Notes for Adam Hawkes: A long biography of Adam Hawkes appears in "Adam Hawkes of Saugus, Mass. 1605-1672," pp. 1-27, portions of which are excepted below:
Adam Hawke, son of John Hawke, was baptized 26 Jan. 1605 at St. Andrews Church, Higham, Norfolk, England, according to the Parish Register there. An older brother Stephen, son of John Hawke, had been baptized there on 4 Dec. 1602. The parish register was started in 1600, and it contains no record of other children of this family. The marriage of John Hawke and Mary Cowper is recorded on 27 Jan. 1612. This may possibly be a second marriage of the father of Adam and Stephen, although no death is recorded for their mother; or perhaps it is the marriage of an older brother, born before the parish register was started, or born elsewhere. There is no further mention of this family in the register or other records in the Parish Chest, and the muster rolls of the parish, indicating military service, do no include the names of Adam or Stephen. However, Charles Edward Banks in his Topographical Dictionary lists Adam Hawkes as coming from Hingham, Norfolk, England to America in 1630 with the Winthrop Fleet. (He errs in stating that Adam settled in Hingham, Massachusetts as did so many who came from the old Hingham). It appears that Adam emigrated as a single man, age 25. On the fly leaf of John Winthrop's journal, March 29-July 8, 1630, a partial list of the male passengers includes the surname Hawke, without given name, and the surname Hawkes, also without given name. These are believed to be Adam Hawkes of Saugus and his brother John who settled first at Dorchester, Massachusetts, then Windsor, Connecticut, and finally, Hadley, Massachusetts. There seems also to be a close connection with Matthew Hawke who was of Cambridge, England, married Margaret Nelson at Ipswich, Suffolk, England, and emigrated with her to Hingham, Massachusetts in 1638.
[A description of the baptismal font at St. Andrews is omitted].
Further details of the early life of Adam Hawke are lacking... [a description of the history of the area of Hingham is omitted. In summary it discusses a history of religious persecution in the region and in St. Andrews, in particular.]
Before leaving the subject of early English beginnings, let us give brief general consideration to the family name in England prior to 1630, even tough no connection has been made with the emigrant Adam Hawkes. As with other names of early origin, one finds Hawkes spelled in many variations, due to the fact that spelling was not standardized. According to Charles W. Bardsley's "Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames", Hawkes may have originated to describe one of "fierce or wild disposition", or may be interpreted as "son of Harry or Henry." The name Houk appears as early as 1066 in Winton, Hampshire. An Adam de Halk is listed on the 1260 Assize Rolls of Cambridgeshire. Thomas, Adam and Johannes (John) Hawke appear in 1379. John Hawk was Town Clerk of Norwich, Norfolk from 1433-6, and again from 1442-6. Thomas Hawkes, gentleman, one of the retainers of John, Earl of Oxford, at Earls Coln Prioriy, in 1555, refused to comply with the rights of the Roman Catholic Church in reference to the baptism of his children. ... In December 1604 John Haukes appears on a list of Popish Recusants (those who refused to conform to the Anglican Church) in the Visitation of Barningham, Diocese of Norwich. Several of the Adam Hawkes Family Association members have attempted research with the hope of finding Adam's English ancestry, without success; the name has been found widely separated parts of England. Effort has been concentrated mainly in Norfolk.
While Hawkes families have been found in various parts of England in its early history, it has also been suggested that Adam was of Huguenot ancestry. There has however been no documentation for this theory, beyond the fact that he lived in a part of England where there were a large number of persons who had fled to England from the lowlands of Europe to escape religious persecution, and that his brother John settled in Western Massachusetts among several families among known Hugenot origin. Neither has proof been found that Adam was entitled to any of the Hawkes coats--of-arms as described in Burke's peerage.
JOURNEY TO AMERICA
As previously stated, the inside flyleaf of John Winthrop's "Sea Journal March 29-July 8, 1630," in a partial list of passengers, includes the names Hawke, and Hawkes, without given names. All evidence points to their being Adam Hawkes, later of Charlestown and then Saugus, Massachusetts, and his brother John who went first to Dorchester, then Windsor, Connecticut and finally Hadley, Massachusetts. There is no known complete list of passengers either on the "Arbella" or other ships in the fleet. But since Adam Hawkes was surely a participant in the journey, some background information about it is here given.
