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Ancestors of Helen Marie Nix


      361123650. Ralph FitzWalter, born Abt. 1071 in , Normandie, France. He married 361123651. Matilda De Langetot.

      361123651. Matilda De Langetot, born Abt. 1075 in , Normandie, France.
     
Child of Ralph FitzWalter and Matilda De Langetot is:
  180561825 i.   Agnes FitzWalter, born Abt. 1097 in , Normandie, France; married Robert III De Vaux Abt. 1116 in , Normandie, France.


      361123810. Arnoul De Montgomery, born Abt. 1066 in , England; died 1130 in , England. He was the son of 361124768. Earl of Arundel Roger De Montgomery, Seigneur and 361124769. Mabile 'Talvas' De Belleme, Comtesse. He married 361123811. Lafracoth O'Brien Abt. 1099.

      361123811. Lafracoth O'Brien, born Abt. 1086 in , Ireland. She was the daughter of 722247622. Murtogh O'Brien, King of Munster.

Notes for Arnoul De Montgomery:
Arnoul De Montgommery. AKA: Arnoul, Count of Pembroke (Andre Roux: Scrolls, 36, 56). The legendary character Tarzan also was said to be a Count of Pembroke. Relation to this branch has not been established. Born: before 1082 in England, son of Roger, Seigneur De Montgommery and Mabile, Dame De Belleme. Married before 1130: Lafracoth O'Brien, Dame De Munster, daughter of Murtogh O'Brien, King of Munster and N? Died: in 1130 in England

  Notes for Lafracoth O'Brien:
Lafracoth O'Brien, Dame De Munster. Married Name: De Montgommery. Born: before 1115 in Ireland, daughter of Murtogh O'Brien, King of Munster. Lady Lafracoth is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Robert was born. Married before 1130: Arnoul De Montgommery, son of Roger, Seigneur De Montgommery and Mabile, Dame De Belleme.
     
Children of Arnoul De Montgomery and Lafracoth O'Brien are:
  i.   Philip II De Montgomery, born Abt. 1100 in , Pembrokeshire, Wales; died 1177 in Thornton, Scotland; married Margaret 'Gospatrick' De Dunbar Abt. 1118; born Abt. 1100 in , Scotland.
  ii.   Robert II De Montgomery, born Abt. 1105; died Abt. 1178 in , Scotland.
  Notes for Robert II De Montgomery:
Robert De Montgommery. Born: before 1130, son of Arnoul De Montgommery and Lafracoth O'Brien, Dame De Munster. Robert marched through Scotland in 1164. Died: circa 1178 in Scotland.

  180561905 iii.   Alice De Montgomery, born 1115 in , Pembroke, England; married Maurice FitzGerald, Lord of Lansteph.


      361123840. Ralph De Brereton, born Abt. 1070 in Brereton, Cheshire, England.

Notes for Ralph De Brereton:
The Brereton Family, Lords of the Manor of Brereton, and later Joint tenure Barons of Malpas, in Cheshire is said to have been founded by a younger son of Gilbert de Venables, from whom they are descended through a later connection with that family - this supposition is supported by the similarity of the arms that they bore, which differ on in tincture. A full pedigree is given in George Ormerod's Cheshire (1817, 1888) and also in Burke's Extinct and Dormant Peerage. The family was raised to the peerage in the seventeenth century, but is now extinct in the senior line.
     
Child of Ralph De Brereton is:
  180561920 i.   William De Brereton, Lord, born Abt. 1100 in Brereton, Cheshire, England.


      361123856. John Le Belward, born Abt. 1060 in , Normandie, France.
     
Child of John Le Belward is:
  180561928 i.   William 'le Belward' De Malpas, born Abt. 1100 in Malpas, Cheshire, England; married Mabel De Malpas.


      361123858. Robert FitzHugh, born Abt. 1072 in , Cheshire, England. He was the son of 90287642. Earl of Chester Hugh 'Vras Le Gros Lupus' d'Avranches and 90287643. Cntess Chester Ermentrude De Clermont-en-Beauvaisis.
     
Child of Robert FitzHugh is:
  180561929 i.   Mabel De Malpas, born Abt. 1115 in Malpas, Cheshire, England; married William 'le Belward' De Malpas.


