Notes for King of Philippe I De France, King:|
Philippe I, King De France (Andre Roux: Scrolls, 79) (Stuart, Royalty for Commoners, ISBN: 0-8063-1344-7, Page 99, Line 134-31) (Hallam, Capetian France: 987 -, Page 77) Born: between 1052 and 1053 in France, son of Henri I, King De France and Anne De Kiev, Queen De France. Since Anne, his mother, claimed to be Descendant [through the women's side] of Philippe of Macedonia, she chose for her son the first name of the father of Alexander The Great. Most historical sources indicate Philippe I was born in 1052. Philippe I enjoyed uniformly bad press from his contemporaries, in large part because he was opposed to the reforming elements in the Church. Interestingly, Robert his grandfather had shown an almost equal antipathy toward the Church, and had burned down a monastery, but he was dubbed 'the pious'. Philippe became the King of France in 1060. He first worked under the tutorage of Baldwin=Baudouin V, Count of Flanders (1060-1067). In fact from 1060 until 1067, France was under the Regency of Baldwin V, who was praised as a prudent administrator. Philippe annexed the Gatinais (in 1067), and took over French Vexin (in 1101) and that same year regained the viscounty of Bourges (which Philippe purchased between 1097 and 1102 from its owner Odo Arpin who needed the funds to go on a crusade). In 1071, he intervened in the affairs of Flanders, but was beaten near Cassel. He was excommunicated (through Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095) for repudiating his wife Berthe, daughter of Florent I, Count of Holland, and having kidnapped (in 1092) Bertrada De Montfort, wife of Foulques Rechin, Count of Anjou. He lived openly with Bertrada. He sold church offices arousing widespread hostility from the French episcopate. He also plundered religious houses. Although he refounded his father's house of Saint-Martin-Des-Champs as a Cluniac priory, he was not outstandingly generous toward Saint-Benoit-sur-Loire or Fleury, where he was later burried. More of an opportunist than a warrior, he quickly became obese and inactive spending much of his time in gluttony and sleep. The disputes raised by Philippe's marriage to Bertrada of Montfort illustrate the clash between the ideas of the high-born laity about marriage and the firm stance taken by the reforming Church on the issues of divorce, bigamy and incest. The resulting scandalleft Philippe with the reputation of a greedy, Lecherous adulterer and seducer; in fact, his actions would have seemed quite acceptable to many of his lay contemporaries and a sensible move to produce more heirs and safeguard the succession. In 1104, Philippe repudiated Bertrada at the Council of Beaugency and compromised over the bishopric of Beauvais. Even though he continued to live with Bertrada, his relationship with the papacy was much improved. He supported Robert Courte-Heuse against his father, William 'Le Conquerant', and fought with some success against Guillaume leRoux in Normandie in 1098.
Philippe's reign saw the first crusade, the earliest of the holy wars conducted on a grand scale by the Western nobility in Palestine (although there had been crusades from Spain in the 1060's) with the aim of regaining and protecting the holy places from their infidel captors. In response to an appeal by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095, and the inspired preaching of the Papallegate Bishop Adhemar of lePuy, a powerful army from the West consisting mainly of men from the various regions of France embarked in 1096 for the Holy Land via Constantinople. By 1099, in spite of internal dissensions, the Norman Bohemond (a Hateville from Sicily), Godfrey of Bouillon, Hugh of Vermandois, Raymond IV, Count of Flanders, Robert Curthose, Duke of Normandy, and Robert II, Count of Flanders succeeded in capturing Antioch and Jerusalem, having routed their Seljuk and Fatimid adversaries. They then established four Latin states in Outremer. This was a striking achievement from which the Papacy did not fail to profit. Married before 1072: Berthe De Hollande, daughter of Florent I, Count De Hollande and Gertrude De Saxe. Berthe was Philippe's first wife. King Philippe's marriage to her probably allowed him to regain Corbie, which lordship had been granted by King Henry I to the Count of Flanders as dowry of his sister Adela. Divorced Berthe De Hollande: between 1091 and 1092; King Philippe I either divorced Berthe in 1091 or repudiated her in 1092, Depending on the source. Married in 1093: Bertrade De Montfort, daughter of Simon I, Seigneur De Montfort and Agnes D'Evreux. He was excommunicated in 1095 in Clermont, Oise, Ile-De-France, France; For having rejected his wife and kidnapped Bertrada, Wife of Fulk Rechin, Count of Anjou.
Died: in 1108 in Melun, Seine-et-Marne, Ile-De-France, France (Paul, Nouveau Larousse Universel, Page 467). Buried: on 29 Jul 1108 in Fleury, France. Philippe I is buried at the abbey De Saint-Benoit-sur-Loire.