The early period of discovery and exploration on the North American continent was naturally followed by attempts at colonization. In the reign of King James I there had been the settlement of the Virginia Colony and the Plymouth Colony as well as other efforts to settle at a number of places along the New England coast. There had already been the start of settlement, and some preparations for the coming of Winthrop's Fleet in 1630. Roger Conant had tried, unsuccessfully, to settle Cape Ann under a charter dated Jan. 1, 1623/4. With him was the Rev. John Lyford who went to Virginia, urging others to accompany him. Conant removed to Naumkeag, now Salem, where in 1628 he was joined by John Endicott and others through the efforts of Rev. John White of Dorset. He had a grant from the Council for New England, and arrived on the "Abigail" in June 1628. John Endicott was Governor of the plantation while Matthew Cradock in England was the first Governor of the colony. Six vessels came, bringing 80 women, 26 children, 300 men and 140 head of cattle. Interesting details of their hardships and sufferings can be read in "An Historic Sketch of Salem, 1626-1789" by Charles Osgood and H.M. Batchelder, 1879. Back in England, the Rev. John Whilte of Dorchester, Dorset, an Anglican minister dissatisfied with the church and wishing to "purify" it, had appealed to a group of London businessmen who visualized economic opportunity in America. After Endicott's departure, efforts continued as religious and economic conditions worsened in England. A group of men met at Cambridge in July 1629 and decided to promote a Great Emigration to New England in March 1630. One of them, John Winthrop, met with the company in October of that year and shortly after was elected Governor. Tremendous preparations were made for the journey, beginning with the insistence of John Winthrop that there be no governing council in England after the fleet sailed. Recruitment of passengers reached some who were motivated mainly by religious unrest, and many yeomen whose families for generations had been tenant farmers under landlords who drained them of all of their earnings. There were seeking the right to profit by their labor and were attracted by the opportunity to receive grants of land of many acres, as well as to avoid the increasing tax burden imposed by Charles I. Word about New England came mostly through their local clergy, some of whom were becoming more and more dissatisfied with the established church. There were, however, only two clergymen who actually sailed with the fleet: the Rev. John Wilson of Windsor, Berkshire and the Rev. George Phillips of Boxford, Berks, both close to Groton, home of John Winthrop. Many who came sympathized with the Puritans, but there were also many who were loyal to the English Church and never joined the Puritan Church or became freemen; their chief incentives were 1) freedom from burdensome taxes, and 2) land ownership. The royal charter was granted to the parent corporation in England in March 1629, legally titling it the "Massachusetts Bay Company," most opportune since, but eight days later Charles I announced he would dissolve Parliament and govern without it! (Reference Bicentennial 1975 Ed, p. 118). Ten of the Company purchased the "Eagle" and chartered her to the Company, renaming her "Arbella" in honor of Lady Arbella, wife of Isaac Johnson, Esq. and daughter of Thomas, 3d, Earl of Lincoln. The Lady and Mr. Johnson both were passengers aboard the "Arbella," along with the various other notables. Also chartered for the trip were "Ambrose," "Jewel," "Talbot," "Charles," "Mayflower," "William and Francis," "Hopewell," "Whale," "Success", and "Trial." The "Talbot" had made the trip the previous year with Endicott's group. So the word went out and when the fleet departed, it was the "largest number of Englishmen sailing as passengers in one body across the Atlantic up to that date". (Banks: The Winthrop Fleet 24). The total number has been estimated as high as 1,000; however, John Winthrop himself placed the number at 700 in a letter he wrote to his wife, just before departure. (Banks: 46). By the end of the year, 200 of these were to die of disease, 100 would return to England or Ireland, and others would move north of the Bay Colony to join settlers on the Piscatequa River in New Hampshire. Winthrop planned to sail from London, with a great rendezvous of the fleet off the Cowes, Isle of Wight, where passengers might embark and final loading of goods be made. The majority of the 700 passengers came from East Anglia, comprising Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex and Cambridge, a region of flat rich plains, quiet villages, winding streams, and many historic treasures of Roman and Norman England. In addition, there were the large crews, necessary for handling these square-rigged vessels. The "Arbella," a ship of 350 tons, Captain Peter Milbourne Master, had a crew of 52 seamen, to sail the ship, man the guns, and fight any boarding pirates if necessary, 28 pieces of ordinance, and was about two times the tonnage of the Pilgrims' "Mayflower" of 1620. Three of the ships, the "William and Francis," "Hopewell," and "Trial" were loaded with goods and livestock, and carried no passengers.