      361123872. King of Duncan I of Scotland, King, born Abt. 1007 in Atholl, Perthshire, Scotland; died August 14, 1040 in Iona, (near) Elgin, Scotland (Killed, by Macbeth). He was the son of 722247744. Abbot, Dunkfeld Crinan of Athol, Mormaer, Abbot of Dunkeld and 722247745. Bethoc=Beatrix of Scotland, Princess. He married 361123873. Queen of Scots Sibyl FitzSiward, of Northumbria 1030 in Scotland.

      361123873. Queen of Scots Sibyl FitzSiward, of Northumbria, born Abt. 1009 in , Northumberland, England; died 1070. She was the daughter of 722247746. Siward of Nothumbria, Earl.

Notes for King of Duncan I of Scotland, King:
Duncan I, King of Strathclyde (Stuart, Page 121, Line 165-32) (O'Hart, Page 38, #108). AKA: Duncan MacCrinan. AKA: Duncan I, King of Scotland. Born: circa 1001 Scotland, son of Crinan, Mormaer of Athol and Bethoc=Beatrix, Princess of Scotland. Duncan I was King of Strathclyde 1018 - 1034. He was King of Scots 1034 - 1040. Married in 1030: Sibil of Northumbria. Died: on 14 Aug 1040 Bothnagoan, Elgin, Morray, Scotland. Duncan I was murdered by MacBeth in battle as he besieged Durham.
DUNCAN, succeeded his grandfather, MALCOLM II, 1033, an easy Prince and clement, murdered 1040, reigned seven years, buried at Icolmkill.





  Notes for Queen of Scots Sibyl FitzSiward, of Northumbria:
Sibil of Northumbria (Stuart, Page 121, Line 165-32). AKA: Aelflaed of Northumbria. Married Name: Strathclyde. Born circ: 1009 Northumbria, daughter of Siward, Earl of Northumberland. Sibil is presumed to have been at least 15 years of age by the time her son Malcolm III was born. Married in 1030: Duncan I, King of Strathclyde, son of Crinan, Mormaer of Athol and Bethoe=Beatrix, Princess of Scotland. Died: 1070.
     
Children of Duncan Scotland and Sibyl FitzSiward are:
  180561936 i.   King of Malcolm III of Scotland, King, born Abt. 1033 in Atholl, Perthshire, Scotland; died November 13, 1093 in Alnwick, Northumberland, England; married (1) Queen of Ingeborg 'Finnsdatter' Arnesson Abt. 1065; married (2) Princess of Margaret Atheling of England, Princess, Saint Abt. 1068 in Atholl, Perthshire, Scotland.
  ii.   Duncan II of Moray, Earl, born Abt. 1035 in , Morayshire, England; married Octreda De Allerdale Abt. 1076 in , Cumberland, England; born Abt. 1055 in Allerdale, Cumberland, England.
  iii.   Prince of Maelmuirof Athol, Earl, Prince of Scotland, born 1038 in Atholl, Perthshire, Scotland.
  iv.   King of Donald Bane III of Scotland, King, born Abt. 1040 in Atholl, Perthshire, Scotland; died Aft. 1097 in Rescobie, Angushire, Scotland.


      361123874. King of Edward Atheling 'The Exile' of England, Prince, born 1016 in , Wessex, England; died 1057 in London, Middlesex, England. He was the son of 722247748. King of Edmund II 'Ironsides' of England, King and 722247749. Queen of Ealdgyth of Northumbria. He married 361123875. Agatha von Braunschweig Abt. 1041 in London, England.

      361123875. Agatha von Braunschweig, born Abt. 1025 in Braunschweig, Prussia; died July 13, 1054. She was the daughter of 722247750. Count of Ludwig von Braunschweig, Count and 722247751. Countess in Gertrude von Egisheim.

Notes for King of Edward Atheling 'The Exile' of England, Prince:
Edward Aetheling, Prince of England (ibid, Page 172, Line 233-33) Born: in 1016 in Wessex, England, son of Edmund II, King of England and Ealdgyth of Northumbria. Married circa 1043 in England: Agatha von Braunschweig, daughter of Ludwig von Braunschweig and Gertrude von Egisheim. Edward was exiled to Hungary and held lands in the Berenger County, Hungary. Died: circa 1057 in London, England.

