Descendants of John Moore



Generation No. 1


        1.  John1 Moore was born Abt. 1588 in England?, and died Aft. 03 Jul 1635 in Elizabeth City Co. (present-day City of Hampton), VA or present-day Poquoson area of York Co., VA.  He married Elizabeth Merritt?.  She died Unknown.


Notes for John Moore:

This John Moore, ancestor of the Phillip Torksey/Toxey family of Camden and Pasquotank Counties, North Carolina, from which Bryan S. Godfrey descends through his paternal grandmother, is probably not the immigrant ancestor of most  later Moores in the area of present-day Poquoson and York County, Virginia. Although my stepdad's sister's husband, Dr. Alfred Phillips Moore, DDS, descends from this John Moore at least two ways, and for the last 25 years of his dental career his practice has been located just across the Back River from where our mutual ancestor John Moore settled, John Moore is probably not his patrilineal immigrant ancestor, as there appear to have been two Moore families in that area in the 1600s. It appears the farthest we can trace back my Uncle Al's patrilineal ancestry is to another John Moore, born between 1640 and 1650, who married Amy Parsons. While this John Moore's descendants intermarried with those of John and Amy Parsons Moore, it is possible that they were unrelated and the John Moore who married Amy Parsons was the grandson of another Moore immigrant who settled in present-day Poquoson or York County, whereas this John Moore lived in present-day Hampton (then Elizabeth City County), across the Back River from York County and Poquoson.


According to , John Moore's plantation was called "Moorefield" and was in the Moore family until 1876, when it was sold to Jefferson C. Phillips, then to Nannie Collier in 1882, and finally to the Federal Government in 1942. "Moorefield," probably not the original John Moore home, burned in 1895. The land is now part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Langley at Hampton, VA.


From :


1635 – Summary of original John Moore Patent – “lying and being North upon the little Poquoson Creek, East butting upon the land of Thomas Boulding, West upon the land of Thomas Garnett, and running south into the woods toward the head of a Broad Creek...” July 3, 1635


1676 – New Patent for Augustine Moore, son of John Moore (Patented 200A in 1635). Quote there from – “Two hundred eighty five Acres of Land lying and being in the county of Elizabeth City at the head of little Poquoson creek (now Tabb Creek) and beginning at a marked gum by a marsh side and Running thence SW butting NW on the land of Mr. Thomas Wythe 294 po. (4851 feed) to a marked Ash in a swamp being the said Wyth’s corner tree


1735 - Augustine Moore bought 50 acres of land around 1735 from James Toomer – the grandson of Thomas Wythe I and the son of Constant and John Tomer – House was the Moore family home for at least thirty-five years



1735 – c. Deed: From – James Toomer*** To – Augustine Moore, son of William Moore -grandson of Thomas Wythe I and son of Constant and John Toomer



Note: Deed not found, but referenced in Augustine Moore’s will dated 24 March 1736



1737 - around 1737 – four more rooms built



1737 – Will/Prob. From – Augustine Moore, Sr. To – Augustine Moore, son of William Moore



1747 - (Cloverdale Plantation Site) Captain Augustine Moore bought the Tomer land.



1747 – (Cloverdale Plantation Site)Captain Augustine Moore’s nephew, Augustine Moore inherited the property in 1747.


1795 – (Moorefield Plantation Site) Upon his father’s death, Augustine Moore, in 1795, William Moore moved to his father’s 200 acre farm; William Moore’s Brother Augustine Moore inherited the 50 acre tract.



1796 – Deed - From – Anne Moore To – William Moore




More About John Moore:

Census: 1623, Elizabeth City Co. (present-day City of Hampton), VA

Comment: One source,, lists birthplace as Reading, Berkshire, England.1

Immigration: 1620, Came to Virginia in the "Bona Nova."2

Property: 03 Jul 1635, Patented 200 acres on Little Poquoson Creek, Elizabeth City Co., VA. It adjoined Thomas Boulding and Thomas Garnett and ran south into the woods towards head of Broad Creek.2,3


Children of John Moore and Elizabeth Merritt? are:

+      2                 i.    Augustine2 Moore, died Aft. 19 Jun 1676 in York Co., VA?.

+      3                ii.    ? Moore, died Unknown.



Generation No. 2


        2.  Augustine2 Moore (John1) died Aft. 19 Jun 1676 in York Co., VA?.


More About Augustine Moore:

Comment: He was the great-great-grandfather of the Augustine Moore (1731-1787) of "Temple Farm, " York Co., VA, at whose house Lord Cornwallis signed the capitulation which ended the Revolutionary War. This was near Yorktown.

Property 1: 09 Sep 1652, Patented 650 acres in the part of Lancaster Co., VA that became Middlesex County on northeast side of Piankatank River opposite New Chiskack; named among headrights himself, his wife Ann, and son Augustine.4

Property 2: 08 Dec 1662, Sold 300 acres to his brother-in-law John Scarborough; leased remainder to John Gore on 29 Nov 1669, eventually selling it. 4

Property 3: 28 Oct 1672, Received an escheat patent for 225 acres in Elizabeth City County.4

Property 4: 19 Jun 1676, Repatented his father's 1635 grant on Little Poquoson Creek as 285 acres. 4

Residence 1: Bef. 1677, Present-day Middlesex Co., VA

Residence 2: 1677, Elizabeth City Co. (present-day City of Hampton), VA


Child of Augustine Moore is:

+      4                 i.    Augustine3 Moore, Jr., born Abt. 1623 in Elizabeth City Co. (present-day City of Hampton), VA?; died Bef. 23 Nov 1688.



        3.  ?2 Moore (John1) died Unknown.  She married John Scarborough.  He died Abt. 1675 in Middlesex Co., VA.


More About John Scarborough:

Comment: His origins are not known. It is not known how, or even if, he is related to the Edmund Scarborough family of Virginia's Eastern Shore, from which Bryan Godfrey's paternal grandfather and stepfather were descended several ways.

Probate: 06 Sep 1675, Middlesex Co., VA

Will: 02 May 1674, Middlesex Co., VA5


Children of ? Moore and John Scarborough are:

+      5                 i.    Mary3 Scarborough, born in Middlesex Co., VA?; died Unknown in Pasquotank Co. or present-day Camden Co., NC.

        6                ii.    John Scarborough, Jr., died Unknown.

        7               iii.    Augustine Scarborough, born in Middlesex Co., VA; died Unknown in Pasquotank Co. or Camden Co., NC.  He married (1) Dorothy Eddington 06 Oct 1682 in Middlesex Co., VA?; died Unknown.  He married (2) Ann Mayo Aft. 1688; died Unknown.


More About Augustine Scarborough:

Appointed/Elected: Represented Pasquotank Precinct in the North Carolina Legislature; treasurer of Pasquotank Precinct in 1713.6

Event: 1694, Proved his rights of importation of nine persons into North Carolina. Obtained warrants for 327 and 450 acres.6


        8               iv.    George Scarborough?, died Unknown.

+      9                v.    William Scarborough, died Unknown.



Generation No. 3


        4.  Augustine3 Moore, Jr. (Augustine2, John1) was born Abt. 1623 in Elizabeth City Co. (present-day City of Hampton), VA?, and died Bef. 23 Nov 16887.  He married Elizabeth Purefoy?, daughter of Thomas Purefoy?.  She died Unknown.


Children of Augustine Moore and Elizabeth Purefoy? are:

+      10               i.    Capt. Augustine4 Moore III, died Aft. 05 Jan 1705 in Elizabeth City Co. (present-day City of Hampton), VA.

        11              ii.    John Moore, died Abt. 1762 in Elizabeth City Co. (present-day City of Hampton), VA.


Notes for John Moore:



Will Book 1, Page 127 Will Of John Moore September 1762


I John Moore Of Elizabeth City County In The Parish Aforesaid...


... I Give Unto My Loving Wife Ann Moore My Negro Woman Called ______ And My Negro Girl Called Sandor ...


... I Give And Bequeath Unto Ann Armistead, Wife Of James Armistead My Negro Boy Called Ned ...


... I Give Unto My Loving Wife Ann Moore The Use Of My Two Negro Men Jupiter And George During Her Natural Life And Afer Her Death I Give And Bequeath Unto My Daughter Elizabeth Moore The Same Two Negro Men Jupiter And George To Her And Her Heirs And In Falure Of Such Heirs In My Daughter, Then I Give The Said Jupiter And George To My Nephew Augustine Moore To Him And His Heirs Lawfully Begotton.


... I Give And Bequeath Unto My Daughter Elizabeth Moore My Two Negros ______ And Frank To Her And Her Heirs Lawfully Begotten Forever.


... Witness Wherefore I Have Hereunto Sett My Hand And Affixed My Seal This Thirteenth Day Of September, One Thousand Seven Hundred And Sixty Two.


More About John Moore:

Will: 13 Sep 1762, Elizabeth City Co. (present-day City of Hampton), VA8


        12             iii.    Elizabeth Moore, died 1719 in York Co., VA.  She married Capt. John Goodwin; died Bef. 24 Jul 1701 in York Co., VA9.


More About Capt. John Goodwin:

Appointed/Elected: Justice of York County; churchwarden of the lower precincts of York Parish in 1694.9



        5.  Mary3 Scarborough (?2 Moore, John1) was born in Middlesex Co., VA?, and died Unknown in Pasquotank Co. or present-day Camden Co., NC.  She married (1) ? French Bef. 1683.  He died Unknown.  She married (2) Philip Torksey 31 Jul 1683 in Christ Church Parish, Middlesex Co., VA10.  He was born in Middlesex Co., VA?, and died Abt. 1727 in Pasquotank Co. or present-day Camden Co., NC.


Notes for Philip Torksey:

Comments by Bryan S. Godfrey, great-great-great-great-great-grandson of Susannah Torksey who married James Garrett:


I do not know of anyone who has proven who the parents of Susannah were, but since she had a brother named Philip Torksey and a son named Philip Garrett, and since the first Philip Torksey in Camden County, North Carolina, married Mary Scarborough, it seems safe to assume Susannah and all Torkseys/Toxeys in Camden were descended from this couple. Philip Torksey married Mary Scarborough in 1683 when they still lived in Middlesex County, Virignia, and afterwards settled in present-day Camden County, North Carolina, then part of Pasquotank County. Although Philip and Mary had several sons, John, Robert, and Philip, it seems that their son Philip was an ancestor of Susannah. Because the first Philip was married in 1683 and Susannah Torksey Garrett's husband was born about 1773, the former was most likely a great-great-grandfather of Susannah, and Philip, Jr. was most likely her great-grandfather.


More About Philip Torksey:

Probate: 18 Jul 1727, Pasquotank Co., NC10

Residence: Middlesex Co., VA; later settled in Pasquotank/ Camden Co., NC.

Will: 16 Jan 1721, Pasquotank Co., NC10


Children of Mary Scarborough and Philip Torksey are:

        13               i.    John4 Torksey, died Unknown.

        14              ii.    Mary Torksey, died Unknown.

        15             iii.    Sarah Torksey, died Unknown.

        16             iv.    Robert Torksey, died Unknown.

+      17              v.    Elizabeth Torksey, born Abt. 1681 in Christ Church Parish, Middlesex Co., VA; died Unknown in present-day Camden Co., NC?.

+      18             vi.    Philip Torksey?, born Abt. 1684 in Christ Church Parish, Middlesex Co., VA; died Abt. 1727 in present-day Camden Co., NC.



        9.  William3 Scarborough (?2 Moore, John1) died Unknown.  He married (1) Frances Macrora Abt. 169111.  She died Unknown.  He married (2) Elizabeth Raymond Aft. 1691, daughter of William Raymond and Sarah ?.  She died Unknown.


More About Elizabeth Raymond:

Event: 12 Oct 1713, Will of William Raman devised 200 acres to daughter Elizabeth Scarborough and mentioned 50 acres Wm. Scarbrough lived on.12


Children of William Scarborough and Frances Macrora are:

+      19               i.    John4 Scarborough, died Abt. 1756 in Pasquotank Co. or present-day Camden Co., NC.

+      20              ii.    Macrora Scarborough, born Abt. 1695 in Christ Church Parish, Middlesex Co., VA; died 08 Feb 1752 in Perquimans Co., NC.

        21             iii.    William Scarborough, born Abt. 1700 in Christ Church Parish, Middlesex Co., VA; died Unknown.


More About William Scarborough:

Baptism: 09 May 1700, Christ Church Parish, Middlesex Co., VA13



Generation No. 4


        10.  Capt. Augustine4 Moore III (Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) died Aft. 05 Jan 1705 in Elizabeth City Co. (present-day City of Hampton), VA14.  He married Mary Wooley?15.  She died Unknown.


More About Capt. Augustine Moore III:

Appointed/Elected: Justice of Elizabeth City County by 1694; Sheriff in 1698; captain of militia.16

Property: 1704, Owned 285 acres in Elizabeth City Co., VA.


Children of Augustine Moore and Mary Wooley? are:

+      22               i.    Martha5 Moore, born in probably Elizabeth City Co. (present-day Hampton), VA; died 04 Feb 1752 in Charles Parish (present-day Poquoson area), York Co., VA.

        23              ii.    Augustine Moore IV, died Abt. 1736 in Elizabeth City Co. (present-day City of Hampton), VA.


Notes for Augustine Moore IV:




















































HERETOFORE WRITTEN BY ME ------------ ------------------

-------------------- ----------------------- OF I HAVE HEREFORE SETT MY










File contributed for use in USGenWeb Archives by:

Hope Stanley -


More About Augustine Moore IV:

Will: 24 Mar 1736, Elizabeth City Co. (present-day City of Hampton), VA17


        24             iii.    John Moore, died Unknown.

        25             iv.    William Moore, died Unknown.

        26              v.    Edward Moore, died Unknown.

        27             vi.    Merritt Moore, died Unknown.

+      28            vii.    Daniel Moore, born Abt. 1679 in Elizabeth City Co. (present-day City of Hampton), VA; died 1767 in York Co., VA.

+      29           viii.    Anne Moore?, born Abt. 1692 in York Co., VA; died 22 Sep 1748 in York Co., VA.



        17.  Elizabeth4 Torksey (Mary3 Scarborough, ?2 Moore, John1) was born Abt. 1681 in Christ Church Parish, Middlesex Co., VA18, and died Unknown in present-day Camden Co., NC?.  She married Robert Morgan.  He was born Abt. 1670, and died Abt. 1730 in present-day Camden Co., NC?.


More About Elizabeth Torksey:

Baptism: 10 Apr 1681, Christ Church Parish, Middlesex Co., VA19


Notes for Robert Morgan:

Three hundred years along the Pasquotank : a biographical history of Camden County

Pugh, Jesse Forbes



Host to the Provincial Assembly


ca 1670-1727


AS THE SETTLERS increased in numbers the Indians found themselves being correspondingly deprived of their lands and restricted in their hunting areas. Some of the more scrupulous of the white newcomers were both tactful and honest in their dealings with the natives. Others failed to live up to their bargains with the redskins, subjected them to gross mistreatment, and there are a few instances of record where an Indian was forced into slavery without any legal or moral justification. The Indians, also human beings, responded in kind to their treatment. They repaid broken promises with trickery and dishonesty with theft. According to one irate planter, one of their most exasperating performances was to fall upon a fat shoat feeding in the forests and to enjoy an impromptu feast of barbecued pig on the spot.


In an effort to solve the problems of friction and mounting tension between the two races, the provincial leaders began to set aside specified areas for the sole use and benefit of the Indians. Apparently the Council of State had been considering the circumstances of the Yawpim Indians on the northeast side of the Pasquotank River for a number of years without taking any definite action. In 1704 the situation seems to have become acute for on April 12, at a meeting held at the house of Captain John Hecklefield “in Little River,” the Council adopted the following directive: “Ordered that the Surveyor General or Deputy shall (with what expedition is possible) upon complaint of the Yawpim Indians lay out for the sd Indians (where they now live) four square miles of land or the quantity not injuring any of the old Settlements which was made before the order of Council bearing date in October, 1697. And Mr. John Hawkins, Mr. Thomas Taylor, Mr. Robert Morgan and Mr. John Relfe or any three of them are hereby required to attend the Surveyor or Deputy in laying out the same. To John Anderson Dep. Surveyor or to be directed to Captain Thomas Relfe to execute with Speed and make returns.”


The survey was made by Thomas Relfe and, according to a petition presented a few years later by his widow for reimbursement for his services, the tract contained 10,240 acres. The Moseley map of 1733 clearly indicates the Yawpim village with a cluster of wigwams on the reservation which included most of the present day communities of Sandy Hook and Indiantown with several thousand acres of swamp lands binding North River. The arrangement seems to have been satisfactory to the Indians inasmuch as they continued to maintain peaceful relations with their white neighbors until their departure in 1774 to join the Iroquois in New York. Fortunately the lands furnished an abundance of food supply; bear and deer are still found in the swamps and North River is a popular attraction for fishermen. Incidentally, the Indians taught the settlers a method of cooking fish which is still regarded as a gastronomical treat in the southern part of the county. When fish are netted during the late summer and fall months, the practice is to dress a freshly caught mullet, mount it on a skewer of aromatic wood, such as bay or myrtle, apply salt and pepper liberally, and roast it over a bed of coals prepared on the shore.


Supervising the Yawpim survey is the first recorded appearance of Robert Morgan in a public capacity. He next appears as one of the five members in the House of Burgesses from Pasquotank during the years 1708-09. Of the few minutes of the proceedings surviving, one item records Robert Morgan and Nicholas Crisp as bringing a message “from the lower House” to the upper or Council.


An incident in which Morgan was involved in 1713 may be illuminative as to the public mind during the succession of Indian wars of that period. As a concession to the religious beliefs of the Society of Friends, whose tenets forbade them to bear arms, legislation had been enacted to permit a man to pay a fee of five pounds in lieu of military service. In Pasquotank Precinct, so the Deputy Marshal reported, Robert Morgan, John Sawyer, Sr., John Sawyer, Jr., Edward Williams, Richard Hastings and Robert Sawyer “utterly refused” to pay the five pounds due from them by act of assembly for “not going out in yeIndian Warr.” These men, who lived around Sawyers Creek, were not Quakers; indeed, three of them, including Morgan, were members of the vestry of the Parish of St. Peter. Nor was the incident an isolated one. On the southwest side of the river a man was arrested for refusing to be “impressed,” and over in Currituck two men were charged with “seducing and turning men aside” from performing military duty. Whether this attitude resulted from resentment because the Quakers were exempt from active service, or from fear that their own families would be exposed to savage attacks while they were away on the expeditions, is not clear. Certainly no public stigma seems to have resulted from the refusal of Morgan to comply. Afterwards he was twice elected to the Assembly and also received an appointment as one of the “Gentlemen Justices” who presided over the precinct courts of quarter sessions and common pleas.


A distinction, unique in Camden's history, came to Morgan during the 1725 session of the Assembly, of which he was a member. Since no capitol building had as yet been erected, legislative sessions were customarily held at the residence of one of the members. According to the minutes they first met at “Edistow,” but on November 2, the entry reads: “House mett according to adjournment with Mr. Robt. Morgan, Representative from Pasquotank.” So far as is known, this is the only time a provincial assembly was convened within the borders of what is now Camden County. The entire membership of the assembly at the time did not exceed thirty-five.


The exact location of Morgan's residence in the vicinity of Sawyers Creek has not been determined. His first recorded purchase was in 1698 for two hundred acres, and he owned eight hundred at the time of his death. It may not be amiss to add that he was a direct ancestor of General Isaac Gregory of the Revolutionary era and of the late Governor J. C. B. Ehringhaus, and he was also the progenitor of the well-known Morgan families in Currituck and elsewhere.




More About Robert Morgan:

Probate: 20 Nov 1730

Will: 22 Oct 1727, Pasquotank Co., NC


Children of Elizabeth Torksey and Robert Morgan are:

+      30               i.    Bennet5 Morgan, died 1758 in Pasquotank Co. or present-day Camden Co., NC.

+      31              ii.    Joseph Morgan, died Abt. 1777 in Pasquotank Co. or present-day Camden Co., NC.

+      32             iii.    Robert Morgan, Jr., died Unknown.

        33             iv.    Moses Morgan, died Unknown.

        34              v.    Ann Morgan, died Unknown.

        35             vi.    Allis Morgan, died Unknown.

        36            vii.    Elizabeth Morgan, died Unknown.

+      37           viii.    Judith Morgan, died Unknown.

        38             ix.    Aaron Morgan, died Unknown.



        18.  Philip4 Torksey? (Mary3 Scarborough, ?2 Moore, John1) was born Abt. 1684 in Christ Church Parish, Middlesex Co., VA, and died Abt. 1727 in present-day Camden Co., NC.  He married Margaret Raymond, daughter of William Raymond and Sarah ?.  She died Unknown.


More About Philip Torksey?:

Baptism: 08 Jun 1684, Christ Church Parish, Middlesex Co., VA20

Ethnicity/Relig.: Baptist--listed as one of the founders of Shiloh Baptist Church in 1727

Residence: Camden Co., NC (then part of Pasquotank County)


More About Margaret Raymond:

Comment: Because her will mentioned a daughter Sarah Torksey and her children Philip and Sarah Torksey, apparently her daughters Margaret and Sarah both married Torkseys.


Children of Philip Torksey? and Margaret Raymond are:

+      39               i.    Phillip5 Torksey?, died Abt. 1755 in present-day Camden Co., NC.

        40              ii.    John Torksey?, died Unknown.

        41             iii.    Sarah Torksey?, died Unknown.

        42             iv.    Robert Torksey?, died Unknown.

        43              v.    Ezekiel Torksey?, died Unknown.



        19.  John4 Scarborough (William3, ?2 Moore, John1) died Abt. 1756 in Pasquotank Co. or present-day Camden Co., NC.  He married Mary Willson, daughter of William Willson.  She died Unknown.


Children of John Scarborough and Mary Willson are:

        44               i.    Sarah5 Scarborough, born Abt. 1730; died Unknown.  She married William Burgess, Jr.; born 24 Dec 1731 in Pasquotank Co. or present-day Camden Co., NC; died Abt. 1781 in Camden Co., NC.

        45              ii.    Tamar Scarborough, died Unknown.



        20.  Macrora4 Scarborough (William3, ?2 Moore, John1) was born Abt. 1695 in Christ Church Parish, Middlesex Co., VA, and died 08 Feb 1752 in Perquimans Co., NC.  He married (1) Anna Peterson 23 Nov 1729 in Pasquotank Co., NC.  She was born Abt. 1708, and died 11 Aug 1735.  He married (2) Elizabeth Hatch 18 May 1740 in Pasquotank Co., NC.  She died Unknown.


Notes for Macrora Scarborough:

Three hundred years along the Pasquotank : a biographical history of Camden County

Pugh, Jesse Forbes



An Aristocrat


ca 1693-1752


INSOFAR AS WE KNOW, before 1700 there were three planters on the northeast side of the river whose seals bore the imprint of a coat of arms. Those men were Thomas Merriday, his kinsman John Hawkins, and Augustine Scarborough. The latter possessed considerable acreage on both sides of the river and was one of the wealthiest citizens in the precinct. Like many of his station he also had a career as a public official—representative in the Provincial Assembly, treasurer for Pasquotank, and the like. The parentage of the seven Scarboroughs of the second generation is not clear—whether they were all the children of Augustine or partly the offspring of his brother William—but the four boys and three girls all displayed the ability for which the family was distinguished. Typical of the brood was John, an influential citizen throughout his adult lifetime; Charles who, for one thing, was one of the seven charter members of the Baptist congregation organized at William Burgess’ house in 1729; and Mary who married Samuel Wilson, Secretary of the Province of North Carolina. The most outstanding was the youngest son McRora, or “Rory” as he was familiarly known.


Rory Scarborough was not only born with a silver spoon in his mouth, he passed his whole lifetime under favorable circumstances. The indications are that he completed his formal education in some distant center of learning, perhaps in England, and was familiar with social life in a wide area. Fortunate in possessing a personality which appealed to both men and women, he seems to have been a welcome and much sought after addition to any gathering, and may have been the most eligible bachelor in the Albemarle. Undoubtedly a good sartorial example of what a young man should wear, his fondness for fine apparel came near being a source of embarrassment on one occasion.


The circumstance developed in this manner. There were three younger men in the neighborhood, John Norton, Griffin Jones and Rory Scarborough, who seemingly stood not in awe of anyone or anything, for they had the temerity to testify adversely against the powerful Colonel William Reed when he was accused of making scurrilous remarks concerning the recently arrived governor, George Burrington. Reed was not one to overlook an affront, whether real or imagined, and what he thought was an opportunity for retaliation soon presented itself. Jeremiah Finch, a young gentleman of fortune, had recently come from New England and had taken up a patent when he was stricken with some fatal malady. Rory Scarborough, who had been appointed administrator of Finch's estate, proceeded to sell at public auction his belongings, among which were thirty-three muslin handkerchiefs. Scarborough purchased some of the handkerchiefs from the highest bidder and filed a complete report of the entire transactions with court officials. Colonel Reed, jumping to a conclusion, accused Scarborough of appropriating fourteen handkerchiefs at a price lower than reported. The charge was baseless. Moreover, by the time the trial came up, Burrington had antagonized many other people who were denouncing him in strong terms, and Colonel Reed was thereby so mollified he refused to press the charges.


