Notes for Carolus I Magnus, empereur auguste " Charlemagne: Carolus I Magnus, empereur auguste also went by the name of Charles "the Great."
Also called Charles "le Magne" des Francs.
Carolus I Magnus, empereur auguste also went by the name of Karl I "der Große" German.2
He was born on 2 April 742 in Liège.3,4,5,6,7,8
He was born in 747.9
He was the son of Pippin III Brevis, rex Francorum and Bertrada "au Grand Pied" de Laon .10,11,12,13
He associated with Himiltrudis (?) circa 768; His 1st.14,7
He succeeded his father, Pepin the Short, to become co-ruler with his brother, Carloman, of France in September 768.
Patricius Romanus in September 768.6
Co-King of the Franks between September 768 and 771.15
He was was crowned King of the Franks following his father's death on 24 September 768.
Styled Karolus gratia Dei rex regnique Francorum rector, et devotus sanctae ecclesiae defensor, atque adjutor in omnibus apostolicae sedis in 769.16
He married Desiderata des Langobarden , daughter of King of Longobards Desidarius of the Langobardi and Ansa (?) , in 769; His 2nd. s.p.6,7,14
He married the daughter of the Lombard King for the potential dowager, an arrangement of his mother, Bertha, by which she sought to create a four-way Lombard, Carloman, Charles, and Tassilo "family" which would have been a force to reckon with, in 770.
He and Desiderata des Langobarden were divorced between 770 and 771; Repudiated.17,6,14
He married Hildegardis, regina , daughter of Frankischen Graf von Vinzgau Gerold I von Vinzgau and Imma of the Alamanni , before 30 April 771 in Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen), Germany, Frankish Empire; His 3rd.18,19,20,21
He seized the entire kingdom of the Franks on the death of his brother, Carloman, on 4 December 771.
King of the Franks between 4 December 771 and 24 January 814.15
He made his first expedition against the Heathen Saxons, taking Eresburg by storm, and burning Irminsul in July 772 in Saxony, Germany.6
Styled Karolus gratia Dei rex Francorum et Longobardorum et Patricius Romanorum in 774.16
He replaced Daufer of the Lombards as the King of the Lombards, and thereby, of Northern Italy in 774.
King of the Lombards in Frankish Empire, between 774 and 814.15
Annals of Monte Fernando 779: "Karolus Saxoniam venit. (Charlemagne defeats? the Saxons.)."22
Annals of Monte Fernando 781: "Karolus Romam adiit. (Charlemagne entered Rome?)."23
He associated with N. N. (?) circa 783; His 4th.24,21
He married regina Fastrada des Francs orientaux , daughter of comitis natione Francam Radolf des Francs orientaux , circa October 783 in Worms, Rhineland, Austrasia; His 5th.19,7,25
He married Liutgard "die Liebevolle" von Schwaben, daughter of Liutfried II von Elsaß and Hiltrud vom Wormsgau , between September 794 and 796; His 6th. s.p.19,25,26
He associated with Madelgardis (?) circa 797; His 7th.19,25
Annals of Monte Fernando 800: "Karolus fit imperator. (Charlemagne becomes Emperor.)."27
He associated with Regina (?) in 800; His 9th.19,25
He was crowned Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire by Pope Leo III, a ceremony, said to have come as a surprise to Charlemagne, which officially revived the ancient empire of the Ceasers in the West, on 25 December 800 in the Basilica of St. Peter, Rome, Italy.28
Imperator Augustus in Frankish Empire, between 25 December 800 and 814.3,15,29
Styled Karolus serenissimus Augustus a Deo coronatus, magnus pacificus Imperator Romanum gubernans Imperium qui et per misericordiam Dei Rex Francorum atque Longobardorum on 29 May 801.16
He and basilissa St. Irene of Athens were engaged in 802; Contemplated.30
He subdued the Saxons in 804 in Bavaria, Germany.
He had to invade their territory year after year before finally subduing them.