  Notes for Agatha von Braunschweig:
Agatha von Braunschweig (ibid, Page 226, Line 318-34). Married Name: Agatha of England. Born: circa 1025 in Bavaria, Germany, daughter of Ludwig von Braunschweig and Gertrude von Egisheim. The parentage of Agatha has been under some discussion, though wife of Edward Aetheling she was. G. Andrews Moriarty, in an article in NEHGR, Vol. 106, Pages 52-60 (1952) explains two points of view, kinship with the Hungarian kings (as daughter of King Stephen), versus kinship with the German Emperors (Daughter of Liudolph, Margrave of West Friesland). ES, II:78, 1984 makes a case for the German affiliation. MaterAlter: circa 1025 Gisela De Baviere/Agatha von Braunschweig. PaterAlter circa 1025 Agatha von Braunschweig/Stephen I, King of Hungary. Married circa 1043 in England: Edward Aetheling, Prince of England, son of Edmund II, King of England and Ealdgyth of Northumbria. Died: after 1066 in West Friesland.
     
Children of Edward England and Agatha von Braunschweig are:
  i.   Princess of Christina Atheling of England, Princess, born Abt. 1044 in , Wessex, England.
  180561937 ii.   Princess of Margaret Atheling of England, Princess, Saint, born Abt. 1045 in , Wessex, England; died November 16, 1093 in Edinburgh Castle, Edinburgh, Mid-Lothian, Scotland; married King of Malcolm III of Scotland, King Abt. 1068 in Atholl, Perthshire, Scotland.
  iii.   Edgar Aethling of England, King, born Abt. 1048 in , Wessex, England; died December 1126 in , England; married N? of Carlyle Bef. 1075; born Abt. 1044 in , Scotland.
  Notes for Edgar Aethling of England, King:
Edgar Aetheling, King of England (ibid, Page 157, Line 196-32). AKA: Eadgar 'The Exile'. Born: circa 1048 in England, son of Edward Aetheling, Prince of England and Agatha von Braunschweig. Married before 1075: N. of Carlyle, daughter of Maldred, Lord of Carlyle and Ealdgyth of Northumberland. Died: in Dec 1126 in England.

  Notes for N? of Carlyle:
N. of Carlyle (ibid, Page 147, Line 196-32). Married Name: England. Born: before 1045, daughter of Maldred, Lord of Carlyle and Ealdgyth of Northumberland. Married before 1075: Edgar Aetheling, King of England, son of Edward Aetheling, Prince of England and Agatha von Braunschweig.

  iv.   Aethelreda of England, Princess, born Abt. 1052 in in southern Hungary in the village of Mecseknadas, probably in Castle Reka; married Gospatric of Northumberland, Earl of Dunbar; born Abt. 1040 in , Northumberland, England; died Abt. 1075.
  Notes for Gospatric of Northumberland, Earl of Dunbar:
Gospatric was 1st Earl of Dunbar (1072-75), Lord of Carlisle and Allendale, Visited Rome, 1061.



      361123880. Ralph De Varennes, born Abt. 1040 in , France; died Aft. 1074. He was the son of 722245120. Earl Guillaume De Varennes, Earl and 722245121. N? De Torta. He married 361123881. Beatrice De Bolbec Bef. 1053.

      361123881. Beatrice De Bolbec, born Abt. 1040 in , France. She was the daughter of 704795280. Lord Longueville Walter Giffard, Lord Longueville and 704795281. Agnes Ermentrude Fleitel.

Notes for Ralph De Varennes:
Ralph de Varennes (Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners in ISBN: 0-8063-1344-7 (1001 North Calvert Street, Baltimore, MD 21202, USA: Genealogical Publishing Company, Inc., 1992), Page 100, Line 135-31). Born: circa 998 France, son of Guillaume, Earl de Varennes and Miss de Torta. Married before 1053: Beatrix de Bolbec, daughter of Osbern, Lord de Bolbec and Aveline, Lady of Wevier. Died: after 1074. Ralph was alive in the year 1074.

