne, born Abt. 1084 in Greystoke, Cumberland, England; died Abt. 1152. She was the daughter of 361212710. Baron Greystoke Forne Fitzsigulf, Baron Greystoke.

Notes for B'rn Hook Norton Robert II d'Oilly, Sire, Baron of Hooknorton:
Robert II, Sire d’Oilly (Stuart). Born: before 1090 Hook Norton, Oxford, England, son of Nigel, Sire d’Oilly and Agnes N? Robert II is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time his daughter Edith was born. Married before 1105 England: Edith FitzForne, daughter of Forne FitzSigulf and N?. Died: in 1142 England.

  Notes for Edith Fitzforne:
Edith FitzForne (ibid). Married Name: D'Oilly. AKA: Edith of Greystoke. AKA: Edith Fornsdotter. Born: before 1078 Greystoke, Cumberland, England, daughter of Forne FitzSigulf and N? Edith is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her daughter, Maud, was born. Significant- Other: Henry I, King of England before 1093 England. Edith was a mistress of King Henry I. Married before 1105 England: Robert II, Sire D'Oilly, son of Nigel, Sire D'Oilly and Agnes N?.

Children of Robert d'Oilly and Edith Fitzforne are:
  i.   Henry d'Oilly, born Abt. 1104 in Hook Norton, Oxfordshire, England; died 1163; married Margery De Bohun Abt. 1140; born Abt. 1120 in , England.
  Notes for Henry d'Oilly:
spouse; Margery Bohun m. abt 1140

  ii.   Gilbert d'Oilly, born Abt. 1105 in Hook Norton, Oxfordshire, England.
  iii.   Robert d'Oilly, born Abt. 1106 in Hook Norton, Oxfordshire, England.
  90303177 iv.   Edith d'Oilly, born Abt. 1107 in Hook Norton, Oxfordshire, England; died Aft. 1165; married Gilbert Basset Abt. 1119.

      180606356. Alan Reginald De Dunstanvil, born Abt. 1086 in Of Castle Combe, Wiltshire, England; died April 03, 1151 in Tewkesbury, Wiltshire, England. He was the son of 361212712. Reginald=Robert De Dunstanvil and 361212713. Adeliza Alicia Deinsula-Delisle. He married 180606357. Adeliza Alicia De Varennes.

      180606357. Adeliza Alicia De Varennes, born Abt. 1099 in Of Castle Combe, Wiltshire, England; died 1157 in Wiltshire, England. She was the daughter of 361212714. Reginald De Varennes and 361212715. Alice De Wormgay.
Children of Alan De Dunstanvil and Adeliza De Varennes are:
  90303178 i.   Robert Reginald De Dunstanvil, born Abt. 1116 in Of Castle Combe, Wiltshire, England; died 1185 in Wilton, Wiltshire, England; married Isabella Detholouse.
  ii.   Alan II De Dunstanvil, born Abt. 1118 in Of Castle Combe, Wiltshire, England.

      180606362. Lord Cruelly Robert FitzHamon, Lord Cruelly, born Abt. 1040 in Cruelly, Normandy, France; died Aft. 1105. He was the son of 361212724. Hamo De Cotentin, Vicomte and 361212725. Godchilde N?. He married 180606363. Sibylle De Montgomery Abt. 1084.

      180606363. Sibylle De Montgomery, born Abt. 1054 in St. Germain, Montgomery, Normandy, France; died Aft. 1140. She was the daughter of 361124768. Earl of Arundel Roger De Montgomery, Seigneur and 361124769. Mabile 'Talvas' De Belleme, Comtesse.