The king who came after Henry I in 1060 is the Capet who has been most severely judged by both his contemporaries and by latter-day historians. Philip I (1060-1108) has had a bad press. In his own day this fat monarch was reviled for his gormandising, his sensuality, his greed. Pope Gregory VII Denounced him as a tyrant possessed by the Devil, as a perjurer and a robber. In our day Philip has been castigated for having failed to prevent the Norman conquest of England, and the virtual union of the kingdom of England with the duchy of Normandy; for having shown indifference and even hostility to the Gregorian movement for the reform of the Church; and for not having Led the First crusade. But a closer examination of the history of the reign suggests that Philip, Despite his weaknesses and his mistakes, had a sure sense of the tasks his dynasty should concentrate upon. He realised that the king had first to make himself master in his own house, the royal domain, before he could master his kingdom at large. His reign saw the beginnings of the action which was to make the turbulent feudal nobles of the domain submit to the monarchy and eventually become its servants. There was a fortress called the Tower of Montlhery which Philip adroitly got into his hands by arranging a marriage between the younger Philip, one of his sons by Bertrada De Montfort, and Elizabeth, daughter of Guy Troussel, lord of Montlhery. Suger records that King Philip said to his heir, the future Louis VI, 'Look, son, make sure you never let the Tower of Montlhery out of your keeping. It has caused me untold trouble. Frankly, that tower has made me old before my time.' The lesson of this anecdote is that Philip I had a clear eye for the crude realities of his situation.
Likewise he saw how dangerous was his great vassal the Duke of Normandy. Philip, who was still a minor in 1066, could do nothing to forbid or stop William the Conqueror from aggran-dising himself in England. But if he could not prevent the union of Normandy with England, he was at Least the initiator of the policy which in the long run gave the victory to the Capets. For he made Dexterous use of the family quarrels within the Anglo--Norman royal house. He egged on and supported Robert Curthose, first against his father William the Conqueror, then against his brother William Rufus.
Louis VI in his day was to make use of William Cfito against Henry I of England; later still Philip II was to use Richard the Lion Heart against Henry II and John Lackland against Richard.
Philip I showed no favour to the Gregorian movement for church reform. The reformers attributed his opposition to greed, and in their justification it must be admitted that the king wanted to keep the regular income he got from the sale of bishoprics. Yet Philip seems also to have taken a broAder view, and to have seen the general danger which the reforming movement presented, namely that a Church independent of lay control could be a menacing foe to royal power. Certainly he acted as if that was his belief, and from the monarchical standpoint it is hard to blame him.
Philip did not involve himself in crusading ventures. At the time when the First crusade was being preached and organised he was disqualified from taking part in it, being under sentence of excommunication for his marriage with Bertrada De Montfort. There is no means of Deciding whether he would have joined the crusaders if his circumstances had been different. What we know of Philip suggests that it was unlikely. He had no greatness of vision, only a clear eye for the tasks immediately ahead: to master his royal domain and to keep Anglo-Norman royal power in check. His resources did not allow him fully to achieve even these modest objects. It would have been a wild error to turn aside from them for an enterprise like the conquest of the Holy Land. Yet he made no move to oppose the First crusade. Philip does not seem to have made the Least trouble for those of his vassals - they included his brother, Hugh of Vermandois - who went to Palestine. Pope Urban II's Decree of 1095, it is true, put the property of crusaders under the protection of the Church. Still, if Philip had been as unprincipled as his enemies alleged, papal prohibition would hardly have restrained him from molesting crusaders' lands had he wanted to do so. When Philip Augustus on a later occasion molested the Angevin lands few people blamed him.
Frequent as were Phihp's brushes with the Church, he never-theless kept his kingdom free of the troubles into which it would have been plunged by a conflict with the spiritual power over the burning question of Investiture. Co-operation and mutual aid between the Papacy and the French monarchy began with Philip's reign. It was a practice that became a policy and greatly benefited many of the French kings, not Least Phihp's grandson Louis VII. It is difficult - and in fact unimportant - to Decide whether Philip I or Urban II should have the credit for inaugurating this policy. At Least Philip took no steps to oppose it, and presumably he grasped its value to the crown. Unattractive, earthy, sordid, gross, he was also a practical man and a realist: the king for his time. When historians acclaim his son Louis VI as the sovereign whose reign saw 'the renaissance of kingship' in France, it must be remembered that Louis was following consistently the broad fines of Philip's policy.
Taken from 'The Capetian Kings of France' by Robert Fawtier, pub 1966