  Notes for Beatrice De Bolbec:
Beatrice De Bolbec, (Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners in ISBN: 0-8063-1344-7 (1001 North Calvert Street, Baltimore, MD 21202, USA: Genealogical Publishing Company, Inc., 1992), Page 100, Line 135-31). Born: circa 998 France. Beatrix de Bolbec, daughter of Osbern, Lord de Bolbec and Aveline, Lady of Wevier. Married before 1055 Ralph de Varennes.
     
Children of Ralph De Varennes and Beatrice De Bolbec are:
  180561940 i.   Guillaume I De Varennes, Seigneur, Earl of Surre, born Abt. 1055 in Bellencombe,Seine-Inferieure, Normandie, France; died in Lewes, Sussex, England; married Princess of Gundred of Chester, Countess of Surrey Bef. 1077 in Lewes, Sussex, England.
  ii.   Ralph II De Varennes, born Abt. 1053 in , France.


      361123882. Gherbod De Flandre, born Bef. 1035.

Notes for Gherbod De Flandre:
Gherbod De Flandre. AKA: Gerbod, Earl of Chester. Note: This Gherbod, like his son of the same name, was a Flandrensis and an Advocate of the Abbey of Saint-Bertin according to Professor William Douglas' book 'William the Conqueror.' Born: before 1035. Gherbod is presumed to have been at Least 20 years of age by the time his son Gherbod was born.
     
Child of Gherbod De Flandre is:
  180561941 i.   Princess of Gundred of Chester, Countess of Surrey, born Abt. 1058 in Normandy, France; died May 27, 1085 in Castle Acre, Norfolk, England; married Guillaume I De Varennes, Seigneur, Earl of Surre Bef. 1077 in Lewes, Sussex, England.


      361123884. King of Henri I De France, King, born 1008 in , Bourgogne, France; died August 04, 1060 in Vitry-en-Brie, France. He was the son of 722247768. King of Robert II "The Pious" De France, King and 722247769. Queen of France Constance De Provence. He married 361123885. Grand Duchess of Anna De Kiev, Queen de France May 19, 1051 in Reims, Marne, Champagne, France.

      361123885. Grand Duchess of Anna De Kiev, Queen de France, born 1036 in Of Kiev, Kiev, Ukraine; died Abt. 1089 in , France. She was the daughter of 722247770. Grand Duke of Yaroslav I 'The Wise' of Kiev, Grand Duke and 722247771. Princess of Ingrid=Irene of Sweden, Princesss.