Notes for Lord Cruelly Robert FitzHamon, Lord Cruelly:
Robert FitzHamon (von Redlich, Marcellus Donald R., Pedigrees and Some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants in ISBN: 0-8063-0494-4, Page 125). AKA: Robert, Seigneur De Thorigny (Abbott, Page 241). AKA: Robert, Lord of Tewkesbury. AKA: Robert, Lord of Glamorgan. AKA: Robert, Hereditary Governor De Caen. AKA: Robert, Vicomte De Cotentin (Abbott, Page 241). Born: before 1046, son of Hamon, Vicomte De Cotentin. Robert's performance at the Battle of Hastings in 1066 was so remarkable that his lands were given back to him by William the Conqueror who had confiscated them from his father, Hamon. Married before 1098: Sibylle De Montgommery, daughter of Roger, Seigneur De Montgommery and Mabile, Comtesse De Belleme.
[see Maud FITZROBERT, RIN# 5438 for continuation]
Taken from ANNALS AND ANTIQUITIES of The Counties and COUNTY FAMILIES OF WALES by Thomas Nicholas
Robert Fitzhamon.
It has already been noted that Fitzhamon himself founded no family. Of four daughters he had, two embraced a religious life, and he was succeeded in his vast estates by his daughter Mabelia, or "Mabel," wife of his successor, Robert of Gloucester. Fitzhamon's name therefore disappeared with himself. But although a conqueror--and often after the Norman fashion disposed to rule with a strong hand,--and in spite of the fact that his rule extended only over a period of some dozen years, and left little space therefore to soften down the asperities of conquest, Fitzhamon left behind him a character not entirely hateful to the Welsh. He had qualities which tended, had the age been of a milder temper, to cause the burden of oppression to lie lightly upon his vassals. Of his antecedents we know little, except that he was nearly related to William the Conqueror, succeeded his father, Hamon Dentatus, as Lord of Astremeville in Normandie, came to England as a knight in the service of the Conqueror, had assigned him the possessions of Brictric the Saxon, Lord of Gloucester, of which he was seised when commissioned by Rufus to push on his fortunes among the South Welsh. Holding Gloucester and Glamorgan, he had also the care of his lands in Normandie, and while employed in a warlike expedition in that duchy was wounded with a spear at the siege of Falaise, of which wound he died A.D. 1102. He was brought to be buried at the abbey of Tewkesbury, which, as Lord of Gloucester, he had founded. He is said to have borne--"Sa., a lion rampant guardant or, incensed gu."
William authorized certain knights to go, not so much to assist Einion against Rhys as to seize territories for themselves, and settle upon them. This was the very beginning of the Lords Marchers' invasion of S. Wales. Fitzhamon was the chief knight, and he became conqueror of Glamorgan, Iestyn's own territory . Esterling, Turberville, Grenville, St. Quentin, and many other adventurers came. Iestyn ap Gwrgant joined the plunderers. They invaded Rhys's dominions, and the noble old prince went forth undismayed to give them battle. The hosts came in sight of each other on the hills bordering what is now called Breconshire; the invading army was led by Bernard Newmarch. A rather irregular conflict, suddenly begun in the broken ground near the ancient site of Brecon, called Benni, through the too im-petuous onslaught of the patriots, soon came to a termination by their discomfiture. The aged Rhys ap Tewdwr fell near a spot still called "Ffynon Pen Rhys." Newmarch liked the valley of the Usk, on the verge of which he had won the field, and chose Aberhonddu as the site of a castle. This was the second Lord Marcher settlement in the South (A.D. 1091).
That Robert Fitzhamon not only helped Iestyn ap Gwrgant against Rhys ap Tewdwr, but subsequently drove Iestyn himself from his lordship, taking possession of it in Rufus's name and by his authority, is the only conclusion we can come to, and this conclusion harmonizes as far as desirable the two apparently conflicting views we have noticed. The conquest was William's in effect, Fitzhamon's and his companions' in reality. A conquest so effected would be in harmony with feudal custom, and congruous with the whole subsequent settlements of the Marchers at Cydweli, Pembroke, Cemmaes (Pemb.), Cardigan, Aberystwyth, and the contemporary settlement of Newmarch at Brecknock.
Upon this subject the opinion of the learned Sir John Dodridge is worth citing:--"As touching the government of the Marches of Wales, it appeareth by divers ancient monuments that the Conqueror, after he had conquered the English, placed divers of his Norman nobility upon the confines and borders towards Wales, and erected the earldom of Chester, being upon the borders of North Wales, to palatine, and gave powers unto the said persons thus placed to make such conquest upon the Welsh as they by their strength could accom-plish, holding it a very good policy thereby not only to encourage them to be more willing to serve him, but also to provide for them at other men's cost; and hereupon further ordained that the land so conquered should be holden of the Crown of England in capite. In such manner did Robert Fitzhamon acquire unto himself and such others as assisted him the whole lordship of Glamorgan, using in some semblance the Roman policy to enlarge territories by stepping in between two competitors, and by helping the one [meaning, of course, Iestyn, as against Rhys ap Tewdwr] he subdued the other, and after turning the sword against him whom he had assisted, made himself absolute owner of all. Likewise Bernard Newmarch conquered the lordship of Brecknock, containing three cantreds, and established his conquest by a marriage with Nest, daughter of Trahaem ap Llywelyn, in the Welsh blood." (Gov. of Wales and the Marches, P. 37 .)
It is allowed on all hands that Fitzhamon took up his abode and built his castle at Cardiff, the ancient seat of the native princes of Morganwg, with the strongholds of Trefufered and Cynffig, and the lands thereto appertaining, in addition. (Brut y Tywysog.) The remainder of the fair and ferti le"Vale," was partitioned among his companion knights, who probably in many instances had to take possession at the point of the sword, while in others, where the rightful owners had fallen in war, and were represented only by widows and orphans, the task was easy. The names of these new possessors, with the manors they claimed, have come down to our time -in a few instances made ever-enduring by the impress of local names. In the Bruts they are given as follows:--