Beginning with 1723, Scarborough embarked upon a political career. He was elected three terms in succession as representative in the Assembly from Pasquotank, and in 1724 he was appointed to the peace commission for his precinct. In 1729 an event occurred which caused him to transfer his residence to Perquimans.


Strange as it may seem, this popular bachelor was thirty-six before he married. The young lady was Anna Peterson, daughter of the late Thomas Peterson and wife Joanna of Edenton. Much of the town of Edenton, it will be recalled, had been laid off on Peterson's plantation. The vivacious Joanna, who was to have three husbands in all, was a sister of the wife of Governor Thomas Harvey and a daughter of that impressive dowager over in Perquimans, Juliana Lakar and her late husband, the influential Benjamin Lakar. The wedding took place on November twenty-third, 1729, and the Governor, Sir Richard Everard, performed the ceremony. What with a charming bride in the town serving as the capital of the province, the Lakar and other family connections over in Perquimans, the wide social and political acquaintance of the likable groom, combined with the Scarborough prestige, this marriage must have been of especial interest to a goodly portion of the gentry of the Albemarle region.


Upon his arrival in 1731 for a second term as Governor of North Carolina, George Burrington announced, with his usual tact, that there were “no fit persons in Currituck or Perquimans to be members of the Council,” and proposed McRora Scarborough of Pasquotank for membership on the council. The Assembly was already in a mood to oppose any recommendations made by Burrington and the proposal was defeated. Incidentally, this failure represents the only setback experienced by Scarborough during his career. In the same year he established his residence in Perquimans where he was at once elected to the Assembly from that county. In 1733 he was appointed as assistant to Chief Justice William Little of the General Court. In 1739 he became treasurer of Perquimans County and was made a member of the local peace commission. His adopted county elected him seven times as representative in the Assembly; indeed he served continuously in some public capacity from the beginning of his career until his death. The details of his achievements in Perquimans belong to the history of that county and further reference will be omitted except for one item of general interest.


Scarborough and Benjamin Harvey sponsored a bill in 1746 which anticipated by twelve years the establishment of the town of Hertford at Phelps Point. At this time Governor Johnston was initiating an all-out effort to abolish the unequal representation enjoyed by the Albemarle counties, and since the proposed town would add one more representative from that region, the bill failed of passage. At a special meeting convened in Wilmington in November of the same year, with all the Albemarle delegates absent, the Assembly fixed New Bern as the capital and reduced representation in the Albemarle counties from five to two, the same number as was allowed the other counties. The northeastern group, opposing this legislation as contrary to the privileges granted them by the Lords Proprietors, elected five representatives from each county as formerly. The delegates were not allowed to qualify and their election was declared illegal. As a result of this impasse the northeastern delegates did not attend any assembly for the next seven years. The northeastern counties appealed to the King and Privy Council to uphold as a right their ancient privilege of five representatives each as granted them by the Lords Proprietors. McRora Scarborough was one of these selected to make representations to the King and Council on behalf of the Albemarle claims. The final decision, although delayed for seven years, was in favor of the northeastern counties.


The true-love romance of Rory Scarborough and Anna Peterson was tragically brief. She died in 1735 from childbirth when their third son was born. Recording her death in the family Bible, the distraught husband added this poignant meditation from the Eighty-Eighth Psalm: “Lover and friend has Thou put far from me, and mine acquaintance into darkness.” Five years later he married Mrs Elizabeth Reed, daughter of Colonel Anthony Hatch and widow of William Reed, son of Colonel William Reed. To this union were born one son and two daughters.


When death came to Scarborough in 1752, he faced the event with characteristic poise and thoughtful consideration of others. In addition to other bequests, his wife, he stipulated, should receive “all that part of my Estate that may or will become due me upon the division of Mr. William Reed's (her former husband) Estate.” And “in case my wife and sons should disagree on administration,” he appointed as administrators “my brother John, my wife's brother, Anthony Hatch, and my friend, William Burges.” He also specifically leaves to his wife “a wench” with the intriguing name of “Pasquotank Rose.” An interesting glimpse of a gentleman's personal possessions two hundred years ago is also disclosed in the legacies to his sons. Benjamin received six silver spoons, a silver-headed cane, silver shoe buckles, knee buckles, fourteen vest buttons and a black walnut desk. Besides a cane and a desk like Benjamin's, his son McRora was given a silver watch.




More About Macrora Scarborough:

Appointed/Elected: Justice of Pasquotank Co., NC (1724); represented Pasquotank in North Carolina Assembly (1725-26); represented Perquimans County (1731, 1739-40, 1743-45); served on General Court (1732), emergency appointment to  Council (1734); Treasurer of Pasquotank

Baptism: 03 Feb 1695, Christ Church Parish, Middlesex Co., VA

Probate: 18 Feb 1752

Will: 31 Jan 1752


Child of Macrora Scarborough and Elizabeth Hatch is:

+      46               i.    William5 Scarborough, born 23 Dec 1749 in Pasquotank Co. or present-day Camden Co., NC; died 11 Jun 1810 in Barnwell District (present-day Barnwell Co.), SC.



Generation No. 5


        22.  Martha5 Moore (Augustine4, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born  in probably Elizabeth City Co. (present-day Hampton), VA21, and died 04 Feb 1752 in Charles Parish (present-day Poquoson area), York Co., VA22.  She married James Dixon, son of Richard Dixon and Damazinah Row.  He was born Abt. 1698 in Charles Parish (present-day Poquoson area), York Co., VA23, and died 14 Mar 1752 in Charles Parish (present-day Poquoson area), York Co., VA24.


More About James Dixon:

Probate: 17 Aug 1752, York Co., VA25

Will: 14 Mar 1752, York Co., VA25


Children of Martha Moore and James Dixon are:

        47               i.    William6 Dixon, born 16 Nov 1719 in Charles Parish (present-day Poquoson area), York Co., VA26; died 29 Sep 1721 in Charles Parish (present-day Poquoson area), York Co., VA26.

        48              ii.    Martha Dixon, born 26 Jul 172226; died Unknown.

+      49             iii.    James Dixon, Jr., born 03 Dec 1724 in Charles Parish, York Co., VA; died Abt. 1806 in Charles Parish, York Co., VA.

        50             iv.    Richard Dixon, born 24 Oct 1727 in Charles Parish (present-day Poquoson area), York Co., VA26; died 21 Feb 1744 in Charles Parish (present-day Poquoson area), York Co., VA26.

        51              v.    Thomas Dixon, born 26 Oct 173026; died Unknown.

        52             vi.    Ann Dixon, born 08 Mar 1732 in Charles Parish (present-day Poquoson area), York Co., VA26; died 25 Mar 1733 in Charles Parish (present-day Poquoson area), York Co., VA26.

        53            vii.    Merritt Dixon, born 31 May 173426; died Unknown.

        54           viii.    Daniel Dixon, born 01 Sep 173726; died Unknown.



        28.  Daniel5 Moore (Augustine4, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born Abt. 1679 in Elizabeth City Co. (present-day City of Hampton), VA27, and died 1767 in York Co., VA.  He married Elizabeth Sclater, daughter of Richard Sclater and Mary Nutting.  She was born 04 Oct 1703 in York Co., VA28, and died 30 Dec 1735 in York Co., VA28.


Child of Daniel Moore and Elizabeth Sclater is:

        55               i.    Augustine6 Moore, born 06 Mar 1731 in Charles Parish, present-day Poquoson or York Co., VA29; died 1788 in "Moore House," Yorktown, York Co., VA29.  He married Lucy Smith; died Unknown.


Notes for Augustine Moore:



Moore House 



Early History


The site on which the Moore House now stands was first patented by Governor John Harvey in the 1630's, and was named "York Plantation." A century later, it was part of a 500 acre plantation called "Temple Farm" where Lawrence Smith II built a family home. In 1754, the estate passed to Smith's son, Robert. By 1760, however, Robert found himself in financial straits, and was forced to sell the farm that had been in his family for three generations. He sold the 500 acre estate to his brother-in-law, Augustine Moore.


Augustine Moore


Augustine Moore began his career as a merchant at the age of 14, when he became an apprentice to William Nelson of Yorktown. He served the Nelson firm for many years, and became parter of "Thos Nelson, Jr. & Co." in 1773.

In 1767, Augustine inherited three plantations from his father, establishing him as a landowner of some estate. The following year he purchased "Temple Farm", and eventually moved his wife and son into the present plantation house to become a gentleman farmer in the fashion then prevalent in Virginia.

In 1781, when General Cornwallis moved his British army into Yorktown, many residents left their homes and fled the area. The Moore family may also have abandoned their home, temporarily moving to Richmond during the Yorktown Siege. What they certainly could not have known, was that their home would become a site of national significance on October 18, 1781, when it was selected to be the backdrop for one of the final scenes of the American Revolution.


The Surrender Negotiations


At 10 o'clock on the morning of October 17, 1781, a drummer beating a "parley," and a British officer with a flag of truce, mounted a parapet south of Yorktown. The allies saw the signal, and soon the incessant, devastating artillery fire ceased. A hushed stillness fell over the field.

Lord Cornwallis, realizing the defeat of his army was inevitable, sent a message to General George Washington:


"Sir, I propose a cessation of hostilities for twenty-four hours, and that two officers may be appointed by each side, to meet at Mr. Moore's house, to settle terms for the surrender of the posts of York and Gloucester."


Why Cornwallis selected the Moore House for the negotiations was not explained, however, there are a number of possibilities.The Moore House was well outside the line of siege fire, and therefore, not damaged. It was a neutral location, hiding the British situation in town, and possibly selected in the hope of securing better surrender terms. And finally, it was a convenient location for both sides to reach, as it was situated along the York River.


Washington agreed to only a two hour cease fire for Cornwallis to submit general terms of surrender. Messages continued to pass over the battlefield between the two commanders.

Finally, on the afternoon of October 18, the two British commissioners, Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Dundas and Major Alexander Ross met in "Mr. Moore's house" with the allied officers, Lieutenant Colonel John Laurens, for the Americans, and Second Colonel Viscount de Noailles (Marquis de Lafayette's brother-in-law), representing the French.

The negotiations ended before midnight, and Laurens carried a rough draft of the articles to General Washington. Washington, however, was not completely happy with the results and made a few minor changes. Once the articles were revised and redrafted, a copy was sent to Cornwallis in Yorktown for his signature.


The Articles


The Articles of Capitulation were terms for the surrender of Cornwallis's British army. The 14 articles directed the surrender from the disposition of the troops, artillery, and arms, to even the surrender ceremony itself.

The articles directed where the troops, now prisoners of war, were to be sent. The soldiers were marched off to camps in Frederick, Maryland, and Winchester, Virginia. One field officer for every 50 men was allowed to reside near their respective regiments to witness their treatment and deliver clothing and other necessaries to the soldiers at the camps. All other officers were paroled and allowed to go to Europe, New York, or any other American post then in possession of the British forces, on the condition they would no longer fight until properly exchanged.

Another article provided for the care of the sick and wounded prisoners. Proper hospitals would be furnished, with patients attended by their surgeons on parole. Medicine and supplies were to be provided by the American hospitals, the British stores in both York and Gloucester, and passports would be issued to procure further supplies from New York if necessary.

The third article referred to the surrender ceremony and contained the provision that deprived the British of the honors war. Customary honors allowed the surrendering troops to march out of their works with their regimental flags flying and playing an enemy's tune in honor of the victor. George Washington was not going to allow these honors, instead he stated, " The same honors will be granted to the surrendering army as granted to the garrison of Charlestown". In May 1780, an American army was captured at Charleston, South Carolina and not given the honors of war, therefore, in retaliation, the British would not be granted them at Yorktown. The troops, the article read, were to "...march out...with shouldered arms, colors cased, and drums beating a British or German march. They are then to ground their arms and return to their encampment, where they will remain until they are dispatched to the places of their destination..."

By the afternoon of October 19th, 1781, both commanders had signed the Articles of Capitulation, and the defeated British army was marching out from Yorktown to lay down their arms, ending the last major battle of the American Revolution.


Preservation Efforts


The Moore House remained in the Moore family until 1797, when it passed to the son of Thomas Nelson Jr., Hugh Nelson, after the death of both Augustine and his wife Lucy. Thereafter, the house changed hands many times.

During the 1862 Peninsula Campaign of the Civil War, military action around Yorktown caused considerable damage to the Moore House. Sitting in between Confederate lines in Yorktown and the Union forces on Wormley Creek, the house was within easy range of shell fire. Later, foraging soldiers stripped away siding and other usable wood for


The house remained derelict until 1881 when much needed repairs and some additions were made in preparation for the Centennial Celebration of the allied victory at Yorktown. The newly refurbished structure housed dignitaries during the celebration.

In the years between 1931 and 1934, the National Park Service, which had just established Colonial National Monument (later Historical Park), restored the Moore House to its original colonial appearance. Archeology and historic images were used to assist in its restoration.

The restoration was one of the first of its kind for the National Park Service. The house was completed and formally dedicated on October 18-19, 1934, the 153rd anniversary of the surrender of Cornwallis and his British army.







More About Augustine Moore:

Property: 1769, Purchased "Temple Farm" near Yorktown, VA from his brother-in-law, Robert Smith, for 1200 pounds. Moore left it to his friend General Thomas Nelson. This was the home where British Lord Cornwallis surrendered to General George Washington in 1781.

Will: 08 Nov 1787, York Co., VA



        29.  Anne5 Moore? (Augustine4 Moore III, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born Abt. 1692 in York Co., VA30, and died 22 Sep 1748 in York Co., VA31.  She married Starkey Moore, son of John Moore and Amy Parsons.  He was born 30 Oct 1692 in York Co., VA31, and died 20 Apr 1733 in York Co., VA31.


Notes for Anne Moore?:


May have been daughter of Augustine and Elizabeth Moore of Elizabeth City Co., VA.

Ann Moore was the daughter of Augustine and Elizabeth Moore of Elizabeth City County. She was evidently related to Merritt family. May herself have been a Merritt but most Elizabeth City County records were burned in the Civil War. This Augustine Moore did help in settlement of an Elizabeth Merritt, orphan of William Merritt, in Elizabeth City County, VA. Her brother was named Merritt Moore as was her son a Merritt Moore. (T. Hansford)


Children of Anne Moore? and Starkey Moore are:

        56               i.    John6 Moore, born Bef. 171631; died Unknown.

        57              ii.    Martha Moore, born 22 Dec 171631; died Unknown.

+      58             iii.    John Moore, born 16 Feb 1718 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.

        59             iv.    Starkey Moore, Jr., born 26 Oct 172231; died Unknown.  He married Mary ?; died Unknown.

        60              v.    Merritt Moore, born 31 May 172931; died Unknown.  He married Anne Robinson; died Unknown.

        61             vi.    Phillip Moore, born 21 Oct 173131; died Unknown.

        62            vii.    Anne Moore, born Abt. 1732 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.  She married John Robinson; died Unknown.



        30.  Bennet5 Morgan (Elizabeth4 Torksey, Mary3 Scarborough, ?2 Moore, John1) died 1758 in Pasquotank Co. or present-day Camden Co., NC.  He married Dorothy Sawyer.  She died Unknown.


More About Bennet Morgan:

Will: 07 Jul 1758, Pasquotank Co., NC32


Children of Bennet Morgan and Dorothy Sawyer are:

        63               i.    Robert6 Morgan, died Unknown.

        64              ii.    Lydia Morgan, died Unknown.

        65             iii.    Bennett Morgan, died Unknown.

        66             iv.    Grace Morgan, died Unknown.

        67              v.    Mary Morgan, died Unknown.  She married John Sawyer; died Unknown.

        68             vi.    Dorothy Morgan, died Unknown.  She married Thomas Hastkins; died Unknown.



        31.  Joseph5 Morgan (Elizabeth4 Torksey, Mary3 Scarborough, ?2 Moore, John1) died Abt. 1777 in Pasquotank Co. or present-day Camden Co., NC.


Child of Joseph Morgan is:

+      69               i.    Jean/Jane6 Morgan, born Bef. 1761; died Unknown.



        32.  Robert5 Morgan, Jr. (Elizabeth4 Torksey, Mary3 Scarborough, ?2 Moore, John1) died Unknown.  He married Nancy ?.  She died Unknown.


More About Robert Morgan, Jr.:

Probate: Jun 1774

Will: 04 Feb 1772, Pasquotank Co., NC33


Child of Robert Morgan and Nancy ? is:

        70               i.    Jane6 Morgan, died Unknown.



        37.  Judith5 Morgan (Elizabeth4 Torksey, Mary3 Scarborough, ?2 Moore, John1) died Unknown.  She married William Gregory, son of Thomas Gregory and Priscilla (Barco).  He was born Abt. 1700 in present-day Camden Co., NC, and died 27 Jun 1752 in present-day Camden Co., NC.


Children of Judith Morgan and William Gregory are:

        71               i.    Dempsey6 Gregory, died Unknown.

        72              ii.    Mary Gregory, died Unknown.

        73             iii.    Lovey Gregory, died Unknown.

        74             iv.    Affiah Gregory, died Unknown.

        75              v.    Mark Gregory, died Unknown.

        76             vi.    Willis Gregory, died Unknown.

+      77            vii.    Gen. Isaac Gregory, born Abt. 1740 in Camden Co., NC; died Abt. 1800 in Camden Co., NC.



        39.  Phillip5 Torksey? (Philip4, Mary3 Scarborough, ?2 Moore, John1) died Abt. 1755 in present-day Camden Co., NC.


Child of Phillip Torksey? is:

+      78               i.    Thomas6 Torksey?, born in Pasquotank Co. or Camden Co., NC; died Abt. 1758 in present-day Camden Co., NC.



        46.  William5 Scarborough (Macrora4, William3, ?2 Moore, John1)34 was born 23 Dec 1749 in Pasquotank Co. or present-day Camden Co., NC, and died 11 Jun 1810 in Barnwell District (present-day Barnwell Co.), SC.  He married Lucy Sawyer35 Abt. 09 Jul 1774 in Pasquotank Co. or present-day Camden Co., NC?, daughter of Thomas Sawyer and Margaret Cotton.  She was born 08 Sep 1757 in Pasquotank Co. or present-day Camden Co., NC, and died 02 Apr 1815 in Lower Three Runs, Barnwell Co., SC.


More About William Scarborough:

Occupation: Merchant in present-day Camden Co., NC until his estate was confiscated due to his Loyalist sympathies and he settled in Charleston, SC and later in Barnwell Co., SC

Probate: 18 Jun 1810, Barnwell Co., SC

Will: 29 Jun 1810, Barnwell Co., SC


More About Lucy Sawyer:

Probate: 26 May 1815, Barnwell Co., SC

Will: 29 Mar 1815, Barnwell Co., SC


Children of William Scarborough and Lucy Sawyer are:

+      79               i.    William6 Scarborough, Jr., born Abt. 1776 in Charleston, SC; died 1838 in Savannah, Chatham Co., GA?.

        80              ii.    Elizabeth Scarborough36, born 1778 in Camden Co., NC; died 03 Jan 1817.  She married Dr. Elijah Gillett; born Abt. 1755; died 04 Sep 1818 in Baldock, Winton Co., SC37.

        81             iii.    Lucy Scarborough, born Abt. 1789 in Charleston, SC; died Unknown.  She married Robert Isaac; born Abt. 1781 in Scotland; died Abt. 14 Oct 1827 in Savannah, GA.



Generation No. 6


        49.  James6 Dixon, Jr. (Martha5 Moore, Augustine4, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born 03 Dec 1724 in Charles Parish, York Co., VA38, and died Abt. 1806 in Charles Parish, York Co., VA.  He married Elizabeth ?.  She died Unknown.


More About James Dixon, Jr.:

Residence: "Piney Neck" plantation, present-day Pasture Road,  Poquoson, VA38


Children of James Dixon and Elizabeth ? are:

        82               i.    William7 Dixon, born 07 Jul 1750 in Charles Parish (present-day Poquoson area), York Co., VA38; died 176638.

+      83              ii.    Martha Dixon, born 19 Aug 1752 in Charles Parish (present-day Poquoson area), York Co., VA; died Unknown.

        84             iii.    Elizabeth Dixon, born 28 Dec 175438; died Unknown.  She married (1) Butts Roberts; died Unknown.  She married (2) Anthony Martin; died Unknown.

        85             iv.    Ann Dixon, born 06 Dec 175738; died Unknown.

        86              v.    Mary Dixon, born 01 Nov 175938; died Unknown.

        87             vi.    James Dixon III, born 24 Dec 176338; died Unknown.  He married Elizabeth Cary Wills 18 Dec 178638; died Unknown.

+      88            vii.    Diana Dixon, born 1766 in Charles Parish (present-day Poquoson area), York Co., VA; died Unknown.

        89           viii.    Frances Dixon, born 20 Jan 176838; died Unknown.  She married John Tennis 30 Dec 1797 in Charles Parish, York Co., VA39; died Unknown.


More About Frances Dixon:

Burial: Unknown, Dixon Cemetery at Graveyard Point down Pasture Road, Poquoson, VA39


+      90             ix.    Rosa Dixon, born 01 Jul 1770 in Charles Parish, York Co., VA; died Unknown.

+      91              x.    William Moore Dixon, born 26 Sep 1772 in Charles Parish (present-day Poquoson area), York Co., VA; died Unknown.



        58.  John6 Moore (Anne5 Moore?, Augustine4 Moore III, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born 16 Feb 1718 in York Co., VA40, and died Unknown.  He married Elizabeth Freeman.  She died Unknown.


Child of John Moore and Elizabeth Freeman is:

+      92               i.    William7 Moore, born 31 Oct 1751 in York Co., VA; died Abt. 1797 in York Co., VA.



        69.  Jean/Jane6 Morgan (Joseph5, Elizabeth4 Torksey, Mary3 Scarborough, ?2 Moore, John1) was born Bef. 1761, and died Unknown.  She married Peter Cartwright.  He was born Bef. 1761, and died Abt. 1815.


Child of Jean/Jane Morgan and Peter Cartwright is:

+      93               i.    Mark7 Cartwright, born Bet. 1770 - 1774 in Camden Co., NC; died Abt. 1837 in Camden Co., NC.



        77.  Gen. Isaac6 Gregory (Judith5 Morgan, Elizabeth4 Torksey, Mary3 Scarborough, ?2 Moore, John1) was born Abt. 1740 in Camden Co., NC, and died Abt. 1800 in Camden Co., NC.  He married Sarah Lamb, daughter of Thomas Lamb and Sarah Beckwith.  She died Unknown.


Notes for Gen. Isaac Gregory:



• The Master of Fairfield Plantation





ca 1740-1800


TO CAMDEN FOLK Isaac Gregory is the most dignified figure who has played a part in their history—partly because of the somewhat impressive surroundings into which he was born, but more largely because of his own rather austere bearing. The lighter touch at least was not one of his immediately apparent characteristics. And if his painstaking habits and ponderous actions tended to add to the impressiveness of his personality, by the same token they also helped to make of him a controversial individual. His deliberation, for example, could at times be a source of exasperation to his associates. Amidst the feverish activities of war General Caswell once wrote to Governor Nash:


  “Gen'l Gregory, I am afraid, will be tardy unless your Excellency can give him a spur.” Sometimes his conduct seemed motivated by a singletrack mind which could overlook highly relevant circumstances. One conspicuous instance was the occasion when his appointment as sheriff of Pasquotank was not received from the royal governor until noon on the day of elections, which were by law conducted under the direction of the sheriff. Disregarding regulations affecting the hours for voting, he took the oath of office, opened the polls at twelve o'clock and permitted balloting until after sundown. Although the Election Committee which reviewed the matter in the General Assembly could find no evidence of wrongdoing per se, the action of the sheriff was considered highly irregular and the election therefore was declared illegal. Another oversight may have been merely absentmindedness, but later in life he dispatched by post a proposal of marriage to the widow of a former governor six months after the death of that estimable lady.


On the other hand, his record in public life definitely indicates a man who possessed other qualities besides slowness and diffidence. As a resident of Pasquotank before the formation of Camden, he was appointed eight times as sheriff, three years as member of the precinct court, and was elected three times to the Provincial Assembly. He was also a delegate to the early provincial congresses meeting in Hillsborough and at New Bern. In the militia of the county and state he held commissions as lieutenant colonel, colonel and brigadier general. Beginning with 1780, he was elected once to the House of Commons, followed by eight years in succession to the Senate. Among other public capacities were his appointments as first collector of customs for the Port of Camden or Plank Bridge, and trustee of the Currituck Seminary of Learning.