Notes for King of Henri I De France, King:
Henri I, King De France (Andre Roux: Scrolls, 79) (Hallam, Capetian France: 987, Page 73) (Stuart, Royalty for Commoners, ISBN: 0-8063-1344-7, Page 99, Line 134-32). AKA: Henry I, Duke De Bourgogne. AKA: Henry I, Comte De Paris. Born: in 1008 in Bourgogne, France, son of Robert II, King De France and Constance De Provence. Henri I was King: 1031-1060. Until about 1044, Henri I was preoccupied with Odo II, Count of Blois, who was trying to make good his own claim to the Kingdom of Burgundy, and the nobles of the Ile-De-France. In disputes with his younger brother Robert goAded by the malicious hatred of his mother Constance for Henri, Henri managed to keep his crown thanks to the help of Robert leDiable, Duke of Normandy. Henry pardoned his brother, and gave him the Duchy of Bourgogne, thus forming the first Capetian House of Bourgogne. In 1033, Henry concluded an alliance with the Emperor Conrad II, but the Count of Blois took the side of Odo, the King's youngest brother who had beenleft landless. They, in turn, rallied a coallition of nobles in opposition to Henry. In 1034, after savage fighting, Odo of Blois submitted thanks to the vigorous actions of Robert 'Le Magnifique', but the war broke out soon afterwards. In July, 1034, Constance died. In 1037 Odo of Blois died while fighting in Lorraine, and his lands were divided between his two sons, Theobald I who took Blois and Stephen who was given Troyes and Meaux. The King was victorious against them, and Eudes (Henri's brother) was captured and incarcerated in Orleans in 1039. Stephen Defeated and his ally, the Count of Vermandois was imprisoned. The Comte De Blois would lose Touraine to the Comte D'Anjou, Henri's ally. The King took control of Sens together with the abbeys of Saint-Pere at Chalons, and Saint-Medard at Soissons. In 1043, Emperor Henri III of Germany and King Henri I of France meet in Ivois to arrange a lasting peace (shortly after Henry III married Agnes De Bourgogne). By 1046, while relations between the Emperor and the King of France soured -- the Emperor apparently still miffed at Henri I's having fomented a revolt against the imperial crown in 1044 by the lords of Franche-Comte and of Bourgogne, Guillaume, the young Duke De Normandie, requests the royal assistance of the King to quell a rebellion by the lords of lower Bourgogne Led by Renouf, Vicomte De Bessin and Gui, son of the Comte De Bourgogne, titular fief of Brionne. In 1047 at Val-es-Dunes, just South of Caen, William fighting at the King's side is victorious and erects the Chapel De Sainte-Paix near Caen to commemorate the occasion. Gui De Brionne would require 3 more years of fighting to tame. In 1050, Henry I fought against Geoffrey Martel of Anjou with the help of William, Duke De Normandie.
In Northern France, he was therefore able to contain the threats from Blois-Champagne and to profit from the involvement of Normandy and Anjou against one another. He consolidated his power within the royal principality, but his broAder schemes, particularly for regaining Lorraine were not so successful. Married in 1043: Mathilda De Saxe, daughter of Ludwig von Braunschweig and Gertrude von Egisheim (Hallam, Capetian France: 987 , Page 72). Married on 19 May 1051 in Reims, Marne, Champagne, France: Anne De Kiev, Queen De France, daughter of Yaroslav, Grand Duke of Kiev and Ingigerd-Irene, Princess of Sweden. After 7 years of being a widower, Henri I, King De France marries Anne De Russie, daughter of the Grand-Duke De Kiev, Jaroslaf Vladimirovitch. Henri is 39 years of age and Anne is 27 years of age. She is marvelously beautiful. Died: on 4 Aug 1060 in Vitry-en-Brie, France. Some French history text indicate that Henri I died in Vitry-aux-Loges. Henri I is buried at Saint Denis.

HENRY I, KING OF FRANCE, b. c. 1008. d. 4 Aug. 1060, King of France (1031- 1060), succeeded his father, ROBERT II, he invested him with the duchy of Burgundy (1032). Henry later fought constantly with the powerful WILLIAM OF NORMANDY (the future WILLIAM I of England). The poverty of the historical sources has made the first three Capetian kings shadowy figures in our eyes. (So obscure is Robert's successor Henry I (1031-60) that his courage is his one personal attribute of which we have knowledge.') It is tempting but rash to conclude that they were men of no significance. For they accomplished a difficult task which was yet indispensable for the future of the monarchy. They lasted. They maintained the monarchical principle and the idea of the kingdom of France, and this at a time when it might have been expected that monarchy would perish in France and the country fall apart in a welter of separate and independent feudal principalities. Such principalities indeed arose, their lands far wider than the little royal domain, their lords much more powerful than the kings of France. But these overmighty subjects never swallowed up the royal domain. The king remained king. He did not dwindle into a mere Duke of Francia. To some extent fortune favoured the Capets. The great feudatories failed to see that the royal house might be a danger to them in the future. They never united against the king. Instead they frittered away in conflicts with each other the strength which they might have used against him. But the first three Capetians were able to turn this situation to their own profit, and they must take credit accordingly.
Taken from 'The Capetian Kings of France' by Robert Fawtier, pub 1966