      Name.      Possession.
      Robert Fitzhamon      Caerdyf, Trefufered, Cenffig, with their sur            rounding lands.
      William De Londres [so called because born in London]      Ogmor [W., Aber-ogwr. He afterwards re            moved to Cydweli, where he built a             castle].
      Richard De Granvyl [otherwise Granvil, Grenfyld, Granville]      Nedd, Castell-Nedd (Neath).
      Paganus De Turbervill      Coyty [Coed-ty, near Bridgend].
      Robert De St. Quintin      Llanblethian [or St. Quintin's].
      Richard De Syward      Talafan, or Tal y Fan, and the royal burgh of             Pont-faen [Cowbridge].
      Gilbert De Humfrevill.      Penmark-Penmarch.
      Reginald De Sully      Sully, Abersili.
      Roger De Berkrolles , or "Berclos"      East Orchard -St. Athan's.
      Peter leSoore      Peterston-Llanbedr ar Fro.
      John leFleming.      St. George-Llanyfelwyn.
      Oliver De St. John      Fonmon-Aberbermant,
      William De Esterling [corrupted Stradling]      St. Donat's-Llanwerydd.

It is very remarkable how soon the blood of these foreign settlers vanished from Glamor-ganshire. Fitzhamon himself, dying after twelve years of possession,left no son, and his daughter, Mabel, carried his wealth to Robert, Earl of Gloucester, natural son of Henry I. by Nest, daughter of Prince Rhys ap Tewdwr. In the sixteenth century the Stradlings were the only family descended in the male line from the Norman chieftains, and even these have long ago passed away. By female descent the name Tur-bervill still continues in the county-a solitary relic of a long and distinguished line
The lands of Glamorgan being thus partitioned between his companions in arms, Fitz-hamon is said to have displayed some generosity-a thing quite unusual with his race -towards a few of the foiled and deprived native chieftains, and, as was natural, towards the native leaders who had rendered him material assistance. Chief of the latter class, Einion ap Cadivor ap Collwyn, useful to him at the Norman court, as well as in the field, had assigned him, along with Miskin, the hill stronghold of Senghenydd (St. Cenydd), which in after times grew into celebrity and vast proportions. Others have said that the lordship alone was given to Einion, and that Fitzhamon kept the castle to himself.
The government set up by Robert Fitzhamon was all but absolutely centred in himself.
He held his monthly court at Cardiff Castle, where he heard plaints, and gave decisions in matters civil and criminal, and received appeals against decisions of the subordinate barons, who, each in his own lordship, likewise exercised jurisdiction. As he held from the king, so they held from him, and owed him fealty and service. The tenure of Fitzhamon, Newmarch, and the other chief lords of the Marches of Wales, differed in several points from that of the English barons, for the latter held by charters granted in writing by the sovereign, wherein the boundaries of their lands and the laws according to which they were to rule were explicitly laid down; whereas the lords of the Marches, having fought and won on their own account, held in a sense by right of conquest, without charters, and with a greater measure of independence. The reason of this exceptional advantage on the part of the chief Lord Marchers is said to have been that until their lands were gained by adventure it was impossible for the king to issue a Definite charter, and when the conquest had been made the successful knight preferred not to apply for a charter which would only limit his own liberty of rule and further conquest.
Of the peculiar privileges of jurisdiction enjoyed by these local reguli Sir John Dodridge, referring pointedly to Fitzhamon, Newmarch, and Hugh De Lacy, says, "And because they and their posterity might the better keep the said lands so acquired..... the said lordships and lands so conquered were ordained Baronies Marchers, and had a kind of palatine jurisdiction erected in every of them, and power to administer justice unto their tenants [tenentes-men holding land in fief] in every of their territories, having therein courts with divers privileges. . . So that the writs of ordinary justice out of the king's courts were for the most part not current amongst them." (Gov. of Wales and Marches, P. 38.) These privileges, termed jura regalia, reflections of the absolutist and summary rule of the Norman in England, empowered the lord to make as well as administer law in his own territory. Some of the harsher features of this rule we have already detailed when referring to Newmarch's government of Brecknock.
But strong as was the Norman baron's arm, the spirit of the Welsh in many instances refused to bend to new-made or foreign laws, even when their land had been taken from them, and they were allowed to hold and cultivate only on condition of doing homage to the pillager. Wounded and prostrate, they yet turned on their overthrower a look of Defiance which made him tremble and grant their demands. They claimed government according to their own laws and customs. In cases this was fully, in others partially granted, in some refused; and we find to this day in use those mysterious designations of neigbbour-ing districts, as Wallicana or Anglicana, Welsh or English, Welsherie or Englisherie, which had their origin in these practices. We find in Glamorganshire Coity Anglicana and Coity Wallicans, Avan Anglicana and Avan Wallicana; and in Breconshire, Haia Wallicana, "the Welsh Hay," and Haia Anglicana; English Talgarth and Welsh Talgarth, &c. A district which refused to be governed by any but the ancient laws of the country were called Welsh and "Welsherie," and