What, then, were the attributes which enabled Gregory to become a commanding figure in the county's history? The answer seems to be that while they were few, they were fundamental. In the first place he was devoid of any pretense or affectations. As might naturally be expected, he was entirely forthright both in speech and action. If he was slow, he was at the same time thorough. Such qualities appear to good advantage in the capacities of sheriff or justice of a court.


His greatest assets, however, would seem to have been his integrity—honesty in both thought and deed—and a keen sense of justice which was the result of his sincerity. Dr. Hugh Williamson once made the following estimate of Gregory in a letter to General Washington: “Gen'l Gregory is recommended as a gentleman whose Character as a soldier and Citizen stands high in the universal esteem of his fellow Citizens. He is a man of respectable property; has the full confidence of his Country and is the constant Enemy to public officers suspected of corrupt practices.” Gregory was in fact a member of all the committees in the Senate which conducted hearings on charges of frauds in public accounts, and frequently he served as chairman. During the war he was entrusted with vast sums of money and quantities of supplies. So carefully did that meticulous mind keep accounts that when the air was at times full of charges and countercharges of corrupt practices, no question as to his conduct in financial affairs or management was ever directed toward him.


He was as stern with the derelictions of officers coming from his own social level as he was with those of the humblest private. There were, as an illustration, the two officers, one from Chowan and another from Perquimans. The Chowan gentleman assumed to himself the privilege of resigning his commission when in a huff and of reclaiming his rank at will; the Perquimans offender simply neglected or abandoned his men on occasion in order to devote himself to personal pleasure. When General Thomas Benbury of Edenton recommended that these officers be brought to task, Gregory was just as firm with them as he was with the wretched deserters who were now and then flushed from their hiding places in the Camden swamps.


He may not have possessed the flair for dramatic leadership in combat as might be displayed by Colonel Gideon Lamb or Colonel Selby Harney, two of his neighbors who were with the continental forces, and he may have lacked the diplomacy and forceful persuasiveness of the legislator, Joseph Jones. Nevertheless, whereas Jones might be inclined to sulk if events did not proceed according to his liking, and Harney and Lamb might become despondent under adverse circumstances, Gregory habitually maintained his poise and continued to go plodding along. To his mind the war was a job to be finished and no one should let anything divert him from the work at hand. Contemplating the dilatory tactics of some of his associates on one occasion, he wrote to Governor Caswell: “I don't understand the officers here. Can't seem to get them to do their duty.” In fact, according to one of his later reports, he “had more trouble with the officers drafted than with the men.”


Opinions vary as to the effectiveness of his military leadership. In 1779 he and John Pugh Williams were nominated for the position of brigadier general in the state militia. Williams was elected, thanked the Legislature and resigned. The commission was then issued to Gregory. He and Brigadier General Griffith Rutherford commanded the two brigades of militia under Major General Horatio Gates when the American forces were decisively routed at the Battle of Camden in South Carolina. Saunders states: “The continentals and some of the militia, notably Gregory's brigade, fought with desperation.” In other quarters his efforts have been regarded less favorably. The general conduct of the militia in this battle, it seems, was not praiseworthy, a statement which unfortunately is too often applicable to the efforts of the militia throughout the war. In all fairness, however, it should be pointed out that the dismal showing made by some of the troops did not result from emulation of the spirit displayed by the brigade commanders. The resolute General Rutherford was captured as he vainly tried to rally his men; General Gregory received a bayonet wound and his horse was shot from under him. In his report of the engagement to Lord Germain, Cornwallis listed Gregory as killed. Nor did the Legislature then in session appear to be reluctant in expressing their appreciation of Gregory's services. This body, twenty-six days after the battle, adopted the following resolution: “That General Gregory be furnished at the Expence of the State, for immediate service, with a gelding of the first Price, in consideration of the one by him lost in the late action near Camden.”


Whatever may be said as to the effectiveness of his efforts, the records show him to have been in the conflict from the beginning to the end. He was a delegate to the Provincial Congresses held at New Bern in April of 1775 and at Hillsborough in the following August, when he was appointed colonel of the 2nd Regiment of the Pasquotank Militia and was also placed on a committee “to inquire what number of troops may probably be raised in the different counties of this State and report to the House.” A special assignment, with Othniel Lacelles, was “to receive, procure and purchase fire arms for use of the troops” (of Pasquotank). And in 1781 we find him attempting the always uphill job of raising troops to defend Edenton should Lord Cornwallis take the coastal route on his northward march from Wilmington, or he is with a small contingent at Northwest and at Great Bridge to prevent invasion from that direction.


To Gregory befell the unusual experiences of defending a Tory at the beginning of the Revolution and of facing charges as a traitor at the close, and the former could have had a bearing on the latter. When the Provincial Congress met in New Bern in 1775, all the delegates voted in effect to subscribe unequivocally to the actions of the Continental Congress except Thomas McKnight, who demurred at the strong terms of the endorsement. After some deliberation the delegates by a majority of two voted to permit him to use the word “accede.” Emotions were already aflame, however, and the minority threatened to withdraw if McKnight were permitted this concession. Whereupon McKnight withdrew, and the Congress then reversed itself and passed a motion of “civil excommunication” toward him. McKnight, who was a delegate from Currituck, was also clerk of the Pasquotank court. As a protest against the motion of censure, three members from Currituck and two from Pasquotank, of whom one was Gregory, also removed themselves from the assembly. They prepared a written defense of their conduct which was published in the Virginia Gazette May 6, 1775.


The other incident occurred in 1781 at Great Bridge where Gregory and his men were facing British forces under the command of a Captain Stevenson. One day while idling in his tent, the captain fell to daydreaming as to how he might proceed should Gregory betray his command after the manner of Benedict Arnold. To pass the time he accordingly wrote a letter to the General with instructions as to procedure. Shortly thereafter the British withdrew and the letter, discovered by the advancing Americans, understandably created a sensation. The General was charged with treason. Fortunately, in some way news of the accusation came to Captain Stevenson who promptly dispatched an explanation to the Americans, stating that the letter was entirely a figment of his imagination and declaring Gregory to be in no way involved. Gregory was exonerated, of course; and being the phlegmatic person that he was, his reaction may be best described as one of genuine puzzlement that anyone could believe him to be guilty of treasonable conduct after the years he had devoted so completely to the struggle for freedom. His defense of the Tory McKnight in 1775 may have been recalled with malicious intent by certain persons. An interesting aftermath of this incident, although unrelated, was letters to the Congress from both General Muhlenberg and the Marquis de la Fayette stating that while at Great Bridge Gregory was acting under Continental orders.


In this same year (1781) he was elected to the House of Commons from Camden and was reelected successively to the Senate for the next eight years. During this entire period he was a member of the Committee on Privileges and Elections and also on the Committee of Claims for the distract of Edenton. He was an active member of the committee which reported frauds on the part of certain officers in settling army accounts. Equally sensational were the findings in 1786 of a special committee which, under Gregory, charged Phillip Alston with being a murderer and an atheist, and thereby caused him to be declared ineligible for membership in the senate. By act of the Legislature the General was one of those authorized to receive subscriptions “for opening a navigable passage from Albemarle Sound into the ocean.” In 1789 he introduced the bill which authorized the establishment of the Currituck Seminary of Learning, and which also named him as a trustee. An aristocrat, his voting record sharply reflected the sentiments of the aristocratic East. He and that ultra-conservative, Samuel Johnston, usually voted alike on measures of public import.


Fairfield Plantation, the residence of General Gregory, is today a gaunt and empty shell. The house has been abandoned for years and has been stripped of the beautiful paneling and mantels by vandals. But in Gregory's time it was the county's most impressive abode and indeed one of the great plantations of the Albemarle. The General was a cordial host whose home was often the scene of distinguished gatherings. Some of the grants to individuals in this area bear the notation “Done at Fairfield,” and were issued while a visiting governor was a guest.


Whether the structure was erected by William Gregory, the General's father, or by some other wealthy planter as, for example, Colonel Thomas Hunter, is a matter of surmise. The building itself, however, is one of the purest examples of Georgian architecture in North Carolina, and by many it is hoped some means of restoration will become available before deterioration is complete.









  DURING the War of the Revolution, the Albemarle Region, though threatened with invasion time and again by the British, seldom heard the tread of the enemy's army, or felt the shock of battle. For this immunity from the destruction of life and property, such as the citizens whose homes lay in the path of Cornwallis and Tarleton suffered, this section of North Carolina is largely indebted to General Isaac Gregory, one of the bravest officers who ever drew sword in defense of his native home and country.

Both Pasquotank and Camden claim this gallant officer for their son, and both have a right to that claim ; for the two counties were one until 1777. In that year a petition was presented to the General Assembly by Joseph Jones, of Pasquotank, from citizens living in what is now Camden County, that the portion of Pasquotank lying on the northeast bank of the river should be formed into a separate county, and have a courthouse of its own, in order to do away with the inconvenience the people of that section suffered in having to cross the river to attend court, military drills and other public gatherings. The General Assembly passed an act providing for the erection of a new county, and this county was named for Charles Pratt, Earl of Camden, a member of Parliament and Chancellor, who in the stormy days of 1765 worked for the repeal of the hated Stamp Act, and justice to the Colonies. Before the long and bloody days of the Revolution proved his worth as a soldier, Isaac Gregory had won a prominent place in the public affairs of his county. His name first occurs in the Colonial Records in 1773, when he was elected sheriff of Pasquotank. In the same year he was appointed one of the trustees of St. Martin's Chapel in Indian Town, Currituck County, a settlement whose citizens were many of them to become honored in the civil and military history of our State.


Ever since the passing of the Stamp Act in 1765, low mutterings of the storm that was soon to sweep over the country some ten years later had disturbed the peace of the Thirteen Colonies; and events in North Carolina showed that this colony was standing shoulder to shoulder with her American sisters in their endeavor to obtain justice from England.


In 1774, John Harvey's trumpet call to the peo ple of North Carolina to circumvent Governor Martin's attempt to deprive them of representation in the Continental Congress at Philadelphia, had resulted in the convention at New Bern, the first meeting in America at which the representatives of a colony as a whole had ever gathered in direct defiance of orders from a Royal Governor.


The next year, in April, Harvey again called a convention of the people to meet in New Bern. Again Governor Martin was defied; again, the North Carolinians, taking matters into their own hands, elected delegates to Philadelphia, and before adjourning, added Carolina's name to the association of Colonies.


Pasquotank was represented in this convention by Edward Jones, Joseph Redding, Edward Everigen, John Hearing, and Isaac Gregory. The last named, being by now an acknowledged leader in his county, was appointed by this body a member of the Committee of Safety in the Edenton District.


The path toward separation from the mother country was now being rapidly trod by the American colonies, though few, as yet, realized whither their steps were tending. In the vanguard of this march toward liberty and independence, North Carolina kept a conspicuous place. The Edenton Tea Party in October, 1774, had proved the mettle of her women. The farmers of Mecklenburg had struck the first chord in the song of independence, hardly a note of which had been sounded by the other colonies. Governor Martin had fled from New Bern, and in August, 1775, the Hillsboro Convention had organized a temporary form of government, and had placed at the head of public affairs Cornelius Harnett, who, as President of the Provincial Council, had more power in the State than is generally delegated to a governor.


In December, 1775, Lord Dunmore's attempted invasion of the State had been thwarted, largely by the aid of the Minute Men from Albemarle. Then came the famous Snow Campaign, in which the militia of the western counties joined the patriots of South Carolina in defeating the Tories of that State. And in February, 1776, the important victory at Moore's Creek Bridge had completely for a time broken the power of the Loyalists in North Carolina. There was no longer any hope of obtaining justice from England, nor, after such open and steady rebellion against the king's officers, civil and military, could there be any hope of conciliation with the mother country, save on terms too humiliating to even contemplate.


North Carolina, recognizing these facts, called another convention to meet at Halifax in April, 1776, and there sounded her defiance as a State to King and Parliament, and boldly authorized her delegates to the next Continental Congress at Philadelphia to vote for independence.


The convention then proceeded to make further preparations for the war which all now felt was inevitable. Pasquotank, in response to the call immediately issued for more troops, raised two regiments of militia. Isaac Gregory, who had been appointed Lieutenant-Colonel of the Pasquotank Militia by the Convention of 1775, was promoted and made Colonel of the Second Regiment of Pasquotank Militia, the other officers being Dempsey Burgess, Lieutenant - Colonel, Joshua Campbell, Major, and Peter Dauge, Second Major.


Independence having been declared by the Continental Congress of 1776, the thirteen Colonies, now independent States, proceeded to organize a permanent government within their several borders.


In North Carolina a State convention was called to meet at Halifax in November, 1776, to frame a constitution for the government of that State. To this convention Isaac Gregory, Henry Abbott, Devotion Davis, Dempsey Burgess and Lemuel Burgess were elected to represent Pasquotank, and Abbott was appointed on the committee to frame the constitution. By the 18th of December the work was completed and the constitution adopted, which, with amendments, is still the organic law of the State.


After Clinton's unsuccessful attempt to invade North Carolina in May, 1776, no further effort to place the State under British control was made until 1780. But during the intervening years the Carolina troops had not been idle. Their valor had been proved at Brandywine, Germantown and Stony Point, and during the winter at Valley Forge 1,450 of her soldiers shared with their comrades from the other States the hunger, cold and suffering that was the portion of Washington's army throughout those dreary months. The North Carolina troops had aided in the brave but unsuccessful attempt to drive the British from Savannah, and 5,000 of her soldiers had been sent to prevent the capture of Charleston ; but the patriot forces had been unable to repulse the invaders. Savannah fell, then Charleston, and by the last of May, 1780, both Georgia and South Carolina were in the hands of the enemy, and Cornwallis was threatening North Carolina.


So great was the blow to the American cause from the loss of these Southern States, and so great the danger confronting North Carolina, that Congress ordered DeKalb, of the Continental line with the regulars from Maryland and Delaware to march to the rescue of the patriots in the South.


General Gates, the reputed victor at Saratoga, was also ordered South, and put in command of the Southern forces.


For awhile the enemy remained quiet, Cornwallis- delaying the devastation of South Carolina until the maturing crops should be safe. This respite gave the Carolinians time to collect their forces on the South Carolina border, in order to drive back the enemy.


Isaac Gregory, who in May, 1779, had been pro- moted to the office of Brigadier-General of the Edenton District, on the resignation of John Pugh Williams, was ordered to join General Caswell in South Carolina. As soon as he could collect his men, Gregory marched towards the Piedmont sec- tion, on his way to Caswell's army ; and by June he was with Rutherford's Brigade at Yadkin's Ford in Rowan. Near this place the Tories had collected, some 800 strong; and Rutherford hoped, with Gregory's aid,-to crush them. But to his dis- appointment, no opportunity was given, for Gen- eral Bryan, the Tory leader, hearing of the defeat of the Loyalists at Ramseur's Mill a few days be- fore, crossed the Yadkin and united with General MacArthur, whom Cornwallis had sent to Anson County.


By July 31 Gregory's men, with Rutherford and his brigade, were with General Caswell at The Cheraws, just across the South Carolina border. For several weeks there was much suffering among the men on account of the lack of food, for though corn was plentiful, the rivers were so high that the mills could not grind the meal.


Lord Rawdon's army was stationed near Camden, South Carolina, and Gates, who had joined Caswell on August 17, having learned that the British general was daily expecting a supply of food and stores for his men, determined to intercept the convoy and capture the supplies for his own army. In the meantime Cornwallis, unknown to Gates, had joined Lord Rawdon. Gates, ignorant of this reinforcement of Cornwallis' troops, marched leisurely towards Camden to capture the coveted stores.

The result of the battle that followed is known only too well. The American militia, panic-stricken at the furious onslaught of the. enemy, threw down their arms and fled. General Gates, after a vain attempt to rally his troops, lost courage, and abandoning his forces and his stores, brought everlasting disgrace upon his name by fleeing in hot haste from the field.


But the cowardly conduct of Gates and several of the other officers of the American army, as well as many of the militia, in this disastrous battle, was offset by the heroism and courage of others; and among those who won undying fame on that fatal field, none is more worthy of praise than General Gregory.


Roger Lamb, a British officer, writing an account of the battle, and speaking of the disgraceful conduct of those officers and men whose flight from the field brought shame upon the American army, gives this account of Isaac Gregory's heroic struggle to withstand the enemy at this bloody field: "In justice to North Carolina, it should be remarked that General Gregory's brigade acquitted themselves well. They formed on the left of the Continentals, and kept the field while they had a cartridge left. Gregory himself was twice wounded by bayonets in bringing off his men, and many in his brigade had only bayonet wounds."


As to fight hand to hand with bayonets requires far more courage than to stand at a distance and fire a musket, this account of Gregory and his troops proves the bravery with which they fought during those terrible hours. General Gregory's horse was shot from under him while the battle was raging; and seeing him fall, so sure was the enemy of his death that Cornwallis in his official report of the battle, gave in his name in the list of the American officers killed on the field.


Two days after the battle of, Camden, the patriots, Shelby, Clarke and Williams, defeated a band of Tories at Musgrove's Mill in South Carolina ; but hearing of the disaster at Camden, these officers now withdrew from the State. Sumter's corps, near Rocky Mount, had been put to flight by Tarleton, Gates had fled the State, and only Davie's men were left between the army of Cornwallis and Charlotte, North Carolina.


Had the British General pressed on into the State, North Carolina must have inevitably fallen into the hands of the enemy. But Cornwallis delayed the invasion for nearly a month, thus giving the Carolinians time to collect their forces to repel his attempt.


The General Assembly which met in September, 1780, acting upon Governor Nash's advice, created a Board of War to assist him in conducting the military affairs of the State. This board now proceeded to put General Smallwood, of Maryland, in command of all the forces in the State, giving him authority over all the officers in the Southern army, the honor being conferred upon him on account of his gallant conduct at Camden. General Gregory was consequently ordered to hold himself in readiness to obey General Smallwood's orders, with the other officers in North Carolina.


The Board of War then proceeded to raise money, arms and men for the army that would soon be called upon to drive Cornwallis from the State. Gregory's brigade received $25,000 of the funds raised, and 150 flints and 15 guns were distributed among his soldiers.


The British now confidently expected that Cornwallis would quickly subdue North Carolina, then sweep over the State into Virginia. In order to prevent the Americans from hurrying into that State to join forces against Cornwallis, General Leslie was ordered from New York to the Chesapeake, and in October his army was stationed near South Quays in Virginia, not far from Norfolk.


The presence of Leslie's army so close to the Carolina border caused much alarm for the safety of the Albemarle section, which for the second time was in danger of invasion. General Gregory, who after the battle of Camden had joined Exum and Jarvis in front of Cornwallis, had recently returned to Albemarle. He was now ordered to take the field against Leslie, and to prevent him from entering the State. From his camp at Great Swamp, near North River, he wrote to Governor Nash in November, 1780, reporting the repulse of the enemy. He also warned the Governor that the British were planning to attack Edenton ; and he set forth in his letter the blow that the capture of this town would be to the commerce of the State.


General Gregory's post at Great Swamp was no sinecure. He had only about 100 men to withstand Leslie, whose forces at Portsmouth amounted to nearly 1,000 men. His troops were poorly equipped, half naked, and ill-fed ; and his situation seemed almost desperate. To add to his troubles, an attempt was made at this time by Colonel Blount, of the Edenton District, to deprive him of his command. But a Council of State, held at Camp Norfleet Mills to inquire into the matter, declared that as Colonel Blount had resigned of his own free will and accord—in favor of Gregory — he should not now take the command from him.


In spite of the troubles and perplexities that beset Gregory in the fall of 1780, he bravely held his ground; and by the end of November he wrote Governor Nash from his camp at North West that the British had abandoned Portsmouth, and had departed for parts unknown.


While these events were taking place in the East, Cornwallis, whose left wing under Ferguson had suffered a crushing defeat at King's Mountain, disappointed at the humbling of the Tories at that battle, had left North Carolina on October 12th, and returned to South Carolina. The heavy rains encountered by his army on his retreat caused much sickness among his men ; and himself falling ill, he was obliged to give up his command temporarily to Lord Rawdon.


General Leslie's destination soon became known. On November 23 he had abandoned the vicinity of Norfolk, and had sailed to Wilmington, N. C., hoping to rouse the Tories in that section ; but Lord Rawdon's army being now in great danger, Leslie was ordered to his assistance, and he accordingly set out for the British army near Camden. But Southern Virginia and the Albemarle region were not long to be free from the fear of invasion, for soon another British army under the command of the traitor, Benedict Arnold, sailed into Chesapeake Bay, and Gregory was again sent to keep the enemy in check.


During this campaign a serious charge was brought against Gregory, which, though soon proved to be wholly unfounded, caused the gallant officer life-long mortification and distress. The circumstances of this unfortunate occurrence were as follows :


Captain Stevens, a British officer in Arnold's corps, while sitting idly by his fire one night, "just for a joke," as he afterwards explained, wrote two notes to General Gregory, which he intended to destroy, as they were simply the product of his own imagination, and were never intended to go out of his hands.


In some unknown way these papers came into the hands of an American officer, who, deeming from their contents that Gregory was a traitor, carried them to headquarters. Their purport being made public, even Gregory's most loyal friends began to look upon him with suspicion and distrust.


The first of these two notes was as follows :


"General Gregory :


"Your well-formed plans of delivering into the hands of the British these people now in your command, gives me much pleasure. Your next, I hope, will mention place of ambuscade, and manner you wish to fall into my hands."


The second note was equally incriminating :


"General Gregory :


"A Mr. Ventriss was last night made prisoner by three or four of your people, -I only wish to inform you that Ventriss could not help doing what he did in helping to destroy the logs. I my self delivered him the order from Colonel Simcox."


Great was the excitement and consternation in Gregory's brigade, and indeed throughout the American army when these notes were read. Arnold's treason early in 1780 was still fresh in the minds of all ; and it was natural that the accusation now brought against General Gregory should find ready and widespread credence. Gregory was arrested and court-martialed by his own men but his innocence was soon established, for as soon as Colonel Stevens heard of the disgrace he had unintentionally brought upon an innocent man, he hastened to make amends for his thoughtless act by a full explanation of his part in the affair. Colonel Parker, a British officer and a friend of Stevens, had been informed of the writing of the notes, and he now joined Stevens in furnishing testimony at the trial that fully exonerated the brave general from the hateful charge. But though friends and brother officers now crowded around him with sincere and cordial congratulations upon the happy termination of the affair, and with heartfelt expressions of regret at the unfortunate occurrence, the brave and gallant officer, crushed and almost heart-broken at the readiness with which his men and many of his fellow officers had accepted what seemed proofs of his guilt, never recovered from the hurt caused by the cruel charge. For though he nobly put aside his just resentment, and remained at his post of duty, guarding the Albemarle counties from danger of invasion until the withdrawal of the British troops from southeastern Virginia removed the danger, his life was ever afterwards shadowed by the mortification he had been called upon to undergo.


In February, 1781, the enemy's army in Virginia became such a source of terror to the people of that section that General Allen Jones was ordered to reinforce Gregory with troops from the Halifax District. But later that same month a greater danger confronted the patriot army in the South, and this order was countermanded. Most of the forces in the States were now hurried to the aid of General Greene, who had superseded Gates after the battle of Camden, and was leading Cornwallis an eventful chase across the Piedmont section of North Carolina. Cornwallis, after having been reinforced by General Leslie, had planned to invade North Carolina, conquer that State, march through Virginia and join Clinton in a fierce onslaught against Washington's army in the North. To foil the plans of the British officers Greene was concentrating the patriot troops in the South in the Catawba Valley, and Gregory was left with only a handful of men to hold the enemy at Norfolk in check.


In June, General Gregory's situation was so desperate that the Assembly again ordered General Allan Jones to send 400 men from Halifax District to North West Bridge to reinforce Gregory; and the latter officer was authorized to draft as many men as possible from the Edenton District. General Jones informed the Assembly that he would send the troops as soon as possible, but that Gregory would have to provide arms, as he had no means of furnishing equipments for them.


Several engagements took place in June between the British and Americans in the Dismal Swamp region, and in one of them Gregory was repulsed and driven from his position. But in July he wrote to Colonel Blount reporting that his losses were trifling, and that he had regained his old post from the enemy. In August, 1781, a letter from General Gregory conveyed the joyful tidings that the enemy had evacuated Portsmouth. As his troops were no longer needed to guard against the danger of invasion from that direction, and as smallpox had broken out in his camp, General Gregory now released his men from duty, and they returned to their homes.


The British army that had just left Portsmouth, was now on its way to Yorktown, whither Cornwallis, after his fruitless chase of Greene, his disastrous victory at Guilford Courthouse, and his retreat to Wilmington, was now directing his army. There on the 19th of October the famous Battle of Yorktown was fought and Cornwallis and his entire army forced to surrender.