  Notes for Grand Duchess of Anna De Kiev, Queen de France:
Anne De Kiev, Queen De France (Andre Roux: Scrolls, 79) (Stuart, Royalty for Commoners, ISBN: 0-8063-1344-7, Page 104, Line 143-31). AKA: Anne De Kiev. AKA: Anne De Russie. AKA: Anna=Agnes Jaroslawna. Married Name: De Valois. Born: in 1036 in Kiev, Ukraine, daughter of Yaroslav I, Grand Duke of Kiev and Ingigerd-Irene, Princess of Sweden. Married on 19 May 1051 in Reims, Marne, Champagne, France: Henri I, King De France, son of Robert II, King De France and Constance De Provence. After 7 years of being a widower, Henri I, King De France marries Anne De Russie, daughter of the Grand Duke De Kiev, Jaroslaf Vladimirovitch. Henri is 39 years of age and Anne is 27 years of age. She is marvelously beautiful. Married circa 1061 in France: Raoul III, Comte De Valois, son of Raoul II, Count De Crepy and Adele De Clermont-en-Beauvaisis. Anne was Raoul III's third wife and he her second husband as she was the widow of Henri I when she married Raoul. When Henri I died on 4 August 1060, Anne, 36 years of age, was still considered quite lovely. It is said that she had herself whisked off by Raoul Comte De Crepy and De Valois, as he in turn, repudiated his wife, Haquenez. She complains to Pope Alexander II, who would excommunicate Raoul. Died: between 1076 and 1089 in France. Anna is buried at the Abbey of Villiers.
     
Children of Henri De France and Anna De Kiev are:
  180561942 i.   Count Hughes De Vermandois, Count, born 1057 in Ile-de-France, France; died October 18, 1101 in Tarsus, Cilicie, Asia Minor on crusade; married Countess Adele De Vermandois, Countess 1077.
  ii.   King of Philippe I De France, King, born Bef. May 23, 1052 in Reims, France; died July 29, 1108 in Melun, France; married (1) Countess of Berthe De Hollande, Queen of France Bef. 1072 in , France, divorced abt 1092; born Abt. 1054 in Vlaardingen, Zuid-Holland, Netherlands; died 1094 in Montreuil-sur-Mer, Pas-de-Calais, France; married (2) Queen of France Bertrade De Montfort 1093; born Abt. 1060 in Montfort-l'Amauri, Toulousain, Languedoc, France; died February 14, 1117/18 in Fontevrault, Maine-et-Loire, Anjou, France.
  Notes for King of Philippe I De France, King:
Philippe I, King De France (Andre Roux: Scrolls, 79) (Stuart, Royalty for Commoners, ISBN: 0-8063-1344-7, Page 99, Line 134-31) (Hallam, Capetian France: 987 -, Page 77) Born: between 1052 and 1053 in France, son of Henri I, King De France and Anne De Kiev, Queen De France. Since Anne, his mother, claimed to be Descendant [through the women's side] of Philippe of Macedonia, she chose for her son the first name of the father of Alexander The Great. Most historical sources indicate Philippe I was born in 1052. Philippe I enjoyed uniformly bad press from his contemporaries, in large part because he was opposed to the reforming elements in the Church. Interestingly, Robert his grandfather had shown an almost equal antipathy toward the Church, and had burned down a monastery, but he was dubbed 'the pious'. Philippe became the King of France in 1060. He first worked under the tutorage of Baldwin=Baudouin V, Count of Flanders (1060-1067). In fact from 1060 until 1067, France was under the Regency of Baldwin V, who was praised as a prudent administrator. Philippe annexed the Gatinais (in 1067), and took over French Vexin (in 1101) and that same year regained the viscounty of Bourges (which Philippe purchased between 1097 and 1102 from its owner Odo Arpin who needed the funds to go on a crusade). In 1071, he intervened in the affairs of Flanders, but was beaten near Cassel. He was excommunicated (through Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095) for repudiating his wife Berthe, daughter of Florent I, Count of Holland, and having kidnapped (in 1092) Bertrada De Montfort, wife of Foulques Rechin, Count of Anjou. He lived openly with Bertrada. He sold church offices arousing widespread hostility from the French episcopate. He also plundered religious houses. Although he refounded his father's house of Saint-Martin-Des-Champs as a Cluniac priory, he was not outstandingly generous toward Saint-Benoit-sur-Loire or Fleury, where he was later burried. More of an opportunist than a warrior, he quickly became obese and inactive spending much of his time in gluttony and sleep. The disputes raised by Philippe's marriage to Bertrada of Montfort illustrate the clash between the ideas of the high-born laity about marriage and the firm stance taken by the reforming Church on the issues of divorce, bigamy and incest. The resulting scandalleft Philippe with the reputation of a greedy, Lecherous adulterer and seducer; in fact, his actions would have seemed quite acceptable to many of his lay contemporaries and a sensible move to produce more heirs and safeguard the succession. In 1104, Philippe repudiated Bertrada at the Council of Beaugency and compromised over the bishopric of Beauvais. Even though he continued to live with Bertrada, his relationship with the papacy was much improved. He supported Robert Courte-Heuse against his father, William 'Le Conquerant', and fought with some success against Guillaume leRoux in Normandie in 1098.
Philippe's reign saw the first crusade, the earliest of the holy wars conducted on a grand scale by the Western nobility in Palestine (although there had been crusades from Spain in the 1060's) with the aim of regaining and protecting the holy places from their infidel captors. In response to an appeal by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095, and the inspired preaching of the Papallegate Bishop Adhemar of lePuy, a powerful army from the West consisting mainly of men from the various regions of France embarked in 1096 for the Holy Land via Constantinople. By 1099, in spite of internal dissensions, the Norman Bohemond (a Hateville from Sicily), Godfrey of Bouillon, Hugh of Vermandois, Raymond IV, Count of Flanders, Robert Curthose, Duke of Normandy, and Robert II, Count of Flanders succeeded in capturing Antioch and Jerusalem, having routed their Seljuk and Fatimid adversaries. They then established four Latin states in Outremer. This was a striking achievement from which the Papacy did not fail to profit. Married before 1072: Berthe De Hollande, daughter of Florent I, Count De Hollande and Gertrude De Saxe. Berthe was Philippe's first wife. King Philippe's marriage to her probably allowed him to regain Corbie, which lordship had been granted by King Henry I to the Count of Flanders as dowry of his sister Adela. Divorced Berthe De Hollande: between 1091 and 1092; King Philippe I either divorced Berthe in 1091 or repudiated her in 1092, Depending on the source. Married in 1093: Bertrade De Montfort, daughter of Simon I, Seigneur De Montfort and Agnes D'Evreux. He was excommunicated in 1095 in Clermont, Oise, Ile-De-France, France; For having rejected his wife and kidnapped Bertrada, Wife of Fulk Rechin, Count of Anjou.
Died: in 1108 in Melun, Seine-et-Marne, Ile-De-France, France (Paul, Nouveau Larousse Universel, Page 467). Buried: on 29 Jul 1108 in Fleury, France. Philippe I is buried at the abbey De Saint-Benoit-sur-Loire.