Who was Governor John Winthrop,who was to lead this enterprise and to have such a great influence on the lives of so many in the years ahead? ...[biographical information about Winthrop omitted]...
Fortunately, John Winthrop kept a journal starting on Easter Monday March 29, 1630, so we know much that transpired on the voyage, including the course taken, the weather, and various events that occurred. There were the customary delays, and it was finally decided that four ships should set sail ahead of the rest. "A plan of consortship was arranged by which the Arbella was designated the 'Admiral', the Talbot 'Vice Admiral', the Ambrose "Rear Admiral', and the Jewel a 'Captain' in nautical ranking for the fleet." The remainder were to follow as soon as possible. Tradition suggests that Adam Hawkes may have been a passenger aboard the Arbella, although this is not documented. What a thrill it must have ben to him and the others when at 10AM on March 29th, the ship weighed anchor and set sail down the Solent for Yarmouth on the west end of the Isle of Wight, followed by the Talbot. Last farewells had been said, a gun salute given Matthew Cradock. The Rev. John Cotton, Vicar of Boston, Lincolnshire, had preached an eloquent sermon based on 2 Samuel VII-10: "Moreover I will appoint a place for my people Israel and will plant them, that they may dwell in a place of their own, and move no more; neither shall the children of wickedness afflict them any more, as before-time."
Approaching Yarmouth, they saw a very large Dutch vessel which had been bound for the East Indies but had been wrecked some two years previous while attempting to pass through the Needles. A ship returning from the Virginia Plantation soon anchored near, and her captain came aboard for several hours for an interchange of news. Then they remained at anchor off Yarmouth Castle in hopes that the other seven ships would arrive and join them. Meanwhile the very elderly Captain of Yarmouth Castle came aboard and entertained them with long tales of his many exciting experiences during many years at sea, including several years in a Spanish prison in Elizabethan times. Finally it was decided that the four ships would go on, and they were accompanied by some small vessels heading for Newfoundland. Shortly, they passed the Needles, a spectacular sight. The following day, they became alarmed by the appearance of numerous sailing ships astern, thought to be enemy vessels. Hasty preparations were made for battle; guns were loaded, decks cleared, and women and children sent below. The Captain tacked and stood by for the meeting; they turned out to be friendly vessels headed for Canada. When other ships were sighted at sea, there was always anxiety until it could be determine if they were friend of foe. The following day the passed "Plymouth," "Devon" and later the "Lizard, Cornwall." The next morning they passed the Scilly Isles and were now in the open seas, truly on their way to America!
Ships in that day were not made to carry passengers; they were built to carry freight, and therefore had few 'creature comforts.' On the "Arbella" a few cabins were constructed, but in general the men hung the hammocks wherever they could and we may imagine what lack of privacy and primitive sanitary conditions existed. The cost of food was five pounds per person, including salt beef and salt fish, butter, cheese, peese pottage, watergrewel biskets and beer. There were no fresh vegetables. Aboard the "Arbella" there were 20,000 biscuits. There were also 3,500 gallons of water, but as it could not be kept sweet, there were also 10,000 gallons of beer. Financially, the passengers included four groups: 1) persons who paid for the passage; 2) those who had a profession or trade and would work after arrival; 3) those who paid part and would work out the remainder after arrival at three shillings a day; and 4) indentured servants, whose passage was paid by their masters who would then receive 50 acres of land for each servant. The cost of transporting household goods was extra and so the cost of travel was very high. Medical service was another extra. There were doctors aboard in accordance with the Maritime Law, and in addition two doctors, Dr. William Gager and Dr. Richard Palsgrave were themselves emigrating to the New World. Also there were two professional military men, Captain John Underhill and Captain Daniel Patrick, employed to lead them against whatever foe they might encounter, either on the voyage or after arrival. For light they had only four lanterns and six dozen candles, and so to bed at dark. Nor was there heat, except for the woodburning stove in the galley, and it was a very cold journey, far more so than they had anticipated, as reported by Governor Winthrop in a letter to his wife.