The Saxons were pagans who amused themselves with burning churches and monastaries.
Charles was a ruthless Christian.
On one occasion he had 4,500 Saxons beheaded in a single day.
Styled par la grâce de Dieu, empereur gouvernant l' Empire romain, roi des Francs et des Lombards.
Karolus Imperator Augustus Romanum gubernans Imperium, Rex Francorum et Longobardorum necnon modo Dominator et Saxonorum in 804.16
He associated with Adelindis (?) in 806; His 10th.19,25
He associated with Gerswind "die Beutefrau", Kaiserin , daughter of Widukind, Herzog von Engern , circa 807; His 8th.19,25,31
He was recognized by the Emperor Michael I as Emperor in the West in 812.32
He was was an outstanding general and an excellent administrator as well.
He was also concerned with illiteracy and was scornful of the bad grammar and unlettered tounges of some Church officials. He urged monastaries and cathedrals to establish schools and make them open to everyone, the "sons of serfs and freemen, so that they might come to sit on the same benches and study grammar, music, and arithmetic".
He was so described: having a broad and strong body of unusual height, but well-proportioned; for his height measured seven times his feet. (This is over six feet, in an age where the average height was far less than that.) His skull was round, the eyes were lively and rather large, the nose of more than average length, the hair gray but full, the face friendly and cheerful. Seated or standing, he thus made a dignified and stately impression even though he had a thick, short neck and a belly that protruded somewhat; but this was hidden by the good proportions of the rest of his figure.
He dressed simply in the manner of the common people, wearing linen shirts and breeches under a tunic, in the cold with a coat of otter and marten skins. He always carried a sword.
He strode with firm step and held himself like a man; he spoke with a higher voice than one would have expected of someone of his build.
He enjoyed good health except for being repeatedly plagued by fevers four years before his death.
Toward the end he dragged one foot.3
He was also recognized by the Emperor Leo V as Emperor in the West in 814.32
In the annals for 814: "in hoc anno domnus Karolus cesar obiit in 5. Kalend. Februar. in die sabbati."33
He styled himself in his documents as Imperator Augustus Romanum gubernans Imperium (emperor Augustus governing the Roman empire) or serenissimus Augustus a Deo coronatus, magnus pacificus Imperator Romanorum gubernans Imperium (most serene Augustus crowned by God, great peaceful emperor governing the empire of the Romans).32
He died on 28 January 814 in Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen), Austrasia, Frankish Empire, at age 67 years.3,4,34,20,35,33
Child of Carolus I Magnus, empereur auguste and Himiltrudis (?) : Pippin "le Bossu" des Francs b. c 770, d. 811
Children of Carolus I Magnus, empereur auguste and Hildegardis, regina : Carolus "le Jeune", roi de France orientale b. 772 or 773, d. 4 Dec 811 Adelais des Francs b. bt Sep 773 - Jun 774, d. Jul 774 or Aug 774 Hrothrudis des Francs + b. c 775, d. 6 Jun 810 Pippin, roi des Lombards + b. 777, d. 8 Jul 810 Hludowic I Pius, empereur auguste+ b. 16 Apr 778, d. 20 Jun 840 Hlothar des Francs b. bt 16 Apr 778 - Sep 778, d. 779 or 780 Bertrada des Francs + b. 779 or 780, d. a 14 Jan 823 Gisela des Francs b. b May 781, d. a 814 Hildegardis des Francs b. a 8 Jun 782, d. bt 1 Jun 783 - 8 Jun 783
Child of Carolus I Magnus, empereur auguste and N. N. (?) : Chrothais des Francs b. c 784, d. a 814