This battle virtually ended the war; but peace did not come to Carolina immediately upon the surrender. The Tories in the State kept up a constant warfare upon their Whig neighbors, and in March, 1782, General Greene, who not long after the battle of Guilford Courthouse had won a decisive victory at Eutaw Springs, and was still in South Carolina, sent the alarming intelligence to the towns on the coast that the British had sent four vessels from Charleston harbor to plunder and burn New Bern and Edenton. To meet this unexpected emergency, General Rutherford was ordered to quell the Tories in the Cape Fear section, who were terrorizing the people in that region. And in April, 1782, General Gregory received orders from General Burke to take 500 men to Edenton for the defense of that town, and to notify Count de Rochambeau as soon as the enemy should appear in Albemarle Sound. In August no sign of the British ships had as yet been seen, though the coast towns were still in daily dread of their arrival. Governor Martin, who had succeeded Burke, wrote Gregory to purchase whatever number of vessels the Edenton merchants considered necessary for the protection of the town, to buy cannon and to draft men to man the boats.


But Edenton was spared the horror of a second raid such as she had suffered in 1781. In December, 1782, the British army in South Carolina,which since the battle of Eutaw Springs had been hemmed in at Charleston by General Greene, finally embarked for England. The ships that had been keeping the towns near the coast in North Carolina in terror, departed with them, and the States that had for so many long and bitter years been engaged in the terrific struggle with England, were left to enjoy the fruits of their splendid victory without further molestation from the enemy.


In September, 1783, the Treaty of Peace was signed by Great Britain, and the United States, separately and individually, were declared to be "free, sovereign and independent States."


General Gregory's services to his State did not end with the war. Eight times from 1778 to 1789, we find him representing Camden County in the State Senate, serving on important committees, and lending the weight of his influence to every movement tending toward the prosperity and welfare of the State. In the local affairs of his neighborhood he also took a prominent part. In 1789 the Currituck Seminary was established at Indian Town, and Isaac Gregory and his friend and brother officer, Colonel Peter Dauge, were appointed on the board of trustees of this school, which for many years was one of the leading educational institutions of the Albemarle section.


General Gregory lived at the Ferebee place in Camden County in a large brick house, known then, as now, as Fairfax Hall. The old building is still standing, a well known landmark in the county.


A letter from James Iredell to his wife, written while this famous North Carolina judge was a guest at Fairfax, gives a pleasant account of an evening spent in General Gregory's home with Parson Pettigrew and Gideon Lamb, and also of the kindness and hospitality of the Camden people.


In volume 2 of the Iredell letters this description of General Gregory's personal appearance is given :


"A lady, who remembers General Gregory well, says that he was a large, fine looking man. He was exceedingly polite, had a very grand air, and in dress was something of a fop." In the same volume the following interesting account of an incident in the life of the famous General is found : "General Gregory lived in his latter years so secluded a life and knew so little of events beyond his own family circle, that he addressed to a lady, the widow of Governor Stone, a letter making a formal proposal of marriage, full six months after her death."


General Isaac Gregory was the son of General William Gregory, an officer who took a prominent part in the French and Indian Wars. He married Miss Elizabeth Whedbee, and had two children, Sarah and Matilda. Sarah married Dempsey Burgess, of Camden, and Matilda married a young German, John Christopher Ehringhaus. Many of the descendants of this brave Revolutionary officer are living in the Albemarle region to-day, and claim with pride this ancestor, who, as Captain Ashe in his History of North Carolina says, "was one of the few who won honor at Camden, and whose good fame was never tarnished by a single unworthy action."


The Sir Walter Raleigh Chapter of the Daughters of the Revolution have within the past year obtained from the United States government a simple stone which they have had placed to mark the grave of this gallant officer, who lies buried in the family graveyard at Fairfax.



Historic marker for Camden County hero is restored



By Jeff Hampton

The Virginian-Pilot

© August 14, 2011



Across the road from a cornfield stands a small monument to Gen. Isaac Gregory. Inscribed are the dates of his birth and death: 1737 and 1800.


It says nothing, though, about his bayonet charge into the British troops of Lord Charles Cornwallis, that he was nearly killed or later falsely accused of treason based on an enemy prank.


But Gregory's descendents and others who will gather around the marker Saturday will know of Gregory's heroics. They will honor the general who 231 years ago led his inexperienced North Carolina militia into brutal hand-to-hand combat with some of the best-trained troops in the world.


Gregory was born in Pasquotank County, where he served as a sheriff, a militia colonel and a representative in the last General Assembly to meet under a royal governor.


In 1777, Pasquotank County was divided at the river forming the new county of Camden and included Gregory's home and property. He was appointed to a committee that established the courthouse in the new county. After the war, he represented Camden in the state's House of Commons and in its Senate.


"He was the most notable person to have ever lived in Camden County," said local historian Alex Leary.


On Aug. 16, 1780, a 43-year-old Gregory led a North Carolina militia at the Battle of Camden, S.C., under the overall command of Gen. Horatio Gates, the hero of Saratoga, according to several accounts, including the Encyclopedia of the American Revolution and the North Carolina Office of Archives and History.


Commanded by Lord Charles Cornwallis, the British forces charged the Americans, causing many of the militia units to flee. Gates fled with them and was later blamed for the resounding defeat where about 900 Americans were killed or wounded and 1,000 captured.


Despite the loss, there were acts of bravery by the Americans, in particular those of Gregory.


At the battle's worst, Gregory's men joined a charge with Continental regiments from Maryland and Delaware into the oncoming British. Gregory's horse was killed, pinning him to the ground. British soldiers bayoneted him twice as he lay there. He was captured, but British doctors released him when they thought he was dying. Cornwallis even recorded him as among the American dead.


Gregory recovered to lead a militia to protect northeastern North Carolina from a possible invasion of the British from Suffolk, according to the Dictionary of North Carolina Biography.


The British did make forays into the region. On one occasion, a British officer left behind a note as a prank saying Gregory was a traitor and may betray American troops. American forces found the note and Gregory was charged with treason.


The British officer heard about the charges and sent a letter explaining his prank. The case never went to court, but Gregory was hurt by the lack of trust in him.


"He never forgot that," Leary said.


After the war, Gregory ran a plantation called Fairfield where he built a 3-story brick mansion and had a family of six children. He died at the home and was buried there in 1800 at the age of 63. There is no sign of his grave.


The brick home was occupied until about the 1950s and stood for 30 more years until its remnants were torn down into a pile of bricks, said Bess Tillitt Godfrey Sawyer, a descendant of Gregory and owner of much of what was Gregory's plantation. Most of the brick rubble is gone now, too. The only sign is a patch of trees in the middle of a corn field.


The marker also has a story.


The Daughters of the American Revolution set the white 3-foot tall marker some 100 years ago in front of the Gregory home. It was knocked down in the 1970s and lay there until it disappeared for a while before being recovered.


For more than 30 years it stood in a corner of Sawyer's garage. Earlier this year, the Sons of the American Revolution had the marker cleaned and a new metal plaque mounted on it with the years of Gregory's birth and death and a note about the Camden battle on it. The marker was reset in a mowed area across from the cornfield where it once sat.


Camden's most notable citizen is remembered again.


Jeff Hampton, (252) 338-0159,













Children of Isaac Gregory and Sarah Lamb are:

        94               i.    Sarah7 Gregory, died Unknown.  She married Dempsey Burgess; died Unknown.

        95              ii.    Matilda S. Gregory, died Unknown.  She married John Christopher Ehringhaus 01 Mar 1813 in Elizabeth City, Pasquotank Co., NC; born 18 Sep 1783 in Hagen, Germany; died Aug 1865 in Elizabeth City, Pasquotank Co., NC.


Notes for John Christopher Ehringhaus:



Johann Christoph Ehringhaus: Johann Christoph Ehringhaus was born to Johann

Christoph and Johanna in Hagen, Germany on September 18, 1783. Family legend has

it that he served as a staff officer under Prussian Field Marshal Blucher. If he

did it must have been in early Napoleonic battles, because he left Germany and

immigrated into the United States in about 1805, settling in Elizabeth City,

North Carolina.


Johann Christoph established himself quickly in his new home. He married Matilda

S. Gregory, daughter of General Isaac Gregory, on March 1, 1813 (see the end of

this section for her story and genealogy). He was Recorder of Deeds for

Pasquotank County in 1818-1819. He was elected to the North Carolina House of

Commons in 1819 and 1820. He was a Freemason and was elected Junior Grand Warden

of the North Carolina Lodge in 1820. He was a partner of Wilson Sawyer in a

store in 1820. In 1835 he opened the first bank in Elizabeth City, a branch of

the Bank of North Carolina, with himself as sole employee. In 1842 he organized

a company of militia infantry known as the “Albemarle Blues”.


Johann Christoph and Matilda had three known children. The 1820 census for

Pasquotank County shows two boys and one girl in the family, all under the age

of 10. Johann Christoph died in Elizabeth City in August, 1865. He was buried on

August 20, 1865 in the family plot in the Old Episcopal Cemetery in Elizabeth



More About John Christopher Ehringhaus:

Burial: 20 Aug 1865, Old Episcopal Cemetery, Elizabeth City, Pasquotank Co., NC


        96             iii.    William Gregory, died Unknown.

        97             iv.    Isaac Gregory, Jr., died Unknown.

+      98              v.    Penelope Gregory, died Unknown.

        99             vi.    Harriett Gregory, died Unknown.

+      100          vii.    Mary Gregory, born 27 Sep 1772 in Camden Co., NC; died 08 Oct 1854.



        78.  Thomas6 Torksey? (Phillip5, Philip4, Mary3 Scarborough, ?2 Moore, John1) was born in Pasquotank Co. or Camden Co., NC, and died Abt. 1758 in present-day Camden Co., NC.  He married ?Ann ?.  She died Unknown.


More About Thomas Torksey?:

Probate: Jul 1765, Pasquotank Co., NC41

Will: 28 Apr 1758, Pasquotank Co., NC41


Children of Thomas Torksey? and ?Ann ? are:

        101             i.    Phillip7 Torksey?, born in present-day Camden Co., NC?; died Unknown in present-day Camden Co., NC?.

+      102            ii.    Thomas Torksey, Jr.?, died Unknown.

        103           iii.    Sarah Torksey?, died Unknown.

        104           iv.    Tamer Torksey?, died Unknown.

        105            v.    Susanna Torksey?, died Unknown.

        106           vi.    Jesse Torksey?, died Unknown.

        107          vii.    John Torksey?, died Unknown.



        79.  William6 Scarborough, Jr. (William5, Macrora4, William3, ?2 Moore, John1)42 was born Abt. 1776 in Charleston, SC, and died 1838 in Savannah, Chatham Co., GA?.  He married Julia Bernard 18 Apr 1805 in Wilmington, New Hanover Co., NC.  She died Unknown.


Notes for William Scarborough, Jr.:



Ships of the Sea Maritime Museum, founded in 1966, exhibits ship models, paintings and maritime antiques, principally from the great era of Atlantic trade and travel between England and America during the 18th and 19th centuries.


The Museum's Collection is housed in the elegant home built for William Scarbrough, one of the principal owners of the Steamship Savannah and president of the Savannah Steamship Company.


The Scarbrough House is the elegant setting for the Museum's collection of ship models, paintings and maritime antiques. It was built in 1819 for one of the principal owners of the Savannah, the first steamship to cross the Atlantic Ocean. Scarbrough's architect, William Jay from England, created one of the earliest examples of the Greek Revival in the South. Used as a public school from the 1870's, the mansion was abandoned for twenty years and then restored by Historic Savannah Foundation in the 1970's. After another period of vacancy, Ships of the Sea Maritime Museum restored the house again in 1996-97, building a new roof based on a documented William Jay design, adding a new rear portico and enlarging the garden.


William Scarbrough was a shipping merchant, born in North Carolina and educated at the University of Edinburgh, who came to Savannah in 1802, at the age of twenty-six. Soon prosperous and respected, he became a bank director, manager of elections, member of the Board of Health, vestryman of Christ Church, Vice Consul of Denmark and Sweden and Consul General of Russia. In 1818, at the zenith of his wealth and importance, he became a principal investor and president of the Savannah Steamship Company. He also began construction of a new house--which he later called "the Castle"--on West Broad Street. In the early 19th century this was one of Savannah's most fashionable neighborhoods.


Scarbrough's architect and builder was William Jay, only twenty-five years old when he came to Savannah from England in December, 1817. Born at Bath, Jay had apprenticed to David Riddall Roper, an architect and surveyor in London who participated in the rebuilding of Regent Street for George IV's favorite architect, John Nash. Jay brought to Savannah the opulent architecture of the great city during this high-living, luxury-loving period, with lavish Classical ornament, the new Greek Revival style and pioneering use of cast iron for structure as well as decoration. During a stay of about four years, Jay produced at least five houses, a school, theater, custom house, bank and a hotel. Scarbrough House is the earliest example of the domestic Greek Revival in the Deep South. Jay moved to Charleston about 1820 and returned to England in 1822. His time in America was brief, his influence limited and his later career anticlimax. Fifteen years later Jay died on the remote, storm-tossed island of Mauritius in the Indian Ocean, where he was working as a low-paid civil engineer.


Despite all the fanfare, the steamship Savannah was not a commercial success. In November, 1820, forty-four-year-old William Scarbrough, in the midst of an emotional and physical collapse, was declared an insolvent debtor by the court and his house and furnishings were sold. Later owners of the home included Godfrey Barnsley and the Dominick O'Byrne family. In 1878 it was purchased and given to the Board of Education which used it as the West Broad Street School until 1962. By the time it was abandoned by the Board of Education, the mansion was a mouldering ruin, battered by several generations of school children and painted neck-high with institutional green paint. In 1972 the Historic Savannah Foundation began restoring the house under the direction of Pennsylvania architect John Milner. In 1995, after another period of vacancy, the building was acquired by Ships of the Sea Maritime Museum and another restoration began. This restoration, completed in 1997, featured a new roof based on a documented design by the original architect as well as a new rear portico and an enlarged garden.



Museum Hours: Tuesday - Sunday, 10 - 5

41 M.L. King Boulevard, Savannah, Georgia 31401

maps / driving directions

(912) 232-1511 or email:

log in




Child of William Scarborough and Julia Bernard is:

+      108             i.    Julia Henrietta7 Scarborough, died Unknown.



Generation No. 7


        83.  Martha7 Dixon (James6, Martha5 Moore, Augustine4, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born 19 Aug 1752 in Charles Parish (present-day Poquoson area), York Co., VA43, and died Unknown.  She married Capt. Willis Wilson, son of James Wilson and Prudence Butt.  He died 1804 in York Co., VA44.


More About Capt. Willis Wilson:

Comment: The interesting Revolutionary War exploits in which he was involved are covered in David Stick's "The Outer Banks of North Carolina" (1958)45

Military: Revolutionary War-Virginia State Navy-Captain of the Virginia State sloop "Casewell" which had several exploits along the Outer Banks of North Carolina.45

Probate: 18 Apr 1804, York Co., VA46

Will: 27 Feb 1804, York Co., VA46


Children of Martha Dixon and Willis Wilson are:

        109             i.    Sarah8 Wilson, born 26 Mar 1780 in Charles Parish (present-day Poquoson area), York Co., VA47; died Unknown.

+      110            ii.    William Wilson, born 29 Jan 1782 in Charles Parish (present-day Poquoson area), York Co., VA; died Abt. 1829 in York Co., VA.



        88.  Diana7 Dixon (James6, Martha5 Moore, Augustine4, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born 1766 in Charles Parish (present-day Poquoson area), York Co., VA48, and died Unknown.  She married (1) Major Chambers.  He died Unknown.  She married (2) Rooksby Roberts.  He died Unknown.


More About Diana Dixon:

Baptism: 16 Mar 1766, Charles Parish (present-day Poquoson area), York Co., VA49


Children of Diana Dixon and Rooksby Roberts are:

+      111             i.    Sarah8 Roberts, died Unknown.

        112            ii.    Butts Roberts, died Unknown.  He married Nancy Robinson 29 May 1817 in Charles Parish, York Co., VA49; died Unknown.



        90.  Rosa7 Dixon (James6, Martha5 Moore, Augustine4, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born 01 Jul 1770 in Charles Parish, York Co., VA50, and died Unknown.  She married Thomas Phillips, son of William Phillips and Elizabeth Eggleston.  He was born 31 Jan 1770 in Charles Parish, York Co., VA51, and died Unknown.


More About Rosa Dixon:

Census: 05 Sep 1850, York Co. - age 80 - living with son Robinson


Children of Rosa Dixon and Thomas Phillips are:

+      113             i.    Robinson8 Phillips, born Abt. 1802 in York Co., VA; died 1866 in York Co., VA.

+      114            ii.    Mary A. Phillips, born 23 Oct 1806 in York Co., VA; died 06 Feb 1867.

+      115           iii.    Richard Eggleston Phillips, born 08 Apr 1809 in Charles Parish (present-day Poquoson area), York Co., VA; died 27 Jul 1884 in Charles Parish (present-day Poquoson area), York Co., VA.

+      116           iv.    Sarah Phillips, born 1815 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.



        91.  William Moore7 Dixon (James6, Martha5 Moore, Augustine4, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born 26 Sep 1772 in Charles Parish (present-day Poquoson area), York Co., VA52, and died Unknown.  He married Ann Parsons.  She died Unknown.


Children of William Dixon and Ann Parsons are:

+      117             i.    Capt. Anthony8 Dixon, born Abt. 1796 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.

+      118            ii.    Thomas Dixon, born Abt. 1801 in York Co., VA; died Abt. 1858.



        92.  William7 Moore (John6, Anne5 Moore?, Augustine4 Moore III, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born 31 Oct 1751 in York Co., VA53, and died Abt. 1797 in York Co., VA54.  He married Frances Baptist 20 Aug 1787 in York Co., VA (bond date)54, daughter of John Baptist and Sarah Patrick.  She was born 23 Mar 1768 in York Co., VA55, and died Unknown.


More About William Moore:

Baptism: 10 Dec 1751, Charles Parish, present-day Poquoson or York Co., VA56

Probate: 17 Jul 1797, York Co., VA

Will: 29 Oct 1796, York Co., VA56


Children of William Moore and Frances Baptist are:

        119             i.    Sally8 Moore, born Abt. 178756; died Unknown.

+      120            ii.    Merritt Moore, born 14 Nov 1788 in York Co., VA; died Abt. 1830.

+      121           iii.    William Edward Moore, born Abt. 1791; died 16 Nov 1841 in York Co., VA.

        122           iv.    Starkey Moore, born Abt. 1793; died Unknown.



        93.  Mark7 Cartwright (Jean/Jane6 Morgan, Joseph5, Elizabeth4 Torksey, Mary3 Scarborough, ?2 Moore, John1)57 was born Bet. 1770 - 1774 in Camden Co., NC, and died Abt. 1837 in Camden Co., NC.  He married Margaret Murden Bet. 1801 - 1805 in Camden Co., NC?, daughter of Isaac Murden.  She was born Abt. 1774 in Camden Co., NC, and died Bef. Nov 1826 in Camden Co., NC.


Child of Mark Cartwright and Margaret Murden is:

+      123             i.    Sarah8 Cartwright, born 15 Nov 1809 in Camden Co., NC; died 06 Feb 1870 in Camden Co., NC.



        98.  Penelope7 Gregory (Isaac6, Judith5 Morgan, Elizabeth4 Torksey, Mary3 Scarborough, ?2 Moore, John1) died Unknown.  She married Nathan Snowden.  He died Unknown.


Child of Penelope Gregory and Nathan Snowden is:

        124             i.    Mary8 Snowden, died Unknown.  She married Congressman Lemuel Sawyer, Jr. 11 Aug 1810 in Camden Co., NC; born Abt. 1777 in Camden Co., NC; died Abt. 1852 in Washington, DC.


Notes for Congressman Lemuel Sawyer, Jr.:

From "Three Hundred Years Along the Pasquotank: A Biographical History of Camden County, North Carolina" by Jesse Forbes Pugh, reprinted online in



A Unique Author and Congressman




ca 1777-1852


TWENTY-THREE-YEAR-OLD Lemuel Sawyer of Camden County was the youngest member of the House of Commons in 1800; but otherwise there was nothing unusual in the appearance of a member of his family in the legislature. Even though the journals for a dozen or more sessions of the assembly have been lost, those remaining prove Sawyers were elected for at least twenty-eight times during the previous one hundred years—all of them coming from Sawyers Creek on the northeast side of the river.


 Despite his lack of age this young man already had the advantage somewhat of a cosmopolitan education and experience. At the age of sixteen he had entered the school of the renowned Dr. Peter Wilson, Flatbush Academy on Long Island, which he attended for three years. Then for a year he went to Philadelphia to be with his brother-in-law, Congressman Dempsey Burgess, and was an irregular student at the University of Pennsylvania. For the next two years he unsuccessfully attempted farming on his lands in Camden. His chief interests were in politics and literature, however, and in 1799 he studied law at the University of North Carolina as a means of advancement toward a political future.


If election to office be accepted as a criterion, his career was a successful one. He soon won local fame as an attorney and orator, and because of his family connections experienced no difficulty in being elected to the House of Commons for two terms. His ardent support of Jefferson and Republicanism (Jefferson's party) quickly gained for him state-wide recognition as one of the up-and-coming young men in the political field. As a Republican elector he voted for Jefferson and Clinton in 1804; and in the same year the legislature elected him a member of the Council of State, following a partisan speech in which he declared the election of Jefferson in 1801 “was a greater subject for joy than the capture of Cornwallis.” The reputation he had thus gained, his personal popularity and family prestige, enabled him to defeat William Murfree for a seat in Congress in 1806, and he continued to win triumphant support at the polls for seven more terms with intervals as follows: 1807-1813, 1817-1823, 1825-1829.


In Congress Sawyer was a consistent supporter of Jefferson, Madison and Monroe. He belonged to the school of political thought whose leader was Nathaniel Macon and naturally at the beginning of his career he advocated rigid economy, supported the Embargo Act, and opposed a naval establishment. One effect of the embargo, however, was to reduce the lumber trade of North Carolina to a critical condition, and in 1808 our Congressman introduced a resolution to reopen trade with the West Indies. By 1810 Sawyer, who was known as one of the North Carolina “War Hawks,” was calling for a declaration of war with England and a “bold irruption into Canada.” After the war with England he proposed a sharp increase in the navy, but he opposed the federal policy of internal improvements as unconstitutional and inexpedient. During his last period in Congress he became a Jackson Democrat. A speech made in Congress in December, 1825, attracted wide notice because he proposed the use of a war vessel for the exploration of the polar regions of North America, declaring that “the time has come when this nation should likewise enter into this glorious career of discovery and human improvement.”


The perpetuation of Sawyer's memory will not be on account of his congressional record, which was, as a whole, undistinguished, but because of his authorship of a farce comedy published in 1824 under the title Blackbeard. He had early evinced an interest in reading and literature, a bent which became more pronounced in later years. “I was always a great reader,” he wrote. “Being of a delicate constitution, I seldom ventured out at night in search of amusement or pleasure, and was in a measure forced to supply their place with books, to occupy my mind agreeably on long winter evenings.” Not a copy of his first literary attempt, Journey to Lake Drummond, is extant; however, if the uncomplimentary comment by one who had seen it affords a reasonable criterion, the world has suffered no great loss thereby. Two other books were announced though never published. The significance of Blackbeard does not derive from its literary excellence; it would seem to be the first drama written by a native of the state and “the first with a North Carolina setting and with North Carolina characters.”


The scene is laid in Currituck for very personal reasons on the part of the author. In recent years Currituck had consistently delivered a majority vote against him—a fact not calculated to endear any locality to the heart of an aspirant for office. The time of the action in the play is 1823, and in the major plot Sawyer somewhat gleefully unfolds a scheme whereby two sharpers fleece four unsophisticated natives by promising them a large share of Blackbeard's treasure in return for a cash payment by the gullible victims. The tricksters disappear with the money, as would be expected, leaving the hapless Currituckians with a bag of sand—a plight merited by their cupidity, at least in the mind of the playwright. The minor plot concerns itself with the campaign of an honest candidate (no doubt personifying Sawyer) against an unscrupulous opponent who resorts to lies, trickery and plenty of grog. Our honest hero is helpless before such skullduggery and is defeated as a matter of course. Nevertheless, in a melodramatic climax, the wicked opponents repent their wrongdoings and promise to support for an uncontested seat in Congress the man they have unethically overcome. In the play Sawyer has depicted social and political conditions with almost brutal frankness, and as such it is a valuable contemporary document of life in Currituck in 1823. “Thus, in the first North Carolina play, literature and history are fused.”