After they left the Scilly Isles, the seas became so rough that many became ill and it became necessary to cancel their first Sunday services at sea. Later they were to encounter numerous other storms as well as periods of calm. Spritsails were split, sails ripped, shrouds broken, and things not secured were washed overboard. Many animals, transported on the decks and badly tossed by the storms, died. But in general the fleet maintained westerly course just north of 43 degrees latitude passing north of the Azores and finally just south of Cape Sable, Nova Scotia. During April and all of May they continued the long voyage across the Atlantic. Along the way, punishment was meted out for wrongdoing. When it was discovered that two crewmen stole some "strong water" they were laid in bolts all night, whipped openly in the morning and kept on bread and water all day. Two young men started fighting; for this they were made to walk the deck until night with their hands tied behind them. Another, for contemptuous speech, was laid in bolts until he promised open confession. Governor Winthrop observed that the young people "gave themselves to drink hot waters very immoderately." A servant bargained with a child to sell him biscuits each day, which he in turn sold to other servants. For this, his hands were tied to a bar and a basket of stones tied around his neck for two hours. Sometimes, when the weather permitted, there was visiting between ships, and also between the Winthrop Fleet and a squadron which overlook them, bound for Quebec. In mid-ocean there was a time of great excitement when a whale swam by, spouting water.
On Sunday, June 6th they first sighted land, Cape Sable. The following day in two hours they caught a large number of big codfish, which must have made a most welcome repart after the salt fish they had been eating! On arriving off the coast of Maine, they were then able to follow known landmarks along the coast. They passed Mr. Desert, Cape Porpoise, Agamenticus, Boone Island, the Isles of Shoals, were they saw several shallops fishing, and finally Cape Ann. On Saturday June 12th at 4 AM, nearing port at Salem, they set off two ordinances as a signal and sent a skiff to Master Pierce's ship which was in the harbor. Shortly after, the shallop of Isaac Allerton arrived and he came aboard to welcome them. He was headed for Pemaquid, Maine. It is to be noted that he was one of those who came on the "Mayflower" to Plymouth Plantation in 1620 and had become first deputy Governor of that Colony; also that two of his granddaughters were destined later to become the first and second wives of Adam Hawkes' son John. Then the ships sailed into the harbor where they were greeted by John Endicott, the temporary Governor, together with the Rev. Samuel Skelton, pastor of Salem, and Captain Levett. Many of the passengers, weary after the long sea voyage were happy to go ashore on Cape Ann and gather the fresh strawberries. The following day Miasconomo the Sagamore of Agawam and two other Indians came aboard to greet them.
On Thursday June 17th, they sailed for what is now Boston Harbor, exploring the surrounding lands for the best place to settle, after consultation with those who had come earlier. Their Charter granted them all lands from three miles south of the Charles River to three miles north of the Merrimack River, and from the Atlantic Ocean to the South Seas! But they were to look at, and decide upon that small peninsula between the Charles and Mystic Rivers which they would name Charlestown. En route they lay at Mr. Samuel Maverick's; this was at Noddles Island (now Logan Airport). Later they returned by way of Nantascot, now Hull, arriving back at Salem the 29th of June. In the next few days the other ships in the fleet, which had been left behind in England, began arriving. It was reported that many passengers on the "Success" were almost starved on arrival. The "Talbot" had lost 14 passengers by death. The "Jewel" had one birth. At last, on July 6th, all had dropped anchor in Salem Harbor and the journey was at an end. Thursday the 8th was declared a day of Thanksgiving for their safe arrival. (References: Journal of John Winthrop, Esq., Ship Arbella, Isle of Wight to Cape Ann in NE 1630, Sautells of Somerset, Lincoln, Massachusetts 1969. the Winthrop Fleet of 1630, by Charles Edward Banks, Genealogical Publishing Company, Baltimore 1961. American heritage Vol. 2, Colonial America by Robert G. Alhearn, Dell Publishing Company, New York, p. 96, 97.
SOJOURN AT CHARLESTOWN
On arrival in America Adam Hawkes first settled in Charlestown in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, where he was a husbandman. There he married Ann (? Brown) Hutchinson, a widow with four sons and a daughter. These children grew up in the household of Adam and Anne Hawkes, and all were named in the settlement of Adam's estate following his death. [possible lineage of Anne omitted]
[omitted also is a description and the sicknesses and depravity that residents of Charlestown suffered during these years, leading to many deaths.]