Children of Carolus I Magnus, empereur auguste and regina Fastrada des Francs orientaux : abbess du monastère de Notre Dame d'Argenteuil Theodrada des Francs b. c 785, d. bt 9 Jan 844 - 853 Hiltrudis des Francs b. c 787, d. a 814
Child of Carolus I Magnus, empereur auguste and Madelgardis (?) : abbess de Faremoutiers Rothildis des Francs b. c 798, d. 24 Mar 852
Children of Carolus I Magnus, empereur auguste and Regina (?) : évêque de Metz Drogo des Francs b. 17 Jun 801, d. 8 Dec 855 Hugo "l' Abbé" des Francs b. bt 802 - 806, d. 14 Jun 844
Child of Carolus I Magnus, empereur auguste and Adelindis (?) : Theodoric des Francs b. c 807, d. a 818
Child of Carolus I Magnus, empereur auguste and Gerswind "die Beutefrau", Kaiserin : Adaltrudis des Francs b. a 808
Sources: 1. Christian Settipani & Patrick van Kerrebrouck, La Prehistoire des Capetiens 481-987, Premiere partie: Merovingians, Carolingians et Robertiens (Villeneuve d'Ascq: Editions Christian, 1993), pg. 191. Hereinafter cited as Capetiens 481-987. 2. Das Große Lexikon 2001 Software (.: Data Becker GmbH & Co. KG, (c) 2000). Hereinafter cited as Lexikon 2001. 3. Various Encyclopaedea Britannica (U.S.A.: Encyclopaedea Britannica, Inc., 1976). Hereinafter cited as Encyclopaedea Britannica. 4. Christian Settipani, Les Ancêtres de Charlemagne (France: Éditions Christian, 1989). Hereinafter cited as AdC. 5. Christian Settipani & Patrick van Kerrebrouck, Capetiens 481-987. 6. Transcribed by Joseph P. Thomas The Catholic Encyclopedia - Volume III, III (New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908), Under "Charlemagne". Hereinafter cited as The Catholic Encyclopedia. 7. INRIA - Domaine de Voluceau - Rocquencourt, online ftp://ftp.inria.fr/INRIA/Projects/cristal/Daniel.de_Rauglaudre/GED/, Research Engineer Daniel de Rauglaudre (Le Chesnay Cedex, France), downloaded 04 NOV 1999. 8. Jr. Aileen Lewers Langston and J. Orton Buck, compiler, Pedigrees of Some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants (United States: Order of the Crown of Charlemagne, 1974), Chapter LXXII - Wright-Townsend-Bowman-Rosenmiller, pg. 315 (place is Ingleheim in this source). Hereinafter cited as Pedigrees of Charlemagne Descendants, Vol II. 9. Pierre Riché, The Carolingians: A Family Who Forged Europe (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993), pg. 85, the legend of Charles being born a bastard in 742 is unhistorical.. Hereinafter cited as Riché. 10. C. W. Previté-Orton The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History, Volume 1, the Later Roman Empire to the Twelfth Century, 1 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978), pg. 154, genealogy table 5 (b).. Hereinafter cited as sCMH I. 11. Léon van der Essen, editor, Deux Mille Ans D'Histoire (163, Rue du Trone, Bruxelles: Les Presses de Belgique, 1946), Gen Table I. Hereinafter cited as Deux Mille. 12. Christian Settipani, Les Ancetres de Charlemagne, Addenda (1990), and Addenda thereto (31 Jan 2000) ( GEN-MEDIEVAL/soc.genealogy.medieval, 31 Jan 2000), Chart from The Ancestors of Charlemagne: Addendum to Addenda(January 31, 2000). Hereinafter cited as AdC-Addendas. 13. John O'Hart, compiler, Irish Pedigrees; or, The Origin and Stem of the Irish Nation (Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1989), Vol 2, pg. 164. Hereinafter cited as Irish Pedigrees. 14. Christian Settipani & Patrick van Kerrebrouck, Capetiens 481-987, pg. 198. 15. Regnal Chronologies, online . Hereinafter cited as Regnal Chronologies. 16. Velde: Royal Styles, online . Hereinafter cited as Velde: Royal Styles. 17. Christian Settipani, AdC, pg. 17. 18. Christian Settipani, AdC, pg. 13. 19. Christian Settipani & Patrick van Kerrebrouck, Capetiens 481-987, tableau 5. 