Several terms in Congress and the authorship of a unique and significant literary effort insure for Sawyer a place of permanent distinction in the history of Camden, but unfortunately these accomplishments are but the segments of a half-told tale which, when narrated in full, becomes a sordid account, dimming the luster of what would be otherwise a bright page indeed in the archives of this small county. Despite his attractive personality and influential family connections, extravagance, questionable conduct and general shabbiness brought him surely, albeit gradually, to wretched poverty and neglect in his declining years, leaving us to wonder how he flourished as long as he did. As an explanation of his eccentric proclivities one biographer cites the year spent, when he was nineteen, with his brother-in-law in Philadelphia, where he “developed habits of extravagance and fondness for gay society which beset him throughout life.” Whether this analysis be accepted or whether he be considered rather as a sport from the heretofore rigidly upright Sawyer stock, the facts are nothing less than shocking.


By the time he entered Congress his inheritance, consisting of a few hundred acres of land and some half dozen slaves (he claimed there were a dozen), had almost been dissipated as a result of poor management and improvident spending. In Washington he depended upon the winnings of a gambler friend, whom he staked, for the means to maintain his habits of extravagance and easy-going principles. He shamelessly admits an affair “with a woman of bad fame” in his Autobiography. Notwithstanding his transgressions, in order to give credit where credit is due, one must assume that this unorthodox individual must have possessed some solid attributes. Simply a likeable personality would hardly explain his friendly acquaintance with leaders like Henry Clay and Vice-President George Clinton.


Sawyer's literary efforts also strikingly reflect the capricious disposition of the author, marked here and there with flashes of brilliance and skill. Despite its shrewd portrayals, Blackbeard is poorly constructed and uneven in treatment. The most prominent characteristic of another play, The Wreck of Honor, is the lewdness of some of the language and scenes, which would be considered indecent even according to the liberal standards of the present century. A literary curiosity is A Biography of John Randolph of Roanoke, with a Selection from His Speeches, a volume whose purpose seems to be to berate the subject and whose content was characterized by the Southern Literary Messenger as a “false, scandalous and malicious libel.” His most famous work is his Autobiography, a somewhat repelling mixture of shameless revelations of his misdeeds, whining complaints of his condition, and pointless quotations from speeches which lack interest. There is some question as to his authorship of a two-volume novel, Printz Hall. His last literary effort was a short article which discusses in a sprightly manner the growing of scuppernongs along the Albemarle and pleads for a scientific study of this grape looking toward the development of a wine industry in this region.


His marital relations afford still other unsavory aspects of his character. In 1810 he married Sarah Snowden, daughter of a substantial planter in Camden County. Their children all died in infancy. At the time of pregnancy and last illness of his wife he was in Norfolk carousing around and did not learn of her death until after the burial. Although he condemns his inexcusable conduct in his Autobiography and sorrowfully bewails his loss, the real cause for his grief, it is evident, was that the death of his wife and heir deprived him of any chance to a share in the Snowden property. At the age of forty-three he married sixteen-year-old Camilla Wertz of Washington, after a three-day courtship. Their children also died in infancy and after five years death came to Camilla, the object, if not the victim, of neglect. At the age of fifty he married a wealthy widow who was his senior in years, Mrs. Diana Rapalye Fisher of Brooklyn, and there followed a time when Sawyer was better off financially than he had ever been before. “I had my horses and servant,” he declared, “. . . in hunting by day and the amusement of cards or other social pleasures at night.” This fortune also was gradually dissipated by the profligate hand which was without restraint.


Although not much is known of his latter years in Brooklyn, in all likelihood they were increasingly wretched to one who in turn had become the pathetic object of neglect and victim of poverty. When he was seventy-three, he obtained a minor clerkship in Washington. The National Intelligencer of Washington carried the following brief notice on January 12, 1852: “Died in Washington, D. C. at residence of G. R. Adams on 11th St. near F, Hon. Lemuel Sawyer for nearly 20 years Congressman from N. C. Died of heart condition.” His remains were brought to Camden and placed in an unmarked grave in the family plot at Lamb's Ferry.


Somewhat to our embarrassment in Camden, the course of events in Lemuel Sawyer's life bears an unhappy parallel to the history of this county. Born in 1777, the year Camden was formed, in his youth he knew and was a part of a proud period when the county was a prosperous and vigorous community and its leaders were men whose influence was felt even beyond the confines of the state. After 1800 a gradual but presistent decline became evident in the economic life of the county, a condition, incidentally, which was felt throughout North Carolina, following the panic of 1819. But even after 1820 the prestige of the locality was still such as to attract young men of the caliber of Alfred Gatlin and William B. Shepard, both of whom were to become members of Congress. The processes of deterioration were at work, however, and not only did these men leave in search of places where prospects were more inviting, but for the same reason a gradual migration of many of the old families was set in motion. One by one the Canadys, Guilfords, Chamberlains and Harneys, for example—as well as some members of the Lamb, Burgess, Gregory and Sawyer clans—went elsewhere. Although a few stopped as nearby as Elizabeth City, the trek of the majority extended to Indiana, Tennessee, Alabama, Texas and elsewhere, as the local population continued to dwindle. While there were now and then exceptional performances by individuals, on the whole the tone of community life consistently subsided to lower levels.


As elsewhere in the South at the close of the War Between the States, the county was left prostrate. While in other locations men proceeded to build anew on dead foundations, this northest side remained in a quagmire of ignorance and poverty. The schools deteriorated until they were ineffective; the courthouse became a center of petty corruption. For a considerable period our local public offices, including that of county superintendent, were sold for a price. From a once prosperous political unit Camden had become a pauper.


It is therefore a matter for much gratification to be able to report that in recent years there has been healthy resurgence in civic life. Even Lemuel Sawyer may have become an augur of the return of better days. Commemorating the hundredth anniversary of his death, in 1952 the State Department of Archives and History sponsored a reprint of his most significant work, Blackbeard. As an introduction to this commemorative publication, Mr. Richard Walser of the English Department of State College has written a careful and scholarly account of the man and his achievements, factually recording his shortcomings but prophesying Sawyer's permanence in the literary history of North Carolina. And, as will be revealed in another sketch, conduct in public office in the county has ceased to be a source of embarrassment. Through assistance from State funds, a modern school system has been initiated; population has ceased to decline and is increasing at a healthy rate. And just as Sawyer's memory has reasserted itself, the glow of a healthier community life gives some promise of return to a condition of former times when the county was economically sufficient and its citizens knew no inferiority complex.




From "Documenting the American South": 



Source: From DICTIONARY OF NORTH CAROLINA BIOGRAPHY edited by William S. Powell. Copyright (c) 1979-1996 by the University of North Carolina Press. Used by permission of the publisher.


Lemuel Sawyer, 1777-1852


Sawyer, Lemuel (1777 -- 9 Jan. 1852), writer and politician, was born in Camden County, the youngest of nine children of Lemuel and his first wife, Mary Taylor Sawyer. The elder Sawyer, whose family connections were numerous and affluent, was active in local affairs. His son attended the country schools, then in 1793-96 Flatbush Academy on Long Island. In May 1796 he went to Philadelphia to visit his brother-in-law, Congressman Dempsey Burgess, and quickly succumbed to the elegant living and the genial social life of the city. He studied mathematics briefly at the University of Pennsylvania. The following year Sawyer was back in Camden County, where he had inherited a dilapidated farm. In 1799 he was a student at The University of North Carolina, in 1800 and 1801 he held a seat in the North Carolina House of Commons, and in 1804 he was a presidential elector, casting his vote for Thomas Jefferson and DeWitt Clinton. Also in 1804 he was admitted to the bar and set up a law office in Elizabeth City. In these years, to support his improvident ways, he began to sell his property, first the slaves, then the land.


Sawyer served eight terms in Congress (1807-13, 1817-23, and 1825-29.) Twice during this period he ran unsuccessfully and once did not stand for reelection. Though he neglected his duties and often was absent from the sessions because of illness, so attractive and pleasant was his easygoing manner and so widespread and undiminished his personal popularity that he was able to defeat such formidable opponents as William H. Murfree and James Iredell. In Congress he supported the Embargo, championed Arctic exploration, and, ironically, was for rigid government economy. His favorite haunt was the reading room in the Library of Congress. From time to time he returned to North Carolina.


The first of Sawyer's three wives was Sarah Snowden, of Camden County, whom he married in 1810. She died two years later. In 1820 he married, in Washington, D.C., Camilla Wertz, who died in 1826. The three children of these marriages did not survive childhood. His third wife was the wealthy Mrs. Diana Rapalye Fisher, of Brooklyn, whom he married in 1828. He thereafter moved to New York State, where his liberal and spendthrift nature, extravagant style, and chronic invalidism eventually dissipated his wife's fortune and led to downright poverty. During his last two years he held a minor clerkship in Washington, where he died. Family tradition holds that he was buried in an unmarked grave beside his brother Enoch at Lambs Ferry in Camden County. In 1954 a marker was erected at the spot.


Sawyer's literary productions, like the books he chose to read, were quite diversified. First to be published was the now-lost Journal to Lake Drummond (ca. 1797), concerning which David L. Swain commented: "The events are without interest, the remarks puerile, and the language the most superlative bombast." Also lost are three unpublished manuscripts: "Essays Literary, Political, and Dramatic" (ca. 1805), a "Roman History" (ca. 1822), and a work on "Greek Literature" (late 1840s). His four-act comedy Blackbeard (1824), the first play by a native North Carolinian, as well as the first to use North Carolina scenes and North Carolina characters, is a mixture of low farce and flowery melodrama. Neither of its two plots had to do with the famous pirate: instead, Sawyer deals, first, with a group of gullible rustics who in 1823 are intent on recovering Blackbeard's buried treasure and, second, with a disreputable crowd of corrupt Currituck County politicians. The play was sold by subscription to members of Congress, and so delighted was Sawyer with the financial reward that he immediately brought out another play, The Wreck of Honor (1824). One of its two plots follows the amorous adventures of an American in Paris, while the other, in blank verse, is a drama of seduction and murder, including a scene at the Battle of Waterloo. Neither play has ever been staged.


Quite a different sort of literary efforts is The Observatory (1833), advocating a national observatory in Washington for the purpose of spreading scientific knowledge. In A Biography of John Randolph of Roanoke (1844), Sawyer's congressional colleague is portrayed as a coward, a mountebank, and a quarrelsome and egoistical numskull. Poorly organized and hastily put together, it was, according to reviewers at the time, false, scandalous, malicious, and libelous. Even so, his book on Randolph is no more scathing than the Auto-Biography of Lemuel Sawyer (1844), a frank disclosure of his gambling, wastefulness, dissipation, chicanery, and tawdry love affairs. This book must be one of the most self-condemning documents in all American letters. His last publication was "The Vine of North Carolina," included in Report of the Commissioner of Patents (1849), where Sawyer encourages the growing of scuppernongs in northeastern North Carolina to promote the commercial production of wine. Though once ascribed to him, the novel Printz Hall (1839) is now known not to be by Sawyer.






of Lemuel Sawyer,

Formerly Member of Congress from North Carolina:

Electronic Edition.

Lemuel Sawyer (1777-1852)



Text scanned (OCR) by Bill McGloughlin

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First edition, 1997.

ca. 200K

Academic Affairs Library, UNC-CH

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill,


        This work is the property of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. It may be used freely by individuals for research, teaching and personal use as long as this statement of availability is included in the text.





Call number CCB S371s 1844 (North Carolina Collection, UNC-CH)




        The electronic edition is a part of the UNC-CH digitization project, Documenting the American South, Beginnings to 1920.

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Library of Congress Subject Headings,

19th edition, 1996

LC Subject Headings:

Sawyer, Lemuel, 1777-1852.

Legislators -- United States -- Biography.

Politicians -- North Carolina -- Biography.

Authors, American -- North Carolina -- Biography.

Authors, American -- 19th century -- Biography.






Natalia Smith, project manager,

finished TEI-conformant encoding and final proofing.





Bill McGloughlin

finished scanning (OCR) and proofing.









The Biography of John Randolph









        IT is due to the reader, to assure him that no ingredient of vanity has entered into the publication of this trifle. I never imagined my own life of sufficient notoriety and consequence to entitle it to the especial favor of the public, in the shape of a separate and independent chronicle. I had prepared an enlarged and improved volume of the Life of JOHN RANDOLPH, and intended to prefix to the second edition, a brief account of my own. In composing it, I found it grew on my hands, and although "curtailed of many of its proportions" yet it threatened to intrude too far upon the prohibited grounds of the main work. The intended edition is a heavy and expensive undertaking, and I have postponed it to a more convenient season. In the mean time I have been advised by a friend, in whose judgment I place implicit confidence, to advance this pamphlet into the world as a precursor, instead of an accompaniment of that projected work. Should I be fortunate enough to receive the countenance of this enlightened community, it will afford an encouraging presage of its success, and expedite its future appearance. Should it fail, it will at least afford a salutary admonition to withdraw it altogether.




             Brooklyn, July 1, 1844.















        So far as my course has become a part of the history of the country, connected as it has been with many of its leading events, as the non-intercourse, embargo, and war, a personal memoir may be justifiable as a small link in the intricate chain of national affairs. A somewhat full and particular detail of a life under such circumstances, if it were found not destitute of eventful interest, and, as it is hoped, not an ignoble one, it would present still stronger claims to the reader's acceptance. In the Sunday Atlas of New York, of the 13th of August last, was given a sketch of the writer, under the head of Portraits of the People, and it is intended to make that the groundwork of this memoir, with the alterations and additions that the occasion requires, by which it will necessarily be extended to much greater length. The Atlas stated truly, "that the subject of this memoir was the youngest of nine children by the first wife, all of whom arrived at years of maturity, and most of whom reared numerous families, thrived well, and rose to independence and consideration in their several spheres of life. Although he was the most delicate of all his brothers, and has been heard to declare that he could not safely assert that he was ever well a day in his life, but suffered some ailment, local or general, yet has he survived all his brothers and sisters, and has been for six years the sole survivor. His situation is a deplorable one, and deserves the commiseration of every feeling heart. He lost his parents in early life, his mother dying in childbirth, before he was a month old, by which he was deprived of the blessing of that maternal affection, nurture, and moral discipline so necessary to his well- being, to which he may add the death of his father in his fifth year, by which he was left an orphan, unprotected and almost unsupported, to blind chance, to make his way through the world - devious and difficult at all times, dangerous under the untoward circumstances in which he was placed. It is no wonder, then, that his life has proved unfortunate and unhappy, from the want of parental instruction and authority, aid, and advice. Having no brother nor sister, having lost his two first wives, with "all their little ones, at one fell swoop," he stands like a solitary pillar in the desert, tottering on its base, ready to tumble amidst the ruins that surround it.


        He was born in Camden County, N. C., in the fall of 1777, at the new family mansion on the banks of the river Pasquotank, the location of the ferry since established by the erection of a floating bridge. He received his Christian name Lemuel from his father, as the favorite child of his old age, and as large a share of his property as any of his brothers, except Enoch the oldest, to whom was devised the family seat, with its extensive domain, and where the first custom-house for the district was established. Enoch




Page 4

was appointed the collector in 1791, under Washington, and filled the office satisfactorily till the day of his death, in March, 1827.


        In August, 1793, in his sixteenth year, after reaping such benefits as common country schools afforded from the period of his tenth year, he was taken by one of his brothers by sea to Flatbush Academy on Long Island, then in the meridian of its renown under the direction of Dr. Peter Wilson. He was placed there, not more for the purpose of education than for the restoration of his health being then afflicted with a tertian ague, following a bilious fever, and of eighteen months standing. It had reduced him to the brink of the grave. It was hoped that the sea voyage, with the change of air to a more salubrious climate, with good medical treatment would, by their benign influence, conquer this most obstinate form of chronic fever. For the benefit of all similar invalids we may mention, that by the end of three months he was restored to health, except the remains of a swelled spleen. A physician of New York was consulted. He prescribed flannel next the skin, and an emetic divided into portions, to be taken upon the accession of the chill, which never failed to occur every third afternoon. The advice was followed; as soon as the symptoms supervened, the doses were taken, and repeated till they operated. The patient then went to bed as usual, waiting for the recurrence of fever; but after an hour's expectation of his unwelcome visitor, he arose from his bed, went about his business, and never had another fit of the disease. In May, 1796, at the repeated solicitation of his brother-in-law, Demsey Burgess, the member of Congress from his district, then in session at Philadelphia, he reluctantly and unadvisedly left his numerous class, standing at its head, which is paying no small compliment to his proficiency, when such distinguished scholars and eminent men as the two brothers, Wm. and John Duer, the Rev. Peter Vanpelt, lately of Staten Island, Governors Troup and Telfair, of Georgia, were his colleagues. While he resided at Flatbush, he was very properly subjected to a rigid economy, his pocket money being limited to a shilling a week, which proved sufficient, where there was no temptation to dissipation or extravagance. But on arriving at Philadelphia the scene was reversed. He was ushered at once into gay and fashionable society, and his brother-in-law's purse being almost forced upon him, he spent more in six months than he had the whole time he was at Flatbush. But that was not the least of the evils entailed upon him by that ill-advised visit. He acquired habits of extravagance and recklessness in money matters, that followed him through life, and has occasioned many bitter pangs and vain regrets in after life. He attended awhile, though not regularly, as an honorary student of mathematics, under Professor Robert Patterson, of the University of Pennsylvania, occasionally occupied a seat in the gallery of Congress, and heard the debates in which John Nicholas, William B. Giles of Va., Mr. Gallatin, and R. G. Harper bore the leading parts. He was frequently gratified with the sight of the great Washington, and has been at the theatre on one occasion, the first appearance of Cooper in Richard the Third, when Washington entered the box assigned him, and the audience rose simultaneously, and saluted him with three cheers. As he boarded opposite to Andrew Ellicot, the astronomer, in North Sixth street, he was soon introduced to him and became intimately acquainted with the family. He was much attached to Andrew the son, and felt more than common friendship for the eldest daughter, Jane, which unfortunate attachment was the only cause of his refusing the offer by Mr. Ellicot, to take him in his suite at thirty dollars a month, with a horse found, as his secretary, on his mission to Florida as commissioner to run the boundary between this country and the Spanish colony of Florida. He regretted much afterwards, of the loss of that excellent opportunity to gain a knowledge of the country by travel, to acquire a practical knowledge of surveying and




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astronomy by a master, and one of the kindest and best of men, as well as of learning the value of various tracts of unoccupied lands, and the opportunity thus afforded of making up for his expenditures by successful speculation. He, however, did not remain long after Mr. Ellicot had left Philadelphia for Pittsburg, to descend thence down the rivers Ohio and Mississippi to Baton Rouge or Natchez, where he was to land. and begin the line of survey through to the head of the St. Mary's, on the Gorgia frontier. His attachment cooled by degrees, and his pockets collapsed as rapidly, and he returned to his native home in August, by a coasting vessel belonging to an old schoolmate and neighbor, and entered the State through an inlet near Roanoke Island, which has long since filled up, and left not a vestige of its former site. He had grown so much, and was so improved in personal appearance, that some of his nearest relatives and old playmates did not know him. On reaching the court-house, the court then sitting, he saw a very handsome young gentleman in the crowd, and upon asking who he was, he learned it was his youngest brother Wilson, born of a second wife. They had been separated when children, and had not met before. His patrimonial estate consisted of a farm, much exhausted and dilapidated, and a dozen slaves, which he took possession of, though but twenty years of age, to gratify the hands, who were tired of being, hired out, and wished to be put to work upon the farm, under the direction of their master. But he knew little or nothing of the business, was too easy and careless, and did not exact from them that full amount of labor, which they were not disposed voluntarily to render, and for three or four successive years the loss was so considerable that one of the gang had to be disposed of annually, to supply the deficiency. He took sides with the democratic party, entered with zeal against the administration of' John Adams and was elected a member of Assembly in the summer of 1800. Though the youngest man in the House, being barely eligible, he was the first to deliver a speech, soon after the house was organized, and succeeded in defeating the usual resolution to continue the old officers of the house, and substituted one by nomination and ballot, by which means he was enabled to promote a young friend from the ranks of private life, to a clerkship, from which he rose to be Secretary of State, and has filled that office with fidelity ever since. William Hill, the gentleman alluded to, acknowledges with gratitude that he was indebted to this decided step of Mr. Sawyer, in abolishing this unfair monopoly, and introducing the more just and liberal one by election. The Speaker's chair was filled by a Frenchman, Stephen Cabarus, a respectable and wealthy farmer from Edenton, from whom the County of Cabarus, the first where a gold mine was discovered, was named. Although he had lived among us from boyhood, yet his pronunciation had much of the foreign accent, and his reciting the captions or titles of bills and resolutions, invariably forced a smile from the members. On his return from the usual short session of two months, he divided his attention between his farm and his studies, which he now directed mainly to the acquisition of the law. Even then he had an eye to a seat in the national councils, and he made that profession a stepping-stone to mount to that post of honor. In the course of three years, he obtained a license to practice at the bar, which in that State, costs something besides hard study - a fee of twenty-five dollars to the examining judges. His first appearance in the forum was in defending a criminal on a trial for murder. He had volunteered on the case, and had fully prepared himself. He of course was enabled to make a powerful appeal to the jury, his client was acquitted, or, what is tantamount, was brought in guilty of manslaughter only, which is seldom visited by the moderate penalty of the law by branding the letter M on the brawn of the thumb of the left hand. His fame as a counsellor immediately spread, but there was not much business in the courts of that district. Though the reapers were




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many, the harvest was poor. A county court fee was only four dollars, and a Superior Court fee only ten, and there was no charge allowed for intermediate services, by long attorney's bills for preparing the case for trial. The large accumulation of fees and costs, seen and felt here, and "the law's delay," which frequently place the suitor in the predicament of Gulliver, who was ruined by a suit in chancery going in his favor with costs, are unknown there. The laws are few and simple, and justice speedy among that pure and unsophisticated people, nor was it ever heard of, as in New York, that a husband could not claim and receive his wife's personal property, though standing in her maiden name. It remained for the sapient conscience of Vice-chancellor H----n to introduce the interpolation upon all precedents in equity, but which will be no more regarded by future chancellors than the decisions of preceding ones were by him. The bench, however, has since got rid of him by a removal, and a happy riddance it was. We may conclude from its effects, as well as its etymology, that a chancery is a court wherein the causes are decided by chance, and wherein the goddess Fortune, perfectly blind, presides. Would it not save much time, costs, and trouble, instead of the present mode of bill and answer, and all their interlocutory proceedings, to adopt the more summary, popular, and just mode of appealing to her by the usual tools and implements, a raffle, a pack of cards, or heads and tails. Let the parties accommodate their difference by the fashionable game of old sledge, or whist, or brag, or a throw of the dice, and I will warrrant they will have as fair a chance at least, and save thousands in money and years in time, consumed by the present system. It is a monstrous excrescence on the fair face of our jurisprudence, and ought to be lopped off.


        In October, 1804, Mr. Sawyer was elected one of the electors of President And Vice President for the district of Edenton, composing six counties, notwithstanding he lost the vote of Currituck, by the sheriff failing to attend with the returns, at the appointed place. The college met at Raleigh, the December following, during the sitting of the Legislature, and he then made a lengthy and able speech in favor of the republican candidates, which was listened to with earnest attention by the members of the Legislature; after which he deposited his vote for Thomas Jefferson and George Clinton, who received eight votes each, out of the twelve. This introduced him so favorably to the majority, that he was immediately afterwards chosen one of the seven counsellors of State, a post more of honor than profit, for they were not once convened during the whole period, and, of course he received nothing.


        In the spring of 1806, upon his return from a visit to Washington, he learned that Col. Thomas Wynns, the representative in Congress, had declined a re-election, and he thus found the opportunity he had much desired, of becoming a candidate under favorable circumstances. He had some weeks the start, a no inconsiderable advantage in an election race, of his opponent, William H. Murfree, of Murfreesboro, and gained the victory by over a thousand majority. Mr. Murfree succeeded him, however, six years afterwards, Mr. Sawyer, having declined in consequence of ill health which debarred him from the house a whole session.


        Congress was convened on the 26th of October, 1807, by the proclamation of President Jefferson, on account of the irritation of the public mind arising from the attacks of the frigate Leopard upon the Chesapeake within our waters, and the imprisonment of four seamen from her crew, on the pretence of their being deserters. Mr. Sawyer gave his hearty support to the administration both by his votes and his speeches, through its long and arduous struggle with Great Britain, in the successive measures of embargo, non-importation, non-intercourse, and war, and vindicated the rights of his country against the insults and oppression of that domineering power. In




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August, 1810, Mr. Sawyer married Miss Mary Snowden, a beautiful young lady, of the vicinity, the niece of his brother Enoch's wife, and grand-daughter of General Isaac Gregory, who commanded the militia at the battle of Camden, on Gates' defeat, when, on endeavoring to rally his men, he was wounded. They lived with her parents for the present, and until Mr. Sawyer returned from Congress, to which he was again elected over his old opponent by the usual large majority. When his time of departure arrived, Mr. Sawyer took a most affectionate leave of his wife, whom he left in tears and proceeded to a friend's that afternoon, at a distance of ten miles on his rout, intending to remain with him that night, and start for Norfolk the next morning. He loved his wife so dearly, he felt the pain of separation so severely, that he found it impossible to go without her. He therefore returned before night to the family, and persuaded his father and mother-in-law, to allow their daughter to accompany him. She was their favorite, but his wife and sister joining with him, their consent was obtained. The next day they visited his brother Enoch, for the purpose of prevailing on his eldest daughter Sarah to accompany them to Washington. The family agreed that Sarah should accompany them, as there were four daughters left to console them in her absence. They remained a few days with their relations in Norfolk, and thence proceeded by a packet to Baltimore and reached the seat of government the next day.