      The king who came after Henry I in 1060 is the Capet who has been most severely judged by both his contemporaries and by latter-day historians. Philip I (1060-1108) has had a bad press. In his own day this fat monarch was reviled for his gormandising, his sensuality, his greed. Pope Gregory VII Denounced him as a tyrant possessed by the Devil, as a perjurer and a robber. In our day Philip has been castigated for having failed to prevent the Norman conquest of England, and the virtual union of the kingdom of England with the duchy of Normandy; for having shown indifference and even hostility to the Gregorian movement for the reform of the Church; and for not having Led the First crusade. But a closer examination of the history of the reign suggests that Philip, Despite his weaknesses and his mistakes, had a sure sense of the tasks his dynasty should concentrate upon. He realised that the king had first to make himself master in his own house, the royal domain, before he could master his kingdom at large. His reign saw the beginnings of the action which was to make the turbulent feudal nobles of the domain submit to the monarchy and eventually become its servants. There was a fortress called the Tower of Montlhery which Philip adroitly got into his hands by arranging a marriage between the younger Philip, one of his sons by Bertrada De Montfort, and Elizabeth, daughter of Guy Troussel, lord of Montlhery. Suger records that King Philip said to his heir, the future Louis VI, 'Look, son, make sure you never let the Tower of Montlhery out of your keeping. It has caused me untold trouble. Frankly, that tower has made me old before my time.' The lesson of this anecdote is that Philip I had a clear eye for the crude realities of his situation.
Likewise he saw how dangerous was his great vassal the Duke of Normandy. Philip, who was still a minor in 1066, could do nothing to forbid or stop William the Conqueror from aggran-dising himself in England. But if he could not prevent the union of Normandy with England, he was at Least the initiator of the policy which in the long run gave the victory to the Capets. For he made Dexterous use of the family quarrels within the Anglo--Norman royal house. He egged on and supported Robert Curthose, first against his father William the Conqueror, then against his brother William Rufus.
Louis VI in his day was to make use of William Cfito against Henry I of England; later still Philip II was to use Richard the Lion Heart against Henry II and John Lackland against Richard.
Philip I showed no favour to the Gregorian movement for church reform. The reformers attributed his opposition to greed, and in their justification it must be admitted that the king wanted to keep the regular income he got from the sale of bishoprics. Yet Philip seems also to have taken a broAder view, and to have seen the general danger which the reforming movement presented, namely that a Church independent of lay control could be a menacing foe to royal power. Certainly he acted as if that was his belief, and from the monarchical standpoint it is hard to blame him.
Philip did not involve himself in crusading ventures. At the time when the First crusade was being preached and organised he was disqualified from taking part in it, being under sentence of excommunication for his marriage with Bertrada De Montfort. There is no means of Deciding whether he would have joined the crusaders if his circumstances had been different. What we know of Philip suggests that it was unlikely. He had no greatness of vision, only a clear eye for the tasks immediately ahead: to master his royal domain and to keep Anglo-Norman royal power in check. His resources did not allow him fully to achieve even these modest objects. It would have been a wild error to turn aside from them for an enterprise like the conquest of the Holy Land. Yet he made no move to oppose the First crusade. Philip does not seem to have made the Least trouble for those of his vassals - they included his brother, Hugh of Vermandois - who went to Palestine. Pope Urban II's Decree of 1095, it is true, put the property of crusaders under the protection of the Church. Still, if Philip had been as unprincipled as his enemies alleged, papal prohibition would hardly have restrained him from molesting crusaders' lands had he wanted to do so. When Philip Augustus on a later occasion molested the Angevin lands few people blamed him.
Frequent as were Phihp's brushes with the Church, he never-theless kept his kingdom free of the troubles into which it would have been plunged by a conflict with the spiritual power over the burning question of Investiture. Co-operation and mutual aid between the Papacy and the French monarchy began with Philip's reign. It was a practice that became a policy and greatly benefited many of the French kings, not Least Phihp's grandson Louis VII. It is difficult - and in fact unimportant - to Decide whether Philip I or Urban II should have the credit for inaugurating this policy. At Least Philip took no steps to oppose it, and presumably he grasped its value to the crown. Unattractive, earthy, sordid, gross, he was also a practical man and a realist: the king for his time. When historians acclaim his son Louis VI as the sovereign whose reign saw 'the renaissance of kingship' in France, it must be remembered that Louis was following consistently the broad fines of Philip's policy.
Taken from 'The Capetian Kings of France' by Robert Fawtier, pub 1966