Adam Hawkes continued to live in Charlestown until 1634, having married the widow, Anne Hutchinson about 1631. He was a husbandman who held the town offices of Cow Commissioner and Surveyor. ... There appears no record of his becoming a freeman or a church member. ... This was understandable because there was a small group of ruling elite who determined which persons might be admitted, and only church members were allowed to become freemen and to vote. By 1635 the oligarchy had become so powerful that over one-half the eligible men were neither church members nor enfranchised; many moved elsewhere when it was decided to limit land grants to citizens. Above all, Adam Hawkes needed land for his increasing live-stock, and the little peninsula between the Charles and the Mystic Rivers did not afford this. Also, their first child, John, b. ca. 1631 did not survive and health conditions were not conducive to the survival of further progeny. In August 1633 the twins, John and Susanna were born; later that year an epidemic of smallpox struck the Aberginians on the peninsula, and in December of that year their chief, John Sagamore, died. On January 10 1635/6 Adam sold his four acres of planting ground at Charlestown to N. Easton and J. Sibley. The family is next heard of in Saugus, an agricultural community about eight miles to the north. (citations omitted)
THE YEARS AT SAUGUS
It is not known exactly when Adam left Charlestown for the more ample agricultural areas of Saugus or whether the family made the journey by boat up the meandering Saugus River or overland by ancient Indian trails or perhaps a rough, newly laid road. Either way, it must have been a real undertaking with his wife and two infants and five step-children as well as the livestock, the household goods, and the farm implements! He had sold his property in Charlestown in 1635 and he received land in the first division in Lynn in 1638. It seems probable that the move was closer to the earlier date. In 1930 a marker was placed by the Massachusetts Bay Tercentenary Commission near the site of his first habitation at the intersection of what is now the Newburyport Turnpike and Walnut Street in North Saugus. It reads "Adam Hawkes, the first white settler in Saugus built on this site about 1630. President John Adams was his grandson." This legend must be evaluated in light of present day knowledge regarding this residence from 1630-35 in Charlestown; more clearly he was the first while man at that particular site in North Saugus as there are others recorded earlier in Saugus which was in the beginning the name for all of Lynn. Further, John Adams, President of the United States of American, may be more accurately shown to be Adam's great great great grandson. (Ref.: Commemoration address, 1972, Adam Hawkes Family Association by E.F. Smith, unpublished).
Adams chose a rocky knoll for the site of his first home there, alter to be known as Close Hill at Hawkes Corner as it had a small field enclosed by a stone wall called a close. The Lynn Union of 27 October 1882 states, "Adam evidently had an eye to the beautiful as well as the practical when he selected this beautiful part of the country for his chosen home. The land was free from rocks, rich in soil and easy of cultivation and his immediate successors and descendants hold it still in the family name not withstanding more than two on it." Another century has passed and still a small part of the original home site remains in the ownership of the Adam Hawkes Family Association and a part of the old stone wall remains. This site, though only about eight miles from the former home in Charlestown was far up the winding Saugus River with nothing beyond save the wigwams of the local Indians.
On the 15th of November 1637, by record of the General Court, the name Saugus was changed to Lynn in honor of the Rev. Samuel Whiting who came there from Old Lynn in Norfolk, England. A town meeting was held and Daniel Howe, Richard Walker and Henry Collins chosen a committee of three to divide the lands. The land was laid out in those parts best adapted for farming. Woodlands were reserved as common property and not divided until 69 years later. In 1638 the committee completed its task, listing proprietors and their allotments. The original book has been lost, but a copy of the first three pages is preserved in the files of the Quarterly Court at Salem, Massachusetts. On page three is "Adm Hawkes, upland, 100 acres." Also noted on page one is the name of Nicholas Browne, 210 acres, and on page three, Samuel Hutchinson, 10 acres. Samuel was the oldest of Adam's stepchildren, just old enough to claim title to property in his own right. The index to early deeds in Essex County does not appear to include 17th century transactions of land; however, we know from the probate records of Adam's estate that before his death he had increased his holdings in Saugus to over 554 acres.
A story with three versions has been passed down; namely that shortly after Adam Hawkes built his first "cabin" on Close Hill, it burned. One has it that two infants and the black servant girl perished in the fire; another that two infants and a servant girl were the only ones there at the time and they escaped unharmed. The third is that it happened on a very cold winter's night and that several children perished in the fire but Adam and his wife and the twin babies escaped. Adam then strapped shingles onto his wife's feet as makeshift snow shoes so that the family could make their way several miles through the deep snow to the nearest place, that of Nicholas Browne, Adam's "brother-in-law." [discussion of relationship to the Brownes omitted].