        Mr. S. engaged board in the same mess with Mr. Clay, and his amiable wife on Capitol Hill. Their families became inseparable, and joined in all the numerous parties, of which not a week passed that they were not invited to two or three, by the heads of departments, the President's levees graced by Mrs.' Madison and of the foreign ministers. Vice President Clinton was also a member of our mess, and showed such marked attention to the ladies, that my niece was joked upon her mighty conquest, and nick-named Mrs. Vice. My wife divided with her the admiration and attention of the young members, and the military officers, several of whom were in the suite of General Wilkinson, who was then present attending a court of inquiry, ordered at his own request for charges made against him by Mr. Randolph. It was universally agreed, that they were two of the most beautiful women in the city, and my niece having been educated at a female seminary in Philadelphia, added to her personal charms a highly cultivated talent for music, which was on every evening that we remained at home, called into requisition by a numerous and attentive audience, with V. P. Clinton at their head. My wife among others made a conquest of the French Minister, General Tureau, who was an old widower, and who called upon us frequently for the purpose of meeting with the ladies in the drawing room. - In fact, we passed a most delightful season till the 4th of March, when we broke up, and I look back upon that winter as the happiest in my life, since those gay, innocent, playful school-boy days, which are always excepted. The house where we boarded on Capitol Hill, belonged to Thomas Law, the brother of Lord Ellenboro who had laid out a fortune of $100,000 and upwards on lots and improvements in Washington. He boarded (being separated from his wife, the niece of Mrs. Washington, Miss Custis) a part of the session with us. He was an eccentric man. of great nervous excitability and quick impulse. He often joined us in a game of whist, and though the rapidest player that probably ever was seen, he was one of the best. His stake never exceeded one dollar, while that of the members generally were from 5 to $10 on the game. Had it not been for Mr. Law, my expenses would have exceeded my pay, and I should have been straightened for means to get home. I agreed with him to stake $5 or $10 on every game he played, I would risk the balance and what he lost over his stake, I would make good, and what he gained he should give me. That relieved him of




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the embarrassment which his low bets occasioned. Upon retiring early in the evening, I offered him on that occasion $20 as a fund to start with, but he refused to take it, saying he had enough to meet all his losses. The next morning after breakfast, he handed me thirty dollars as my share of the gains of his skill and good luck, and frequently afterwards, on his return from Whist parties, he would give me sums from 5 to $20, and not more than once or twice, had I to make good any trifling loss. His son John, was a very respectable counsellor, and was engaged by Wilkinson to defend him in the court of inquiry. He had a most beautiful daughter about 15 years old, and although she was with her mother, she frequently called on him at his room. She seemed to be an angel of light and appeared as a peacemaker between them, and I never saw her leave the door without being suffused with tears. But it all would not do - He remained irreconcilable to the day of his death.


        We left Alexandria the 5th of March, 1811, in the packet for Norfolk, attended by a number of young gentlemen, the fruits of Sarah's conquest, to see the last of us, and bid us adieu. We reached home in good time, meeting the smiling spring, the croaking music of the frogs (always grateful to me, but now seldom enjoyed,) and passed, a part of our way, under festoons of yellow jessamine, suspended from the highest trees and perfuming the whole atmosphere with a delicious incense. Soon after our return, my wife from prematurely leaving off her flannel, took a cold, and had a violent attack of inflammatory fever, with congestion of the lungs. Nothing but the most unwearied attention and the best medical experience saved her. She was bled, during the fever, three times copiously, the two last at my suggestion because I perceived that her pulse indicated it, though strongly opposed by her parents. Before she finally recovered, her kind, affectionate, and attentive mother was taken sick, no doubt from great excitement at the danger of her daughter, and exhaustion upon setting up by her. Her disease was nervous fever, and her end was hastened by depletion while I happened to be out of the way, she having seen its good effect upon my wife, requested the doctor to bleed her, and he was fool enough to do it, though her pulse was then weak and rapid, and of a typhus grade. She sunk rapidly, and in three days, we lost our dear parent, and best and steadiest friend we had in the world. I have dwelt somewhat upon the particulars of Mrs. Sawyer's illness, and my constant attendance on her from which I derived the gratification of having done my duty, and aided in her recovery, for the purpose of contrasting it with a future occasion, on which I have to reproach myself with a want of this conjugal tenderness, and which above all other sins I ever was guilty of, was heaviest on my conscience.


        In the fall of 1811, my health suffering from the effects of that sickly season, I travelled to the north as far as Baltimore, and among the hills in that neighborhood, from thence I went to Philadelphia, where I had a niece at school. I recovered my health before the end of September, but delayed my return, without any assignable reason, till the middle of October, when I was attacked with my tedious and distressing complaint, gastro-enteritis, or dyspepsia with nervous irritation. I immediately gave up all hopes of returning home, and would have compromised with fate for a safe arrival at Washington before the session commenced.


        I placed myself under the care of my old physician, Doct. Benjamin Rush. After a few days attendance, I discovered the drift of his remedy, and it immediately lost its charm. He invariably began by asking questions, and introducing political subjects, to draw my attention from my disease by making me think of something else. But I could not be led away from the sore point, but sat brooding over my ills, and venting my complaints and discontent, and would not be comforted. The Doctor applied few or no prescriptions but mental ones. I was not confined, however, and as the




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term approached I felt great anxiety to escape the severity of the winter and enter a more genial climate, and he encouraged my intention of endeavoring to reach Washington by easy stages, in company with some travelling friend. I reached Baltimore by moderate journeys, and after a few days' rest, started with a horse and gig for the city. It is the nature of the disease to render the patient restless, impatient and to urge him on beyond his strength. I can compare him to nothing more suitable than a mad dog, who the moment the symptoms appear, starts off in a brisk trot, and never stops till he is knocked in the head or falls exhausted. I named it restphobia. The nearer I approached Washington, the more anxious was I to reach it. I arrived at Rossburgh to dinner without suffering much from fatigue, and had I remained there all night, and the next day, all would have been well, and it would have saved me much of suffering, besides other dreadful consequences arising from my imprudence. I was irresolute for some moments after dinner, whether to remain or not. But at last I hastily decided by a sudden impulse, without any new light of reason or cause, to go on that night. After proceeding four miles, I began to feel overcome, but there was no comfortable quarters on the road from Bladensburg, and a kind of fatality which had before led me into such predicaments, or wilful obstinacy urged me on, and although I did not proceed out of a walk, when I reached my quarters I was completely exhausted. My symptoms were aggravated two-fold. I was a miserable invalid the whole winter, and never once took my seat during the session. I employed a doctor and took a great deal of physic, but nothing did me any good. Were I to be put on my oath, I do not know but that I should be obliged to swear on my conscience, that I never took a dose of medicine while laboring under these chronic diseases, that did me any good, but that in many instances they have done me harm. I depended on exercise and diet, and as soon as the river was clear of ice, the first of March, I took passage for Norfolk. My wife found me there in a few days. The sight of her revived me. By the advice of Doct. Rush, I put myself on a milk diet, and as I could not endure travel, (I will not say fatigue) by land, we took the water route, by the Dismal Smamp Canal, which saved me all jolting for more than half the journey. It took me three or four days however, to accomplish the journey of forty miles. I gradually regained my health by a milk and vegetable diet, and exercising much on horseback, and by the first of June, I had serious thoughts of returning back to my seat. But upon making a demonstration on a very hot day, of twelve miles, I was completely cured of my travelling fit and was glad to get back next day alive. My little farm was flourishing. It was a beautiful and central location, and now belongs to my successor, W. B. Shephard, whose land adjoined, My wife was six months advanced in the family way. I thought the house (which was a mere shell, and low pitched,) an uncomfortable one, I persuaded her to return with me to her father's roof in August, much against her will, and as it appeared afterwards against the judgment of her father, who wished to see me do well and to apply my time steadily to the business of the farm. I afterwards perceived my error, when it was too late to correct it, and was sorry I did not remain over and run the risk of a relapse, or a billious attack; rather than incur the displeasure of my wealthy father-in-law by such childish and fickle conduct. I soon afterwards, feeling some unpleasant symptoms, took a trip down to the sea-shore to fortify myself against the insalubrity of the approaching fall. When I returned after a week's absence, my father-in-law received me coldly, and my wife was not in the best humour. She required as much attention and caressing to retain her affection as she did to gain it, and I was not a person to submit to such terms. I was getting unwell as the month of September progressed, (the most sickly




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month in the year,) I felt myself uncomfortably situated, and I concluded to take the sea-shore on my route to Washington, and though a few miles out of the direct way, to stop a while at Curntuck Court House. It is situated on a high shore on the sound, which is there ten miles across to the inlet and the sea-shore. Before I left, my wife grew ill, but not so much so as to require particular attention, and she kept an obstinate silence from me of the state of her feelings. The night before I left, she lay quiet, and never complained once. Only that her sister declared she was sick, while she was carrying a hearty breakfast to her, I should not have known it. She did not make any objection to my excursion, and I started in a horse and gig, having a neighbor with me to bring them back, should I conclude to go on. Our family physician being on the route, I called on him to request him to visit my wife, but not finding him at home I left order to that effect which he complied with. Had I seen him, I should have bethought me to get him to promise to send for me, should she grow worse. I remained there four or five days, but heard nothing from my wife. When I started in the morning, I was so divided in my opinion what course to pursue whether to return, or go on, that I stopped to deliberate before I entered the main road, which was the Rubicon in my destination. I asked the advice of my nephew, a lad about sixteen, but he was undecided too, but I think rather inclined to visit Norfolk. In this state of indecision, bordering on distraction, I determined to submit the event to chance, and starting the horse in a gentle trot, I threw the reins down, and left it entirely to his decision. On what trifles do the most important events hang. He turned into the road for Norfolk, and I was a ruined man. I went on about twenty miles, and stopped for the night at a friend's. I was only twenty-five miles from home. My wife grew worse. She sent an express after me which went to the court house; but not finding me there, instead of pursuing me, and he might have come up with me that night, he returned home. I reached Norfolk the next day, and sent the gig back, remaining in total ignorance of the sad change which had taken place at home, which for ever blasted my hopes of happiness in this world. I had been at my sister's in Norfolk at least a week before we had any tidings from Carolina. She had learned from a market man the account of my loss, and imparted it to me in such a delicate way, with such an air of doubt, that I immediately went to the market to learn the particulars. I there found the man a neighbor of mine, who informed me that my wife was dead and buried, and that he was at her funeral. She had been delivered of a seven-month daughter, and expired from the exhaustion, preceded by ten days illness. I was overwhelmed with sorrow, remorse, and a most guilty conscience that whispered in my heart, that I had been negatively guilty of murder. I returned to the house so overcome, that I was taken violently ill, so that my sister called in the aid of a physician. It was a week before I retained sufficient strength to attempt a fulfilment of my resolution to return home. My sister accompanied me. I had a brother living near the Dismal Swamp Canal which was about half the distance, and by going by water I was enabled to reach there the second day, but found my strength entirely insufficient to enable me to reach home, without resting and recruiting several days. My sister consented to go on, as she felt much interest in seeing my daughter, and she had a sister and brother in the neighborhood, whom she had not seen for a year or more. She found my little daughter with a wet nurse employed, and the old gentleman devoted to the little grand-child. Everything was explained to the family, and my unfortunate ignorance to the last, of the real condition of my wife. She remained a week with her relatives, but before she returned my dear little infant had expired, it is supposed from being overlaid by the nurse, and thus one major inducement for




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my visit to the family was destroyed. I, therefore, mending but slowly, and being half way on my journey to Norfolk, concluded to retrace my steps, and by the tenth of November I again took shelter under my sister's roof. My father-in-law, as he had a right to do, and as there was no one there to take care of them, carried the negroes back to his house, together with the stock and furniture. I have since been very sick and thought myself at the point of death; and upon a retrospect of the black catalogue of a long life of sin and shame, this act of mine towards my wife presses heaviest upon my soul. It overbalances all the rest, although I have repented in tears, although I have confessed the odious offence to my confessor, and received his absolution, which I have prayed may be ratified in heaven. I never shall be able to clear my conscience of the stain of cruelty, inhumanity, and a want of conjugal affection in thus abandoning my wife at such a critical moment. None of the circumstances attending the case can afford the least excuse or palliation on my part. I ever shall believe, had I remained with her, had I nursed her with the tenderness I did on a former occasion, had I watched her symptoms, and I have much medical skill and experience, had I manifested that anxious concern and kind sympathy which was due to her and which she had a right to expect, she would have recovered or at least she should have had the consolation of dying in my arms. But by that one false step, I was deprived of wife and child, and an ample fortune, and committed such a heinous sin, that a whole life spent in penitence can never atone for. Mr. Snowden lived only two years afterwards. His whole estate, worth at least $40,000, fell to the surviving daughter. She had married, against her father's advice, a dissipated and insolvent Englishman by the name of Charles Bowring, a relation of Doct. Bowring of London, and in less than three short years the whole estate was squandered. They moved to the neighborhood of Norfolk, and undertook market-gardening, with one or two slaves all that remained out of forty. But he kept constantly drunk. The neighbors' castle got in and destroyed all the vegetation, and as a last refuge they moved to Norfolk. Here the scenes soon ended. He had neither money nor credit left. He died a miserable sot in the street, and she soon followed in a state of degradation, little short of starvation, and broken-hearted. I proceeded to Congress and served my term out, which ended in the year 1813. Feeling that I ought not to press my claims for a re-election, after losing the whole of the preceding session from indisposition, I wrote to my principal friends, that if Mr. Murfree would again declare himself a candidate, I would yield the field to him. He did so, and was elected the May following. I returned home in tolerable health, and retired to my little farm. I felt rather solitary and unhappy, and preferred more society and busier scenes. In the course of two years I sold my place at a very great price, and with the avails, about $2,000, went to Norfolk with a view of engaging in some other business. I consulted a friend there, who had been an extensive shipping merchant, and he advised me to enter into the book and stationary line. I entrusted him with the money to invest in that merchandise, and in the meantime became an inmate of his family. He became embarrassed and failed to procure the goods I wanted. A young man whom I saw daily in attendance for the purpose of obtaining means to set up a country store, I thought would meet with success, in case he succeeded in obtaining the capital; he went to Carolina, and opened in my old neighborhood, at a place called Sawyer's Creek, where my guardian had lived, and where I was admitted as one of the family and received as full a share of affection and partiality as either of my companions, their son and eldest daughter, nearly of my age. He had a store here before I left him for Flatbush, in 1793, where he made considerable money. But both himself and wife were dead when I returned home




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in August, 1796, and I was ushered into the world in my 20th year, and put in possession of my little property, without their sage advice and direction, and without any knowledge of the world, or judgment to manage my pecuniary affairs.


        After some persuasion my friend entered into my views, and equiped the young adventurer with a small assortment of dry goods, groceries, and hardware; and he arrived at the spot with his cargo in a lighter through the Dismal Swamp Canal, and opened his store without competition for ten miles around. He had a good run of business, and kept the boats steadily employed in bringing through the Canal, the grain, lumber, and other produce he received. I was charged with the sale of the produce which came to my order, and the purchase of all the supplies necessary to keep up the assortment at the store. We continued the business until March, 1817, when the store-keeper, after long complaining, grew worse, and was incapable of managing the concern. Being a Jersey man, the climate disagreed with him, and he determined to return home as soon as the warm season advanced. I willingly consented to accept the commission of visiting the store, and taking charge of the business, as it again threw me into the arms of my old playmates and schoolfellows, and recalled the pleasing associations of my boyhood, by returning to a shop endeared to me by a thousand recollections. On my arrival, I found our partner laid up with the rheumatism, and as the busy season was nearly over, and the stock of goods wanted replenishing, we came to the conclusion to sell out, by auction, for cash, and wind up the concern. We accordingly put up advertisements, and about the middle of April fixed the day of sale. A large concourse of people attended; goods were scarce, and money plentiful, and the stock went off briskly at fair rates. I received the avails, settled with the store-keeper, who soon left for his former home, and I indemnified myself for the loan of $2000 and interest, out of the avails.


        Among the company in attendance, was the sheriff of the county, a next door neighbor of my brother Enoch, and an energetic and popular man. I had been absent from the district fifteen months, and could not be fairly deemed a resident. I learned that Mr. Murfree had refused to serve any longer, alledging that he lost more money by it than he gained honor. There were two candidates for his place. But it seemed the people generally did not like either. My presence, in the centre of my old constituents awakened all their predilections, and revived feelings similar to those aroused by Bonaparte on landing from Elba at Frejus. The sheriff solicited me to declare myself a candidate. It never for a moment entered my head, when I left Norfolk, a few weeks before, that I should find an occasion, or the wish of the people, to renew my former political connection with them. But I found I had hit upon the lucky moment, and I determined to seize it. The multitude gathered around me, I made them a short address and concluded by declaring I should be proud and happy to serve them again, if they thought me worthy, and was greeted with loud huzzas.


        I then commenced my electioneering tour, with the requisite funds, as an election in that State is a very expensive undertaking, and every cent a member can save out of his earnings, out of his pay and mileage, is consumed in the next campaign - an election, a week before the general one, was held in the uppermost county, Hertford, that I was not aware of, and of course did not attend, so my two antagonists divided the vote there nearly equally. But I met them in the next county, Gates, where I was less known than in the middle and lower counties, but where one of the candidates stood the strongest. I received only 80 votes there, however, out of 500, and being quite unwell, stopped at the public inn at the Court House, to rest and take some remedies against the bilious symptoms which




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affected me. As the court was about to set, which would collect the greater portion of the people, I concluded to stay until its adjournment, in order to learn the result of the election before I left, and to form a better acquaintance and strengthen my influence in that county. For four days we had not heard a syllable from the rest of the district; and from the returns in these two counties, my chance appeared desperate. In the afternoon of that day, the sheriff of Pasquotank, one of my strong holds, and the backbone of the district, rode up to the door, having business in the county above. We met him as he entered, all anxious to hear the news. He remained silent for some minutes on the subject, and talked on indifferent matters. When he did commence to open his budget, he merely asked me how I came on in Gates, and how many votes I had got there. I told him. What said he, 80 votes. Then, by G-d, you are elected. It was so close, that I only cleared my nearest antagonist by about that majority - or plurality over the two, as a majority over all is not required there. A loud huzza was raised; the largest bowl on the premises, and it was a monster, was filled with the best of toddy, composed of that most delicious of spirits, the apple brandy of the county, was handed to the sheriff, who did ample honor to my success, and thence circulated. It was drained and refilled, till they all had sufficiently manifested their cordial approbation of my triumph. I received the congratulations of many who voted against me, which I took in good part, and to which I knew how to make suitable acknowledgments. The next morning, though a little feverish, I started on my return. I had but 60 miles to go, to reach my home, Elizabeth City, which was the centre of my popularity, but on arriving at my brother Frederick's, who lived on the canal, and about half way to Norfolk, I was obliged to lay by, and concluded to give up my visit to the lower part of the county, where my friends expected me. I felt too unwell to perform the journey there and back. I feared I should be seriously attacked with bilious fever. After a few days' rest, I took passage by water, through the Dismal Swamp Canal, being too weak to ride, and arrived at Norfolk close upon the news of my election. It was news indeed to my numerous friends and relatives there, who had no thought upon my going out to Carolina, five months before, that I could become a candidate. Among the first persons I met, was a young lady, with whom I had fell, not head and ears, but about up to the middle in love, and to whom I had sent through a friend, on the eve of my departure an offer of my affection, or if that was too strong a dose, my friendship. She refused to receive either. She was now radiant with smiles, but by a cold, frosty look, and a formal stiff bow, I "nipp'd these blushing honors thick upon her," and let her know if she could not love the man, she should not have the Congressman. I ought to confess that I had previously given her cause of offence, by giving her name' to our lighter, which she thought degraded her. To regain my health. I chose a sea voyage, and took passage, in a small packet, only 80 tons, with about 30 passengers, for New York, about the 26th of August. Upon going on board, and witnessing so many persons embarked, men, women, and children, it occurred to me that some of them would have to go without berths, and I immediately entered the cabin and secured mine. It was well I did, for when night came, six or eight of them had to pick out the softest plank, or to lay on the cabin floor. We, however, had a short passage, having a fair wind, and were only two nights subjected to the hard trial of a soft plank. I arrived as soon as the news of my new honor, and passed a few most pleasant weeks between Flatbush, my old Alma Mater, and the city. I regained my health, enjoyed the hospitalities of my old, and made acquaintance with many worthy new friends, and left the city in November, with very favorable impressions, to arrive at the seat of government




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a few days before the meeting of the house, in order to choose a good seat in the Hall, and obtain a choice lodging room: both of which I happily accomplished.


        I did not renew my acquaintance with my old fellow members, nor extend it among the new: and few persons were aware of my being in the house. The first knowledge they had of me, was on the occasion of my old friend, Col. R. M. Johnson's commutation bill, when I arose like an apparition before them, and opposed its passage. The Col. among others was amazed, and after I sat down, came up to shake hands with me, and to express his sorrow that my first appearance on the stage, for the last six years, should be on such an occasion. The Colonel answered me with his usual urbanity and good temper, but he lost his favorite measure. Though it is not my intention to detain the reader in the current of his reading of this narrative, by laying in his way any abstraction of a long, dull speech of mine, I trust he will allow a few pages of some of the lighter ones to be strewn in his path. It was on the 17th December, 1817, the bill came up for discussion. The first section contained a provision authorising the government, through its pension agents in the different States, to commute with, or buy from the holders of patents of bounty lands issued to soldiers of the late or present army, by allowing them in four annual payments $140 the acre. The speech as reported in the Intelligencer is a very condensed and brief summary of my observations. It states it thus, - "Mr. Sawyer of N. C. opposed the bill by a variety of arguments, but principally upon the heavy demand it would create upon the treasury. Money he said was power. He did not wish to live to see another empty treasury. We had enough of that the last war. If that had continued another year, I do not know what would have been the consequences arising from "a plenteous lack" of money and credit, (after advancing various illustrations of the advantages of a full treasury) Mr. S. added, that he considered this bill as merely offering a premium in speculation. It was surprising, he said, how industrious we are, as soon as we find we have a balance in the treasury, to get it out again. But of all the schemes contrived for such drainage, the bill appears to be the most ingenious. No prodigal was ever more anxious to lavish a rich inheritance than we do that whenever intrusted to our care by the people. For his part, he wished there could be stationed at the gate of the treasury, an angel with a flaming sword to prohibit entrance to all who had not an order from the genius of economy, countersigned by the hand of justice."


        This is but a skeleton of the speech I delivered. I recollect it was given at length in some of the papers, and that I forwarded several copies among my constituents, not forgetting my useful friend, the sheriff of Camden, among whom it was well received.


        It was not long before I had another opportunity of gratifying my oratorical propensity, though I should not have been so hasty or rash had I known I should have provoked two such champions as Mr. Clay, and Henry St. George Tucker, the half brother of Mr. Randolph. The latter, as chairman of the committee of Roads and Canals, or internal improvement, for the purpose of testing the sense of the House on that doubtful and unsettled policy, introduced some resolutions, with a view of authorising and instructing that committee to report a bill to effect the object of internal improvement.


        Mr. Monroe had but just commenced his first term, and, in his message, had distinctly stated his objections, on constitutional grounds, to any measure or act that might be presented to him for his approbation to any such measure. On the 6th of March, as soon as the house resolved itself into a committee of the whole, and took the resolutions under consideration, I




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moved the committee should rise, with a view of getting the subject immediately in the House, for the purpose of moving its indefinite postponement I stated as my reasons for the motion, that as the President had expressed his insuperable constitutional objections to the policy of internal improvement, I thought, unless we felt confident we could carry the measure by a two-thirds vote, or a constitutional majority, it would be an idle waste of time to discuss it, and urge it forward. It was known also, that there was before the Senate, a proposition to amend the constitution, so as to give this. disputed power to Congress; from which it might be inferred that branch did not conceive the power existed. To prevent a tedious and useless debate, to the delay of more important and practicable business, I felt it my duty to make the motion that the committee rise and report progress, to which I for one should not grant leave to sit again. Mr. Tucker was up in a moment, to protect his offspring. Mr. Clay followed, and expressed an earnest desire that the debate should not be thus early strangled by my motion, but that every member should have an opportunity to express his opinions on this great and important question. He expressed a preference in seeing me come out in a constitutional speech in favor of this wise policy, than to be the first to try to stifle it at its birth. The committee felt disposed to accommodate the gentlemen in their wishes, and my motion was lost.