vice versa. Fitzhamon himself was besieged in his own castle of Cardiff on this very question, and compelled to give way. Even Turbervill, of Coity, one of his own knights, but who had identified himself with the Cymry by marrying the heiress of Coity , had joined and led the insurrection. The account, as given in Brut y Tywysogion (Book of Aberpergwm), A.D.1091 , says, "The men of Morganwg and Gwaen-llwg arose en masse [ "yn un llu"], overthrew the castles of the French, killing nearly all the Defenders, and Paen Twrbil, lord of the castle of Coety, was leader of the people of the country. He would not hold his lands except in right of his wife, the heiress of Meurig ap Gruffydd ap Iestyn; he led his hosts to Caer-Dydd, and began to destroy the castle. When Robert ap Amon [Fitzhamon] beheld this and asked the reason, Paen Twrbil made known that the Cymry would only consent to be governed according to the ancient privileges and customs of their country and the laws of Howel Dda, and would have their land free [i. e., free from socage, or military service] ; and on account of the greatness of the multitude, Robert deemed it well to follow the course that would satisfy the Cymry. The country then had rest ; Paen Twrbil held his lands and privileges by right of his wife ; the people of the country held their lands free, and properly enjoyed their privileges and customs, as they had always done before the time of the French. When this state of things was fully settled in Morganwg, many of the Welsh nation came from South Wales and North Wales to Morganwg, to enjoy a quieter life than was found in the other countries."
Fitzhamon was a favourite at the Norman court, and through his brief government of some dozen years in Glamorgan was both a considerate and successful ruler. He was raised to the dignity of Earl of Gloucester; after the death of Rufus became a strong partisan of Henry I. against his brother Robert of Normandie ; and upon his capture Robert was corn-mitted as prisoner to his keeping at Cardiff Castle, where he remained for many years. Fitz-hamon having no son, the lordship of Glamorgan went with his daughter Mabel, who was espoused by Henry's illegitimate son, Robert of Gloucester . Though a Welshman on his mother's side, being the son of Nest, of more prominent than attractive fame, the daughter of the fallen Rhys ap Tewdwr, Robert attempted to rivet more closely rather than loosen the feudal chains which Fitzhamon had rather easily placed on the limbs of Morganwg; but he found that the people retained some notion of liberty while owing fealty and moderate service to Norman lords, and the result was a mighty rising of the country, the investment and storming of Cardiff Castle, and finally the release of Robert upon his making solemn oath to respect the laws and immunities of the natives.
For a long time Glamorgan remained a part of the possessions of the earldom of Gloucester. It was often subject to violent commotions, the spirit of the people remaining strongly national and independent, persistent and often successful in claiming the restitution of ancient privileges. Still, from the iron grasp of the feudal system they were not able to free themselves. That form of society prevailed for at least two centuries, and substantially continued till the radical change introduced by the eighth Henry.
Kenfig town and Castle, both alike mere fragmentsleft on the strand, not far from Margam, supply to that splendid demesne the most striking contrast. The early records say that Kenfig was a princely British residence, retained by Fitzhamon as part of his own acqui-sitions in Glamorgan. The town, once large, and still recognised in the formalities of county business as a contributory borough, was partly destroyed in the sixteenth century by a fearful storm and inundation of the sea, whichleft the place and adjacent lands covered by a wilderness of sand.
The earlier castle of Caer-dyf was doubtless strengthened and enlarged, if not entirely rebuilt, by Robert Fitzhamon, for it is not conceivable that the requirements of a Norman feudal fortress could be met by the simple Llys, or fortified palace, and Caer of a British chief. Fitzharnon also surrounded the town with walls. He died 1102, and was buried at Tewkesbury. The castle whose remains still partially continue in the "ancient keep," is believed to have been chiefly if not wholly built by his successor and son-in-law, Robert of Gloucester, natural son of Henry I. He died 1147, and was succeeded as Earl of Gloucester and Lord of Glamorgan by his son William. The surprise and capture of the castle by Ivor Bach, the Lord of Castell Coch, related by Giraldus, who visited Caerdyf in 1188, took place in his time. The castle was then "surrounded with high walls guarded by one hundred and twenty men-at-arms, a numerous body of archers, and a strong watch, and the city contained many stipendiary soldiers." The name of the town at this early time was "Caer-dyf" of which the modern English Cardiff is a better representative than the modern Welsh Caerdydd. So was the Norm.-Latin Kair-diif of the Extenta above quoted. In fact Caer-dydd is nothing better than a lapsus pennae which crept into the Brut; and its Derivation from Aulus Didius, the Roman general, is a pedantic makeshift. The name is taken from the river on which the "Caer" stood.
For several generations, as the De Clares, Despencers, Beauchamps, and Nevilles succeeded each other as Lords of Glamorgan--taking, however, a far more prominent part in English than in Welsh affairs, and ruling with a sway more creul than facile over Glamorgan,-we hear little of the castle of Cardiff as such.