Adam built a second house near the site of the first and there he lived and prospered as an industrious husbandman, being referred to as "Mister", a term of prestige among the local people. A few years later in 1642 work began on Hammersmith, the Saugus Iron Works, just downstream from Adam's farm. It flourished until 1688. In the beginning Adam joined his townsmen in welcoming the effort ... to produce pig iron in bars and shapes and also pots, kettles, etc. It was Adam Hawkes who supplied the company of undertakers with the first iron ore coming from his two iron bogs. In addition, he supplied timbers used to support the furnace and forge and immense oak beams and rafters for the peaked Tudor style iron master's house (still standing 1980). Then, over the years there were many disputes between Adam Hawkes and the iron works as the iron master ordered the damming of the river in order to provide increased water power resulting also in the flooding of the Hawkes' lands. All matters large and small were routinely taken to the Quarterly Court for settlement in those days and we find Adam repeatedly going to court successfully to collect for his damages. Adam complained that he had "much corn spoiled, English grass damaged, wells flooded and tobacco lands injured." [citation omitted} In 1646 he collected for damage to three acres; in 1651 - six acres flooded; in 11652 ten acres. [citation omitted] ... In 1652 Mr. Gifford was authorized to raise the dam by which ten acres additional of Adam Hawkes' land was overflowed for which privilege the company was first adjudged to pay 200 cords of wood and 16 loads of hay annually, but this rent, appearing to be too great an amount, it was reduced to seven pounds and finally to ten shillings annually. "Quite a falling off from the original and showing either an error of judgment or great cupidity, for the price of ten acres of land in those days ought not to have been one-half the price of the first annual rent." [citation omitted]
In June 1660 the records of the Salem Quarterly Court reflect a verdict for the Iron Works in another suit with Adam Hawkes as plaintiff. (details omitted)
In the 20th century when the old Iron Works had long faced oblivion, a descendant of Adam Hawkes, Miss Louise Hawkes, led a successful effort to prevent Henry Ford from removing the old Iron Works which has now become a national historic site.
Apparently, Adam Hawkes never took the freeman's oath as did his brother John and Matthew Hawke of Hingham. In Charlestown he served as cow commissioner and surveyor. Ever busy with his crops and husbandry, he nevertheless found some time for public affairs. On 24 Feb. 1657 at a town meeting Adam Hawkes was chosen to a committee for laying out and dividing public lands for planting. He also served on trial and grand juries in Salem.
OTHER INTERESTING ITEMS
The inventory of Adam's estate reflects that he kept bees. There is no record of any military service performed by Adam Hawkes although he probably participated in a local "train band" judging by items in the inventory of his estate, which included three swords, a pistol and a drum, muskets and fouling pieces.
Adam apparently was not active in the affairs of the church. Baptized in the Church of England, Episcopal, in a parish with definite nonconformist leanings and not invited into membership of the Puritan Church of Charlestown as was his wife, it follows that he may not have been motivated to be active in the Congregational Trinitarian Church of Lynn where the Reverend Samuel Whiting was pastor from 1636 - 1679.
The estate of Adam is probated at Essex County Probate Court, File #12899. Mention has been named in the literature of a will; however, he appears actually to have died intestate a the heir agreed upon a settlement for division of the estate and administration was granted to his son John. An inventory of his estate and the articles of agreement of his heirs are detailed at pp. 23-26 of "Adam Hawkes of Saugus, Mass."
More About Adam Hawkes: Baptism: January 26, 1604/05, St. Andrews Church, Hingham, Norfolk, England.2269
More About Adam Hawkes and Ann Brown: Marriage: Abt. 1631, Charlestown, MA.2269
More About Adam Hawkes and Sarah Hooper: Marriage: June 02, 1670, Lynn, MA.2269
Marriage Notes for Adam Hawkes and Sarah Hooper: From Adam Hawkes of Saugus, Mass., p. 22:
Adam Hawkes' first wife Anne was several years his senior and when she died in 1669 his children and stepchildren were all grown and married with families of their own or had moved away. so in June he married again. Adam, now 65, took for his bride the young Sarah Hooper who was just 19. Sarah was born in that part of Reading whichis now Wakefiled. She was the oldest living child of 11 born to William Hooper, a weaver, who had come in the James from london in 1635 at the age of 18. He had acquired considerable land and was a church member and freeman. The following year their daughter Sarah was born on 1 June 1671 and in less than a year after that Adam Hawkes died.