        A long debate ensued. I had an opportunity of making, if not a constitutional speech, at least (as I said), not an unconstitutional one. I find it reported at length in the Intelligencer of the day.


        Though I am convinced that I took the wrong side of the question then, and have changed my ground, yet as this speech, though upon the whole rather a foolish one, contained so much humor, drollery (and not to say wit), that makes me laugh while I am transcribing it; in hopes the reader may join me in the laugh, not at me, but at my manner of treating the question, I give it, word for word, as I find it.


        "If my opinion should correspond with the President's I shall not think the worse of it on that account. I do not entrench myself behind the President's veto, but as the gentleman from Kentucky (Mr. Clay), has placed me there, I am perfectly satisfied with my station. While I am defended by his shield I feel safe from the gentleman's attacks. If it were any gratification to the gentleman to notice the cordiality with which the President was received on his Northern tour, I hope another opportunity may be shortly afforded him for a similar gratification in a Southern tour. Like the sun, I hope he will soon visit us, cheer and enliven us in his annual course. I for one will be ready to hail his approach, and give him a warm and hearty welcome, if for nothing else but the very course he has observed with regard to the subject before us, which other gentlemen have thought proper to condemn. I stated on a former occasion, that so far from feeling any repugnance at his interposition on the first instance, I was glad of it, as it was intended to save us all the useless waste of time and treasure which this discussion would necessarily give rise to, and I am only sorry we did not improve the hint. It was for that reason I moved to postpone the subject indefinitely; for as I anticipated the result, that there would not be a constitutional majority in favor of it, I was unwilling to see the commencement of this wordy war, which has been waged for several days, with unabated warmth to the no small entertainment of the audience, but, very little, in my apprehension, to the settlement of this question, or the furtherance of the important business of the nation. And although I may not be able to satisfy the gentleman's (Mr. Clay's) call on me for a constitutional speech, I will promise him it shall not be an unconstitutional one, which is more than I can say of some speeches I have heard.


        "On the constitutionality of this question, I stated that I did no think it




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worth while to enter into a discussion of that point. I have too humble an opinion of my own powers to expect to convince others, and if I can advance enough on that head to satisfy my own political friends, as I can my own mind, of the propriety of the vote I shall give, I throw my javelin of hope no farther.


        "I have a sufficient reason to satisfy my own mind, on the ground that there is no express provision delegating the power to Congress; if there be, let those who assert it point it out. Do they expect to show it by a long course of argument? I, who have sworn to support the Constitution, must have something to satisfy my conscience more positive and clear than any labored attempt at a constructive power, by so fallacious a method as argumentation. Nor shall I feel satisfied with the production of precedent. Precedent without law has no weight with me. If other persons have deemed the right constitutional, that is no reason I should: for that would be to make other's consciences the standard of mine, which I will not do in politics or religion. I must have a proof so clear, that there must be "no hook or loop to hang a doubt upon." Did I understand some gentlemen to say that this government could and ought to exercise this power without the consent of the several States interested? Such language would be more suitable to that of a Nero to a Roman senate, than the occasion to which it was the other day applied by the gentleman from Virginia (Mr. Mercer.) Strike out the words in the resolution "with the consent of the States," and undertake to enforce this high-handed doctrine, and the constitution will be in a fair way to be cured of that plethora the gentleman from Kentucky (Mr. Clay) spoke of: for if it requires depletion, it will assuredly be let blood. If such a violent course be attempted, I apprehend it will be met with more arguments than any used here. Those who may come with their pick- axes, spades, shovels, to tear the virgin bosom of our country, in defiance of us, may plant themselves behind the first bank they throw up. The very first hole they dig may prove their grave. Should my State unfurl her banner, I, for one, would plant myself under them, and resist till the flesh was hacked from my bones, before I would submit to such despotism. If the States have a mind to fold their arms, and suffer themselves to be tied and bound together in this cord, like a knot of slaves, let them - but while our hands are free, I trust we shall use them in defence of our rights, from whatever quarter they may be assailed. I was born free, so have I lived, so will I die. It is true as the gentleman from Kentucky stated, it might be prudent "to obtain the consent of the States." Indeed, I think it would. Under what clause of the Constitution is this right conveyed? The 10th article of the amendment declares, that the powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States themselves, or to the people. This question resolves itself into a syllogism, and they must first prove the major and minor, before they draw the conclusion. They must show that the power is delegated to the United States, or is prohibited by the Constitution to the States, or the category must follow, that it is reserved to the States or the people. Perhaps it may be looked for in the 1st clause of the 8th article, under the terms "general welfare." What would a plain unsophisticated man say was the meaning of the words "general warfare." Political health, the full enjoyment of the constitutional faculties of the whole Union. It is a relative term, and means no more than that the General Government should have a watchful eye over the common weal, and see that each member of it enjoy that portion of political sanity, and maintain that true course around its own axis, imparted to it at its creation. They have all hitherto existed and flourished under this wholesome constitutional supervision of the General Government nor do they now see any occasion for this extraordinary and




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officious care proffered to them by the resolutions on the table. They have gone on very well in their old course. Enjoying a good share of health, they feel no necessity of being obliged to swallow drugs, because their family physician may prescribe them. I have known children being killed with too much care, and I believe it has fared with States as with individuals.. Augustus C?r, out of a kind concern for the "welfare" of his country, generously took the management of it into his own hands. Oliver Cromwell promoted the general welfare of England by a similar token of parental kindness. Bonaparte manifested the same disposition, and extended the same fostering hand over his countrymen. I only hope this is the last practical commentary upon the text of general welfare. Let us examine the 8th section of the 1st article: "To establish post offices and post roads" On this head, the gentleman from Kentucky admitted there might be a concurrent jurisdiction, and that the principle might be pushed so far as to produce collision between the State and General Government. Does not this prove that the right is not clearly delegated to the United States? For if it were, this collision could not take place. There is no collision between the parties in the exercise of other delegated powers. The instance the gentleman puts of an excise on the same article by the States and General Government, is not applicable to the case, because the jurisdiction of each might be complete and independent over the subject, and that of the General Government is expressly given. The Constitution does not grant power by halves, it does not. create a partnership between the States and General Government with an equal contribution of political capital. When it professes to make a transfer of power, it does it completely and absolutely. The idea of the United States keeping the roads in repair, and at the same time leaving murders and other felonies committed on them to the State Courts, is entirely irreconcilable to the power and jurisdiction of the United States in analogous cases. Murders committed in forts and arsenals are exclusively under the cognizance of feudal courts: and if the United States had jurisdiction over post roads, their tribunals would be equally exclusively paramount. A great display of etymological learning has been exhibited on the word "establish." The gentleman from Kentucky contends that its meaning is to construct, - to make. I cannot think it can be tortured into such a meaning in regard to roads. Its true meaning will be found in its application to the nature and character of the object expressed. Thus, to establish post roads, is merely designating the transportation of the mail by a certain route. If the framers of the Constitution meant that Congress should make and construct roads, they must have said so in so many words; because they could not find any other expression of such intention. When a new road is about being made, the common definition of operation is to open, run, or cut, but never to establish. How could they mean to make and construct, when they were already made and constructed under the authority of the States. The question has been already so much debated that I shall not detain the committee with such other reasons as occur to me on the constitutional points; I merely meant to show that I, at least, entertain doubts on the subject. When I once doubt on a constitutional point, I cannot give it my support, particularly when it proposes the transfer of power into my own hands. Nor are these doubts to be removed by the uncertain deduction of argument. When I hear a speech of one hour, attempting to establish a constitutional point, I naturally begin to have my doubts about it, and several speeches of two or three hours each, with the same view, may remove them, but in a very different manner from what the speaker intended. If the power be granted, why all this pains to show it? It is only necessary to turn to the clause, and if it be there, we have ocular demonstration, and the question is decided. I have seen so much of the fallacy of human judgment, and of the




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erroneousness of argument, that I begin to admire the policy of one of the kingdoms that Gulliver visited, when, after a politician had made a long speech in favor of a proposition, he is forced to turn about and vote against it. A few words on the expediency of the resolution. As to the detention of the Western mail for several days, which the gentleman so feelingly described, whose fault is that? If the ways of the western people are so bad, it is high time for them to mend them. Do the people of Kentucky mean to look on and see the other States making turnpike roads, and expending their wealth and enterprise in improving the face of the country, and then call upon the General Government to furnish them with means to make similar improvements? Do they wish to tax other States to make their turnpike roads and canals? If the gentleman's wagon sticks in the mud, let him apply his own shoulder to the wheel before he calls Upon Hercules. Look at New York, and behold the noble work she is engaged in? See New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and my own State through her Dismal Swamp Canal, intersected with turnpike roads and canals in all directions. Would it be fair now that they have made such progress in these works by their own means that their money should be taken out of the common stock, and given to other States who have supinely looked on, and made no exertions. The gentleman from Kentucky (Mr. Clay), has told us of the constant stream of wealth that has flowed from his State into the treasury, without one drop stopping by the way to enrich the soil. I can say the same of my State, with the addition that it flows through channels dug with her own hands.


        "Suppose the gentleman was to obtain a repeal of the acts he enumerated for facilitating our commerce on the ocean by the erection of light houses and buoys, who would he injure most by it. Is not the trade of Kentucky as much benefitted by the patent reelecting lamps of Lewis as any Atlantic State? How is the produce of the West to find a market except through her regular channels' These are the necessary means and instruments for regulating our commerce, indisputably vested in Congress by the 3d Article of the 8th Section of the Constitution, in which Kentucky is as much interested as North Carolina. or any other State of the Union of equal population. But the gentleman, although arguing for the expediency of the measure, confesses, that however expedien t, unless constitutional, it would not be proper to exercise the power, while I am so convinced of the inexpediency of it, that I could hardly vote for it, if I had no doubts of the Constitutionality of it, and if I should hereafter be in favor of the only mode to effect this object, a constitutional amendment, it must he upon the contingency of a conviction of its then expediency. We cannot afford to make the advances or to spare the money required by this measure, which is only the commencement of a system. I am not for giving away our money till we have paid off our national debt. We owe about 100 millions of dollars, besides a large amount of private claims; when they are paid and we have more money in the treasury than we know what to do with, 1 shall have no objection to let it be expended in the manner proposed, under a constitutional amendment. At present, I think the nation would be more benefited by this money remaining in the treasury, than by any use it could be put to in the way of internal improvement. The greatest improvement of the nation is to fill its coffers. Let our improvement, like charity, begin at home. Let us never forget the straits we were put to during the last war, for want of money, and which drove the nation to the very brink of ruin. We don't know how soon we may be involved in another. It behooves us to improve and take care of our resources and be always prepared for the worst. We should be just before we are generous; for besides the national debt, there are private claims on our table to an incalculable amount, and if a fair




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proportion of them only are allowed it will make a sensible diminution of the amount in the treasury. The gentleman from Virginia, (Mr. Tucker) seems to apprehend a great deal of difficulty about the disposal of our surplus money. If he will only wait till the end of the session, I will promise him an end of his difficulties on that head. Our conduct puts me in mind of the kings of Sweden and Denmark, when an island rising up between them, each claimed it, and after "note of dreadful preparation" between them to decide the title by arms, the island sunk into the sea again. Though this treasure is now floating above the surface of the treasury, it will before long be swallowed up in the unfathomable gulph of private claims. Three successive Presidents have labored under the same difficulty with the gentleman from Virginia, and have recommended a similar disposition of our money, but the House soon found there was no necessity to torture their ingenuity on that head. We have made some heavy appropriations already, besides several heavy blows aimed at the treasury which missed it by a hair's breadth. There are now before us, two claims alone, which, if allowed, will make a huge void space in our vaults, and cause them to "reverb a hollow sepulchral sound."


        "I deem it the best and the safest policy to wait and see if we have any money to dispose of, before we fall out about the method of disposing of it. If, after a few weeks' contention we should decide in favor of the gentleman's proposition, the tidings should arrive, that the cause of our dispute had disappeared, it would be placing us in rather a ludicrous plight. Wherefore, having my doubts of the constitutionality of the resolutions, and feeling certain of their inexpediency, I am constrained "to vote against them."


        Although the above speech may be deemed somewhat lengthy, but nothing in comparison to several delivered on that occasion, it is hoped that the reader may be sufficiently amused to keep up his attention to the end of it. It is a good joke, to hear me thus talk about economy, and to witness my wonderful care and sharp vigilance over the people's money. One would conclude, that if I were not a miser, I were a most provident and economical house-keeper, and were enjoying the satisfaction of adding daily to my growing "piles of wealth." There never was a greater deception. I was always as reckless and short-sighted in money matters as an Indian, and never knew the blessings, the cheerfulness, after manhood, of independence, except for a few short intervals when fortune in some of her freaks has thought proper to smile on me, but soon bestowed her darkest frowns, on seeing the ill-use I made of her favors. I may say, it was not the failing of any one of my seven brothers, all of whom made fortunes, and the youngest, Wilson, amassed $50,000 by his own industry and enterprise as a merchant, although he did not live long to enjoy it, but died and was buried at Saratoga Springs, in his 40th year, in September, 1824.


        There were three distinct messes under one proprietor, a desperate black- leg fellow, who in order to monopolise the board on Capitol Hill, rented all Mr. Law's row, containing seven or eight houses, and having entered into an understanding. with other boarding-house keepers in the neighborhood, put up the price of board to 15 dollars a week. In consequence of this ex- action, which members generally would not submit to, some of his partners in extortion, for fear of losing their custom, gave way and reduced their charges. Our Landlord Bailey, in consequence, was not half full, although he had run largely in debt, in furnishing so many houses, and providing servants and a part of his winter's stock of provision. I took the old quarters that I so pleasantly occupied with my family in 1810-11, when we had an agreeable party of a dozen members, some of whom had their families. We fared tolerably well for a month or so. In that time we were joined for a short period by a notable personage, Bailey came into the drawing-room,




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where we were all congregated, and ushered in a gentleman, as Douglass, Earl of Selkirk, the first lord I had the honor of seeing. He was a very modest gentleman, of the light hair, blue eye and fair complexion of the Highlander, and some of us endeavored to smoothe the way to a better acquaintance, by a sociable conversation. He had planted a colony on our North-western borders, called Pembina, at a great expense, but on one of our engineers, Major Long, visiting that spot, in his tour of exploration, shortly afterwards and taking an observation for its latitude, he found it was two minutes or so within our boundary line. Lord Selkirk had to break up, and remove his colony further North, and nearer lake Winnepeg on the Red River of that region. He informed me that he was a partner in a new fur company, called the Northwest, and his traders coming in collision with those of the Old Hudson's Bay, a battle had ensued and several lives lost on both sides. His lordship among others, had been under arrest by the authorities of Upper Canada, for a charge of murder, or manslaughter, but was admitted to bail. After much disturbance, several fights, and a serious appearance of a civil war between them, the matter was finally compromised by a union of the two companies. In these operations his lordship had expended at least £60,000, and seriously, if not ruinously impaired his fortune. We introduced him to the ladies, among whom, the most conspicuous, was Mrs. Hunter, wife of the Senator William Hunter of Rhode Island. She was as agreeable as beautiful, and was the idol of worship to all the gentlemen of the mess, whose attentions she seemed no ways disposed to repel, but maintained a perfect impartiality to all that approached to offer up their incense to her attractions. The Senator did not interfere in the least, and showed no signs of jealousy at the marked, but respectful, behavior which was so generally bestowed on his lady. We had a regular contest every evening, for a seat by her side on the sofa, and it was amusing to observe the tricks played upon each other to obtain the favored place. While two gentlemen were up in a scuffle for that honor, I once slipped behind them and got it myself, to their discomfiture and the merriment of the company. We practised the game of battledore with the ladies, and one of us made it a point to challenge Mrs. Hunter, in order to have an opportunity of gazing on her fine person as she displayed it before us, in every variety of attitude which that graceful game was calculated to show her in. We got his lordship to join in the amusement, and he soon became a good proficient. He however maintained a grave and dignified countenance, though without the least tinge of lordly pride. He escaped the fascination which bound us, and left us very favorable impressions of his correct deportment, great intelligence and pleasing and unaspiring manners.


        Our social enjoyments, however, were soon destined to a painful interruption, and our pleasant company dispersed among other messes. Bailey did not, with all his extravagant charges, meet his expenses. He was himself a gambler and possessed dissipated habits. He was living with a woman, in rather a questionable state of moral propriety, though she officiated as a helpmate in the culinary and other domestic duties of the establishment. Times began to grow hard and pinching among the messes. Sometimes the wood was out, and consequently our fires. The good provision of the table began to diminish and dish after dish disappeared, until we were in danger of being seated at another watery feast of Timon. The creditors applied in vain for their dues, and some of them anticipating the difficulty, had been beforehand with others, obtained judgment against Bailey, and for want of something more convenient took his precious body, and as they could not "coin it into ducats," put it into durance vile. We were for days put on short rations, and had to supply the deficiency by our own means. After Bailey had suffered confinement for a week or so, he contrived to escape, and




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in so doing, made a general jail delivery, for he took nearly the whole broadside of the building with him. Upon viewing the hole whence he made his exit, a chasm in the wall appeared, from the upper story window nearly to the basement, and large enough to drive in a wagon and team. The marshal, Mr. Ringgold, advertised a reward of $500 for the seizure and delivery of the said Bailey, or securing him in any county jail. In a few days afterwards, large placards were everywhere posted up offering a reward of $1000 for the said Ringgold to be paid on delivery of him to Robert Bailey, and a proportionate sum for both or either of his ears - signed by the said Bailey and dated from his retreat in Berkley County. Our sufferings at last became too intolerable to hear. Mr. and Mrs. Hunter looked out for another house, and we soon followed their example, and found not only cheaper, but better fare. The session closed in May, and I returned home and made the usual tour of the district. Whether it was from my invitation in my speech on the internal improvement resolution, or from a laudable desire to make a tour of inspection personally, as Mr. Monroe afterwards stated, in June he did us the honor of paying us a visit. He came out with about twenty gentlemen as an escort, besides four or five as a part of his family, among whom was his and his wife's nephews, James Monroe and Samuel Gouverneur, Esqrs., of New York. We received them as they reached us from Norfolk, by the Dismal Swamp road, they having passed a part of the day in visiting Lake Drummond, and spent that night at a public house on the Canal, about sixteen miles from Elizabeth City. In returning from the lake in a yawl boat, furnished from the Navy Yard at Gosport, and manned by four of the seamen, she struck on a stump, and canting to one side, threw a greater part of the passengers overboard. The water was not over four feet deep, but was plentifully intermixed with mud, and several gentlemen, among them Com. Elliot got a due proportion of both. When they arrived at the hotel, in the carriage, the Commodore hastened to divest himself of his muddy garments and to invest himself with those of a lighter complexion. His mind, however, was ill at ease with the accident, and in giving vent to his discontent, did not spare even his Excellency himself, who happened to be standing near the carriage at the time. The Commodore in loud terms cursed the folly of a President of the United States in attempting such puerile trips in such a place, and throwing his friends into such a ridiculous plight.


        In the midst of his soliloquy, Mr. Monroe put his head into the door of the carriage, and saluted the abashed Commodore with the question, "What is the matter, friend Elliot?" The Commodore laid an injunction of secrecy upon the cause of his complaints, and hastened his toilet in perfect silence. We heard of their approach; and in the afternoon I rode a few miles out to meet the cortege, the dust of which, for near a mile off, gave signs of their approach. The President's carriage, surrounded by a dozen attendants on horseback, was in the van, and Mr. Crowninshield and Calhoun followed, and I fell into the rear, and joined them at the City Hotel. Here I introduced a large number of the citizens, and at their motion I invited Mr. Monroe and his party to remain over the next day, to give our constituents the opportunity of tendering to him the hospitalities of the town, and to become their guest at a dinner the next day. He and his numerous escort accepted the invitation; and accordingly a large number of the citizens united on the occasion, and sat down with them to an excellent repast, in which a fine green turtle presented the most inviting dish.


        My brother Enoch was Collector of the port, and with the other brother, Wilson, composed a part or the company at dinner. My brother's (the Collector's) residence; a spacious mansion, was three miles distance, across his toll-bridge, in Camden County. He invited Mr. Monroe, and all his escort, to spend the evening with him at his house. Upon his assenting, he merely




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wrote three lines, and sent a messenger to his wife, notifying her of the honor of the intended visit. Had the President come, like Lear with his hundred knights, he could have accommodated them. I took Mr. Calhoun in my barouche, and all the rest of the company followed in their carriages and on horseback. Among the number I may mention the Secretary of the Navy. Mr. Crowninshield; Mr. Basset, a member of Congress from York district; Mr. Newton, from Norfolk; Col. James Monroe, and Mr. Samuel Gouverneur, the President's private Secretary, and ten or a dozen private gentlemen, that joined the suite at Norfolk. My niece Mary, a beautiful and accomplished young maiden, entertained the party, after early tea, till bedtime, by some of her best airs on the harp, an instrument on which she excelled, accompanied by a sweet well-trained voice. Col. Swift was the gentleman, usher and cashier to the President. Before tea, it being the month of roses, Mary went to the flower garden, to prepare a bouquet for the President. Col. Swift watched her; and as soon as she came through the gate with a beautiful bunch of flowers, declaring that he must have it, gave chase to her: they had a hard race for it, but she reached the President first and put it in his hands. We passed an agreeable evening. The President appeared highly gratified at his reception, and always made it a point to inquire particularly into the welfare of the family upon meeting me afterwards. The next morning the President took his leave, and the whole cavalcade departed, on their return to Norfolk, and thence on their route homewards. Elizabeth city being the termination of their Southern jaunt that year; but I may state, the same party, with his Excellency, paid us another visit the following year, when I had the honor of meeting them at Educton, and introducing them to my constituents there; my brother, Dr. Sawyer, being among the principal ones to join in honoring the company by a grand ball and supper in the evening, after a sumptuous dinner in the large room of the Court-house. The President thence proceeded in a steamboat furnished by the mail contractor, down the Albemarle Sound, with Col. Swift and others, to make a reconnoisance about the Inlet of Nag's head, and the Narrows at Roanoke Sound: with whom I was especially invited to join, but respectfully declined. Mr. Calhoun concluding to proceed homewards, to S. C., we obtained for him a private conveyance from a friend near Windsor, in Berlin County, to Tarboro, whence he could obtain a seat in a regular stage. On the return of the party from Roanoke, we separated, they returning to the north, through Gates and Nansemond, and I finished my election tour by the end of June. Having "made my calling and election sure," and finding, for the first time, the track clear, I concluded to spend a part of my earnings, thus unexpectedly saved, by a trip up the Bay to Baltimore. I was absent during the day of election in August, a rather dangerous hazard, but it was not much known in the district. I was on my way back homeward, and reached the district on the evening of the same day; but finding all right, I again turned to the sea-shore, and took passage, at Currituck Inlet, in a small coasting vessel, as none other could find water enough over the bar, and made my annual tour from Baltimore to New York. In October I was joined by my brother Wilson, wife and eldest son Julian, then five years old, who came on by sea in a brig of his. We re-established our health, and passed an agreeable season, which that great emporium always presents in the fall, when the climate and the conflux of travellers combine with various other means to please and gratify the temporary resident.


        I may here casually mention, that Jacob Barker was then in his zenith of prosperity; and the first time I had ever tasted of that popular dish, chowder, was at a supper at his house, to which myself and brother were invited. The company consisted of some of the first characters of the State, the Mayor, De Witt Clinton, Judge Smith Thompson, and' Ambrose Spencer.




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I found Mr. Spencer a remarkably pleasant and gentlemanly personage. He asked my advice on the subject of internal improvement, it being then contemplated to hazard a beginning of the Erie Canal, whether it would be worth while, or proper, to apply to Congress for aid in that vast undertakeg. I candidly stated my objections, and the difficulties they would experience, if they waited the tardy and doubtful motions of that body, to commence the enterprise. He was convinced by my reasons, and concluded it the best and most noble policy to rely upon the unaided energies of his own State. His son, John C. was then a member elect, and was to take his seat at the ensuing session of Congress. The Judge was polite enough to commit his youth and inexperience to my more mature judgment and direction. I could but smile at the suggestion, and answered the Judge, that I had too humble a sense of my unworthiness, and thought his son was much more able to advise and direct me than I him. The party passed off pleasantly; though I thought Mr. Clinton rather a dull companion. He said little; and all the observation he made at supper was, that the lawyers, of whom there were two or three distinguished ones present, governed the State. They ruled and controlled the Judges, and the Judges ruled the people; which aphorism, if applied to one branch of the justiciary, the Chancery, would not have been far from the truth. I did not relish Mr. Barker's chowder, which was a villainous compound of offensive tastes; in which artificial fire, in the shape of Cayenne pepper, predominated. The rest of the company thought otherwise; and as there is no disputing about tastes, I let them have their own way, without being convinced by their persuasion and example.