The Norman conquest of Gwent and Glamorgan (circa A.D. 1092-4) was one of the greatest events in the history of Wales. With this conquest the rule of the native princes of the district finally disappears. We do not find that Fitzhamon partitioned much of the country of Gwent- a term generally applying to the country between the rivers Wye and Usk -between his followers, as he did Glamorgan; but it is clear that his conquest included the greater part of what is now called Monmouthshire; and that he retained as part of his own lordship the whole of the level district between the Taff and the Usk, including the site of the present Newport, and, presumably, the famous city of Caerleon. His successors, the Earls of Gloucester, were lords also of this district. On the decAdence of Caerleon the Welsh had erected a fortress nearer the sea, which they called Castell-Newydd (the New Castle), referred to by Giraldus Cambrensis (A.D. 1188) under the name Novus burgus, a literal rendering of the Welsh; but the loosely translated name "Newport" is of much more recent birth.
At this place, already a post of strength, the Normans erected a castle-one of that wonderful series of twenty or thirty fortresses in this county which rose under the wand of the Lords Marchers, and to this day, in their very desolation, attest the terribleness of the struggle which for 300 years the Normans maintained against the people of Gwent.
The building of the castle whose ruins still survive at Newport-a relic of antiquity clinging to life amid the devouring operations of the growing trade and commerce of that thriving place-is attributed to Robert, Earl of Gloucester, natural son of Henry I., and son-in-law and successor of Fitzhamon, conqueror and first Lord of Glamorgan. In right of his wife, Maude, Robert had acquired the lordship of Monmouth as well as Glamorgan -a fact which shows that Fitzhamon's lordship included great part of Gwent. This castle passed in succession, along with that of Cardiff, through the hands of the great Lords of Glamorgan-the De Clares, Le Despencers, Beauchamps, Nevilles, and Herberts.

  Notes for Sibylle De Montgomery:
Sibylle De Montgommery. Married Name: FitzHamon. Born: before 1055, daughter of Roger, Seigneur De Montgommery and Mabile, Comtesse De Belleme. Sibylle is presumed to have been born before her father was 50 years of age. Married before 1098: Robert FitzHamon, son of Hamo Dentatus and N? Died: after 1140.
Child of Robert FitzHamon and Sibylle De Montgomery is:
  90303181 i.   Countess Maud FitzRobert, born Abt. 1090 in Glouchestershire, England; died 1157 in Bristol, Glouchestershire, England; married E. Glouchester Robert De Gloucester, Earl Abt. 1116 in , Glouchestershire, England.

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