20. Jr. Aileen Lewers Langston and J. Orton Buck, Pedigrees of Charlemagne Descendants, Vol II, Chapter LXXII - Wright-Townsend-Bowman-Rosenmiller, pg. 315. 21. Christian Settipani & Patrick van Kerrebrouck, Capetiens 481-987, pg. 199. 22. Margaret Lantry, compiler, Annales de Monte Fernandi (Cork College Road, Cork, Ireland: Corpus of Electronic Texts: a project of University College, 1998), MF779.1. Hereinafter cited as AMF. 23. Margaret Lantry, AMF, MF781.1. 24. Christian Settipani & Patrick van Kerrebrouck, Capetiens 481-987, tableau 5 - name N.N.. 25. Christian Settipani & Patrick van Kerrebrouck, Capetiens 481-987, pg. 200. 26. Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter The Catholic Encyclopedia, I-XIV (New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908-1912), Vol III, Charlemagne. Hereinafter cited as The Catholic Encyclopedia. 27. Margaret Lantry, AMF, MF800.1. 28. John Monroe, The Order of Rome: Charlemagne and the Holy Roman Empire (Boston, Massachusetts: Boston Publishing Company, Inc., 1986), Pg. 92. Hereinafter cited as The Order of Rome. 29. Christian Settipani & Patrick van Kerrebrouck, Capetiens 481-987, pg. 171. 30. Various Encyclopædia Britannica 2001 Standard Edition CD-ROM (U.S.A.: Britannica.com Inc., 1994-2000), Irene (Byz. emp. [752-803]) . Hereinafter cited as EB CD 2001. 31. Die Genealogie der Franken, online mitglied.lycos.de, Karolinger / Familie Karls de Grossen, per Treffer Gerd: Seite 40-41. Hereinafter cited as GdF. 32. French Royalty, online . Hereinafter cited as French Royalty. 33. Various Monumenta Germaniae Historica (Leipzig: Verlag Karl W. Hiersemann, 1923-1925), Vol 1, pg. 63, Annales Sangallenses Baluzii, 814, 5 Kalend Feb. Hereinafter cited as MGH. 34. Léon van der Essen, Deux Mille, Gen Table II: De Charlemagne a Philippe le Bon. 35. Various EB CD 2001, "Charlemagne".
After his father's death, while sharing the kingdom with his brother, he bore his unfriendliness and jealousy most patiently, and, to the wonder of all, could not be provoked to be angry with him.
Later he married a daughter of of Desiderius, King of the Lombards, at the instance of his mother; but he repudiated her at the end of a year for some reason unknown, and married Hildegard, a woman of high birth, of Suabian origin.
He had three sons by her - Charles, Pepin and Louis -and as many daughters - Hruodrud, Bertha, and and Gisela.
He had three other daughters besides these- Theoderada, Hiltrud, and Ruodhaid - two by his third wife, Fastrada, a woman of East Frankish (that is to say, of German) origin, and the third by a concubine, whose name for the moment escapes me.
At the death of Fastrada , he married Liutgard, an Alemannic woman, who bore him no children.
After her death [Jun4 4, 800] he had three concubines - Gersuinda, a Saxon by whom he had Adaltrud; Regina, who was the mother of Drogo and Hugh; and Ethelind, by whom he had Theodoric.
Charles' mother, Berthrada, passed her old age with him in great honor; he entertained the greatest veneration for her; and there was never any disagreement between them except when he divorced the daughter of King Desiderius, whom he had married to please her.
She died soon after Hildegard, after living to three grandsons and as many granddaughters in her son's house, and he buried her with great pomp in the Basilica of St. Denis, where his father lay.
He had an only sister, Gisela, who had consecrated herself to a religious life from girlhood, and he cherished as much affection for her as for his mother.
She also died a few years before him in the nunnery where she passed her life.