  Notes for Countess of Berthe De Hollande, Queen of France:
Berthe De Hollande (Andre Roux: Scrolls, 79) (Stuart, Royalty for Commoners, ISBN: 0-8063-1344-7, Page 222, Line 311-32). Married Name: De France. Born: circa 1055 in Frison, Frisia, Holland, daughter of Florent I, Count De Hollande and Gertrude De Saxe. Married before 1072: Philippe I, King De France, son of Henri I, King De France and Anne De Kiev, Queen De France. Berthe was Philippe's first wife. King Philippe's marriage to her probably allowed him to regain Corbie, which lordship had been granted by King Henry I to the Count of Flanders as dowry of his sister Adela. Divorced Philippe I, King De France: between 1091 and 1092. King Philippe I either divorced Berthe in 1091 or repudiated her in 1092, depending on the source. Died: in 1094 in Montreuil-sur-Mer, Pas-De-Calais, Picardie, France.

  iii.   Princess of Emma De France, born 1054 in Reims, Marne, France.
  Notes for Princess of Emma De France:
Princess Emma de France. Born: 1054 in Reims, Marne, Champagne, France, daughter of Henri I, King de France and Anne De Kiev.

  iv.   Prince of Robert De France, born 1055 in Reims, Marne, France; died 1060 in Reims, Marne, France.
  Notes for Prince of Robert De France:
Prince Robert de France. Born: 1055 in Reims, Marne, Champagne, France, son of Henri I, King de France and Anne De Kiev. Died: 1060 in Reims, Marne, Champagne, France.

  v.   Raoul De Vermandois, born Bef. 1060.


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