        Early in December we set out on our return, and travelled a part of the way with some distinguished characters: among them Mr. Forsyth, who paid marked attention to Mr. and Mrs. Sawyer and their boy Julian. At Baltimore we separated, he going down the Bay to Norfolk and I proceeding to Washington. On arriving at Rossburg, three miles from Bladensburgh, I left the stage, resolved to rest there that night, for the roads were then so rough and broken, that I was so much jolted as to require a night's repose. Just before night a carriage and four drove up, in which I observed two gentlemen and as many ladies. I took the liberty of waiting upon the ladies, and handing them out. They were remarkably handsome, and one of them, the youngest, particularly. We entered the parlor together; and addressing myself to the youngest gentleman, mentioned the circumstance of my remaining over night, and that I thought it would pass more agreeably if could have the pleasure of forming their acquaintance. For that purpose I begged leave to introduce myself; and Mr. Stoughton immediately introduced me to Don. Onis and his daughters, now on his way to the city, as minister from Spain. The ladies spoke our language as well as natives.


        We established a lasting friendship; and Mr. Onis gave me an invitation to call on him at his residence. Soon after arriving at the city, as the rule is, I left my card, and in three days received Don Onis in return, and was among the first guests invited to dinner; where I had the honor of a seat near the ladies. We frequently met at ball parties, given at their own house, and by the other foreign ministers, especially Mr. Hyde De Neuville, where I had the pleasure of dancing with them as partners in cotillions. I was the best representative from the South, on the floor; and it was no trifling art, but one which rendered me always an eligible partner to the ladies. The figure was not given out then as now, by a leader of the band, nor were there a regular series of them, but every tune had its own particular figure allotted to it, of which scores of promiscuous ones were played in the course of the evening. I have often been amused and flattered to observe the parties in the nearest sets waiting to see me lead off, which I always could do without hesitation. The ladies occasionally visited the sessions of the House,




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when I uniformly joined them in the gallery, Don Onis, owing to the ill treatment of Spain, and the exciting discussion going on between him and Mr. Adams on the subject of the cession of Florida, in 1819, was rather in bad odor when he came within the bar of the House, as the rules allowed, to witness our proceedings; none of the members, except myself, saluted him. I always approached him in a friendly manner, and entered into a sociable conversation. With Mr. Stoughton, who is since the Spanish Consul at the port of New York, and was then attached to the embassy as Secretary of Legation, I have maintained an uninterrupted friendship. The eldest daughter was married by proxy to the Marquis Heredia; and since their return home, about the year 1822, after we had closed the treaty of cession of Florida. I have not heard the fate of the youngest sister, though she deserved a happy one. The Chevalier died a few years since.


        I was laid up the greater part of the session of 1820, at Baltimore, being taken with my old symptoms of gastric and nervous irritation and debility, on the road from the north; and the fatigue of the journey and cold weather aggravating the disease, so that I did not resume my seat till the 20th of April, about the time of the duel between Decatur and Barron. I had lost so much ground in the popular favor by this and other detentions from my seat, and long absence, by which my name was so often out of the list of the ayes and noes on the journals, that it was remarked and made an objection against my re-election. So that by the time I returned home, early in June, I found a competitor in the field against me, Gen. James Iredel, a gentleman at the head of the bar, and one who has had the honor since of being also at the head of the State government, and Senator in Congress. He, however, was not popular on account of his politics, being on the opposite one to the administration, or what was called a federalist. I had only to ride through the country, to associate among my old friends, to remove the unfavorable impression which they had felt, on account of my long and frequent absence from the house, and to turn the current of popular prejudice in my favor. But the course my adversary took against me completely ruined his chance, and that blow which he intended against me, rebounded on his own head. Some malicious personal enemy at Washington had been plying him with letters from that place, with charges and certificates to prove my previous connection with a woman of bad fame, which, though I am ashamed of confessing contained too much truth, yet I was not singular in that offense, though I was singled out as a victim to a base and unworthy motive. Mr. Iredel gave copies to the printers, two of whom were on his side in politics. They seized the food of slander with avidity, and distributed handbills through the district, with an expectation that I would be overwhelmed with the storm of excitement it would create. They fell into their own snare. General indignation was excited, but against themselves, and I rode on the wave of popular favor that engulphed them, while it landed me safe and triumphant in my seat again. My majority was over seventeen hundred. I felt, of course, an additional share of gratitude for this unmerited generosity, by which the people had consigned my offences against good morals to oblivion, and pressed me to their hearts notwithstanding my sin. I determined, however, to give no future occasion for a repetition of the offense, or of the accusation, and on going to Washington I decided to marry the first decent girl I met. I was fated to forego the pleasure of wife-hunting, however, and to suffer that privation among others from the effects of a severe cold caught on board the packet by sleeping near the door of the cabin of the packet on my way to Washington on the 1st of December. The disease settled in my head, and although it did not prevent my daily attendance in the house, yet the pain, which seemed to come on in regular paroxysms at night, was so severe that I could not lie in a recumbent




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posture, nor get a wink of sleep till near midnight. After suffering this till March, a friend called to see me; upon learning the nature of my . complaint, he gave me the pleasing assurance of an infallible remedy, as he had used it frequently in similar cases. It was warm French brandy, well applied at night, on going to bed, by the hands, and continued for half an hour, enveloping the head in flannel. I tried it, and went to bed a well man. A few days afterwards another acquaintance called on me, and hearing me complain of my lonely condition and of my determination quickly to change it, without waiting for the usual tedious process of courtship, informed me that he knew of a good opportunity of my being accommodated, as there were two sisters who occupied a part of the same house with his family. The father had been a wealthy farmer, represented the County of Bedford in the Senate of Pennsylvania, but had met with a great reverse, and was now living in poverty. He offered to introduce me, and I accordingly accompanied him to the house, and was presented to the family. The eldest sister, a most beautiful creature, was put forward to receive my onset. I was satisfied, that time, with a short reconnoisance. I called again the next afternoon, and observing the younger sister, who was refused to me, (as they term it in military phrase, where a wing of the army is not brought into action) busily employed in the labor of the house, I approached her, and after a few preliminary remarks, opened at once the business of my negotiation. I found her innocence personified, very handsome, and possessed of a sweet look and disposition, and though only sixteen years of age, while I was on the wrong side of forty, I at once proposed myself. She at first objected her tender age and inexperience in household affairs, but finally agreed to permit me to ask the consent of her parents. They knew something of me from the partial representation of our mutual acquaintance, and I did not leave their door till they had given their approbation to the match. Thus, within three days after I first saw the young lady, she became my wife I had no time to inquire into her disposition or temper, but I judged very correctly, from the unerring signs her physiognomy exhibited, with the few sentiments I heard from her lips; and knowing as I did that matrimony was a lottery in which the adventurer, no matter how deliberately he may put his hand in the wheel, was as apt to draw a blank as a prize, I ventured at once. I never had occasion to repent of my choice. She was the most gentle, modest, sweet-tempered creature I ever knew. She humored me in all my caprices and irritability of temper, and would never betray the least anger or obstinacy, however much provoked. She led me a quiet, peaceful, and happy life, the three short years she was spared to me. I advanced her parents funds to extricate their furniture from mortgage, and enabled the mother to open a respectable boarding-house on the Pennsylvania Avenue, where we took a room and had an agreeable mess of members for several succeeding sessions. She bore me three children, but they died in early infancy, except a son, who lived to be able to walk and begin to speak, but unfortunately she took; him with her in the summer of 1824, to our residence in N. C., which is a most unhealthy spot at that season, where he was soon after attacked with bilious fever, that settled into a bowel complaint that carried him off, dying in my arms on our arrival in Washington the following November. The year previous, in September, 1823, I had imprudently returned to my district the last of August, and before the close of September was attacked with my old nervous disease, accompanied with an alarming affection of the heart. I lingered till the beginning of November, before I felt sufficiently restored to dare venture on my journey to Washington, and that by short and easy stages. I made out to reach my niece's, living on the canal, twelve miles from Elizabeth City, who was married to a wealthy gentleman by the name of Samuel Proctor; and remained with them several




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days in a state of much debility. Unfortunately, the canal was emptied for the purpose of excavation, except to the first lock, a distance of six miles. I reached there by water, and remained at a friend's over night, the next day I started with a view of reaching Deep Creek, a distance of about twenty miles, but on going about half the distance, though only in a walk, in an easy gig, and frequently stopping to rest, I could reach only the second lock, where I hoped to find enough water to enable me to descend the balance of the way in a canoe or skiff. But I was disappointed. Nor was that the worst of it, for there was no house to stop at, but mere negro huts, without going over a logged road through a swamp, the place called Bear Swamp, two miles distant. It was night when I came there, and though the house was not comfortable, the landlord gave me a hospitable reception, and I lay down, hoping to attain that greatest balm to a diseased and fatigued body, but I found none. As usual in such cases, a reaction ensued, with most distressing symptoms. I arose next morning from a restless couch, and when I looked around and saw myself two miles from the canal, in the midst of a swamp, fit for the habitation of bears, I could not perceive by what infatuation I had got into such a trap, not being in my recollection one of those quadrupeds, though feeling very much like another, of harder hoofs and longer ears. I had to "suffer durance vile" for two weeks before I gained strength to reach the canal again. Then after waiting half the day, the promised skiff came, there being only six or eight inches water to float in. I made out to get to Deep Creek that night, and felt too weak the next day to leave, and was there a week longer before I could venture to be floated down to Gosport, where I landed and stopped at a friend's for a fortnight longer, though only a mile from Norfolk. I was too weak to make the least exertion to cross the river. I received the kindest treatment here for three weeks, during which time my wife joined me from Washington, and bestowed on me her tenderest and holiest care. We made out in December to get to Norfolk, and remain under the roof of my sister. But as the session was advancing, and ended the 4th of March, and my condition too precarious and weak to undertake the completion of my long journey of two hundred and fifty miles by water, and my friends at home writing discontented letters, and threatening me with a loss of my election if I did not go on, my situation was little short of distraction. The jarring of the steam- boat was always very prejudicial to me, especially on a trip when I had to remain all night on board, as I could not sleep for that vile noise of the machinery, and I apprehended the most disastrous consequences upon adventuring on it, the first of January, in my weak state. However, I was so importuned, and my wife being also anxious, I started. We unfortunately encountered a head wind and snow storm, and were thirty-six hours going the trip. Of course, I was taken out of my berth in a state of exhaustion, and carried to my mother-in-law's, where I lay so helpless that I could not turn in bed, and had to be fed with a spoon, like a child. My wife was an angel of mercy hovering over me, with healing in her wings. Her cheerful, soothing voice and constant presence kept me from sinking entirely, although I thought I must go to my long home, not having closed my eyes for nine nights and days. By a milk diet, which I commenced on the tenth day of my confinement, a little sleep was restored to me, and by constant and careful nursing, I began slowly to recover. All kinds of medicine so entirely disagreed with me that I dismissed my physician. It was March before I could leave my room, and the House adjourned without my being able to take my seat. I was able to return home in June, yet on trial I broke down in making the circuit of the district, and was beaten by a small majority. I had no right to calculate on being re-elected under such circumstances, as this was the third session I had entirely lost, besides several intervals and




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days, by indisposition. My wife, whom I accompanied to Norfolk, returned home and remained there the whole of the fall and winter of 1824.


        I vamped up a manuscript comedy that I had laying by me, called Blackbeard, and paid a visit to my wife in Washington in May, 1824. I concluded to publish a small edition of the comedy by subscription, and for that purpose consulted with Mr. Clay, the Speaker of the House. He encouraged me to take that step, and promised to head the list, and give it a motion through the House. I accordingly handed it to him to which he put his name, and by the aid of the boys who attended on the members in the hall the list circulated freely, and the second day after came out of the House with seventy names attached to it, which just paid the cost of publication; so that I had a clear gain in the sale of about four hundred copies, at thirty seven and a half cents each. It does not become me to boast of any merit or praise which rewarded me in addition to the profit of the work. But I received enough of both to satisfy me - in fact, more than I deserved. I returned to my district after an absence of fifteen months, and although it might have been objected to me on the score of non-residence, yet the people disliked my successor, he had made himself so unpopular by voting against General Jackson for the Presidency.


        The election took place in Currituck (the lowest county, and bordering on Virginia), the last week in July, and about two weeks before the general election. I visited the county about a week previous, intending to make a circuit through a part of it, but was unfortunately seized with a bilious remittent, which confined me till the day of the election. I then made a desperate effort, as my election in a measure depended on it, and reached the principal ground of election (there were eight or ten districts) as the polls opened. I resolutely kept on my feet, though quite feeble, until the polls were closed, when I found I had obtained a majority of 40 in that district. Though I learned the next day, my adversary, by the means of treating and other electioneering tricks, succeeded in the county at large by the usual majority of 300. That county always voted against me of late years, in consequence of my having beaten two of their candidates at different times, who opposed me in Congress, and in doing so excited them and their connections and friends against me, and made them my implacable foes. - The next Monday was the court week for Camden County, adjoining Currituck, and the place of my nativity, and the bones of my ancestors rested within a mile of the court house ground - I addressed my old friends, though showing the effects of my disease by a sallow look and sore lips, I concluded by encouraging them to support me, notwithstanding the loss of Currituck, for with their aid, I could easily balance that majority, and return triumphant from the upper counties. They promised to give it. Two days before the election in the district at large, I went to Perquimons, the middle county, where I thought the issue doubtful., where, from my non-attendance at the last election, I imputed my defeat. There was a separate election the Thursday or day before the principal one, in the upper part of the county, which I attended. I was induced to play their own acts upon my adversaries, and treated pretty largely to such entertainment as the place afforded, in the shape of melons and the distilled juice of the apple, which I repeat, is the most palatable in our opinion, of all the products of the still. I obtained a majority there of four-fifths with the news of which I return to Hertford, as a favorable prelude to the battle of the next day. Before the polls were opened on the morning of Friday, I distributed my file leaders at their posts, well supplied with proper ammunition and went up and down the ranks to encourage my partisans. We gained the day by an overwhelming majority, but it nearly cost me my life. I was overcome with fatigue. heat and fever, and had to remain at head quarters a week. Knowing the anxiety




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of my friends to hear the result from the centre where I was, and the upper county where my opponent went. I wrote them, somewhat in this form, and what was droll, sent it by a parson who was passing at the time.


Bulletin of the grand army,

            Head-quarters, Hertfort,August 13, 1825



        "I hasten to give you the result of the glorious victory gained over the caucusites. Finding they had made an impression on my vanguard, stationed in Currituck, by their sharp shooters, and in the use of all kinds of missiles, particularly in a large quantity of liquid fire, by which they gained a temporary advantage, and hoped to dispirit my men at the main battle, I determined to oppose them with the same weapons. I took my station in the centre, and having given the proper orders to officer Col. Morgan, commanding the right wing at Murfreesboro, and Gen. White of the left wing stationed at Edenton, I made my dispositions for a general attack of the enemy on the morning of the 10th. Hearing, however, that the enemy was preparing to establish a post at Newby, in the upper end of the county, and to attempt a sortie on me on the 9th, I hastened up there with reinforcements and an ammunition wagon loaded with a fresh supply of white ruin, melons, and gingerbread. We took them by a coup de main within two hours after the firing commenced, we made 120 prisoners, with the trifling loss of only 21 on our part. From thence I hastened to head quarters, at Hertford, to make arrangements for the great battle of the ensuing day. The sun rose bright and warm, and I mustered my officers, after they had partaken of refreshments, and distributed them at their respective posts. At 10 o'clock, I rode up and down the ranks with my aids, and encouraged my troops to maintain their reputation of veterans, which they had so well earned in seven great victories. They responded with three hearty cheers. I felt confident of success, and took my stand, a little in the rear, and near the Inn, where I could see the evolutions and operations of the lines, and be at hand to ply the ammunition as occasion required. I issued my commands to engage, as the hour of ten arrived, and the engagement commenced with great gallantry by my troops, but with an apparent apathy on the part of the enemy. Soon after the action commenced, their ranks were thinned by desertion, and by 4 o'clock the battle was gained in the complete rout of the enemy, horse, foot, and dragoons. Their leader fell in the engagement, while I received a contusion in the breast by a water-melon, which has confined me to my quarters for the present, but I hope to take up my line of march on my return home, there to dismiss my men, and give them their well earned honorable discharge from this war, till it may be necessary to re-enlist them in the sping of 1827, should the enemy then, under some other leader, attempt to rally the scattered forces of the caucusites."



        The reading of the bulletin created as much merriment as gratification to a knot of my friends at Elizabeth city, on the evening of the same day, and they enjoyed the joke also from the circumstance that so ludicrous a communication had been delivered by so grave a personage as an episcopal clergyman. I returned at the day appointed, having entirely recovered from my exhaustion and my wound; which, in truth, proceeded from the effects of the missile internally. My triumph, however, was marred by the dangerous state in which I found my only child Helenus, about sixteen months old, whom my wife had improvidently brought with her in May, from Washington, and who was a fine, promising child, just learning to walk, and to pronounce the endearing names of his father and mother. By proper treatment the fever abated, but the disease settled on his bowels, and became obstinately chronic, under which our dear child gradually sunk. My wife delayed too long her return to the city. Had she started soon after I went home in August, the child might have had strength to bear the journey. But by waiting till November,




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it was too near gone, and the jarring of the steamer from Norfolk to Washington, over two hundred miles distant, completely exhausted him, and he expired, as I stated, in my arms in ten minutes after arrival. Out of four or five born to me by my two first wives, this was the only child that bid fair to live to years of maturity.


        I was always a great reader. Being of a delicate constitution, I seldom ventured out at night in search of amusement or pleasure, and was in a measure forced to supply their place with books, to occupy my mind agreeably on long winter evenings. The library of Congress afforded a rich literary repast, containing the contributions of the highest talents from all parts of the world, too costly for any private collection, and surpassing all other public ones in America for the number and value of its books. I gathered the best specimens and rarest articles from all the different kingdoms of knowledge, which I stored away, having a bad memory, in a manuscript volume, for future reference and use. This enabled me to be always ready, during the discussion of any important question, with some illustration, fact, or argument by which I could enrich my discourse, whenever I thought proper to take the floor. I had the advantage over every other member from this magazine of learning, and was like an armed man meeting a naked adversary in the field of debate. I had levied many contributions from Ross and Parry's voyages for the discovery of a Northwest passage, and fortunately they soon became available on a resolution introduced by Mr. Baylies, of Massachusetts. As great injustice has been done me, by snatching from my hand the honor of being the best projector in this country of a voyage of discovery, in justice to my claim I may here give a detailed history of the proceedings, and my speech on the occasion.


        On the 18th of December, 1825, Mr. Bailies called up his resolution, which was in the following words: - " Resolved, That the Secretary be required to inform this House whether the sloop of war Boston might not be employed in exploring the N. W. coast of America, its rivers and inlets between the parallels of latitude 42 and 48 north, without detriment to the naval service of the United States, and whether the expense incurred on such service would exceed the ordinary expense of such vessel while cruising; and also whether it would be practicable to transmit more cannon and munitions of war in said vessel, than would be necessary for use." I proposed an amendment to the resolution as follows: - "and thence proceed into Behring's Straits, and, if practicable, to continue her route into the Polar Sea, or through the opening of Prince Regent's Inlet, or Barrow's Strait, into Baffin's, Hudson's and Davis' Bays, and thence down said bays to some port in the United States."


        In support of my proposition I arose and observed, "that this amendment was predicated upon that part of the President's message which relates to our contribution of mind, of labor, and expense to the acquisition of knowledge, and has reference to those numerous voyages of discovery of a N. W. passage to China which have been fitted out of late years, particularly by Great Britain. In 1818 a ship was sent under the direction of Capt. Ross, who for the first time made the circuit of Baffin's Bay, and penetrated as far as 77° N., two degrees beyond the place called Red Head, the highest point reached by whalers. He not only enlarged the sphere of geographical science so much as to render the maps of this section of our continent useless, and added many facts and subjects to natural history, but led his adventurous countrymen through fields and mountains of ice to new harbors of the whale, where full cargoes of whale oil are obtained in a comparatively short time. He invented the deep sea clam, an instrument that brings up portions of the soil from a depth of seven hundred fathoms. He was succeeded in 1810, by Capt. Parry, the fearless champion of science, who in three successive voyages




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has discovered no less than three passages into the Polar Seas, that might lead through Behring's Straits into the Pacific. In his final voyage he discovered the openings which he named after his ships the Fury and Hecla; in his second and third, he found those which he called Prince Regent's Inlet, and Barrow's Strait. It is but three months since he returned from his third voyage, which failed from the loss of one of his ships, the Fury, that was wrecked by a flue of ice, while running through Barrow's Straits with every prospect of success. In his second voyage Capt. Parry obtained the bounty of 1000l., granted by Parliament to the navigator who should first reach the 110th degree of West longitude. He also passed over a portion of the magnetic pole, in lat. 74 and longitude 100 west, immediately after which the compass before varied 108. 58' changed to 165.50' east.


        "Capt. Parry has enriched physical science by many valuable contributions. Contemporaneous with the last voyage was a land expedition under Capt. John Franklin, through the United British Fur Company's posts, down the Coppermine river to the sea. He arrived at the Arctic Sea in August, 1820, and navigated it in a NE. direction in canoes for several hundred miles. He discovered the group of Islands which he named King George the Fourth's Archipelago. He is now performing another journey in that direction, and contemplates meeting Capt. Parry at some given point on the Polar Sea. In about the latitude 64°N., he passed the zenith of the Aurora Borealis, which, as he proceeded, appeared in the southern portion of the heavens. He endeavored to ascertain whether this electric fluid emitted any noise, as is alleged by the Indians and factors, but left that problem still in doubt. He made many observations on the intensity of the magnetic forces in different stations, from the oscillations of the needle - and on meteorology, settled the latitude and longitude of many remarkable points, immortalized his friends and patrons by giving their names to them, and brought home immense spoils from the zoological, botanical, and mineralogical kingdoms.


        "The enterprising king of Britain deserves much praise for the lead he has taken, in conjunction with France and Russia, and the perseverance with which he has pursued these hazardous, expensive, and disinterested expeditions for the common benefit of mankind. The time has come for this nation likewise to enter into this glorious career of discovery and human improvement. Are we for ever to remain idle spectators of those splendid exertions to trace our own continent? Will none but kings enlist in the cause of science? I had as soon borrow their money without any intention of repaying it, as to borrow their knowledge that they have been at such great pains to acquire. We ought to feel that unhappiness that Alexander felt, upon learning the conquests of his father, Philip, for fear he would leave him nothing to conquer. These views of policy, however, being new to us, I cannot flatter myself that they will be greeted by a majority of the House, I content myself by proving that I am willing to go as far, if not farther, than the avowed friends of the President on this part of his recommendation. Can it be pretended that a mere reconnoissance of seven degrees of latitude will be received as a discharge of our part of this debt to science, which the President justly pronounces sacred.


        "The ship, according to this resolution, is to cruize within our acknowledged limits, which from the Spanish boundary of 42° to the British of 49° of N. latitude, includes a space of 420 miles. It is with the view of making a tender, on the part of my constituents, of their part of this debt, that I have offered this amendment."


        As I anticipated, the amendment was lost, being opposed by Mr. Bailies himself, who had some fears that his own resolution would not pass, if encumbered with my amendment. His was therefore agreed to, but owing to the stupidity of the mover, in proposing it as a single, instead of a joint resolution,




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the President refused to carry it into effect. My speech was published the next morning in the city papers, and copied and circulated through all parts of the Union, and found its way in some of the magazines of England. The great credit which was awarded me for this effort to originate a voyage of discovery, amply repaid me for the failure, and the censure that Mr. Bailies received, even in his own State, would have atoned for any illiberal treatment towards me, which I might have accused him of. The impulse thus given, however, to the cause of discovery was not suffered to languish, or to cease with this first effort. The nation was aroused and caught fire at the imagination of the glory it might wrest from the grasp of a rival power on this untried field of enterprise, and would not rest satisfied until an expedition was authorized. Although our government thought proper to give its destination a southern direction, and others have arrogated all the credit of the enterprise, yet in truth and in justice it of right belongs to me, as the first originator and supporter of the proposition. I forwarded a copy of my amendment, with the accompanying remarks, and the subsequent defense, to Capt. Parry, and they were published, with handsome comments, in the Westminster Review, and re-copied in the North American. The pride and liberality of Great Britain was again appealed to, and the government entreated to persevere in its determination to find the long-sought NW. passage, before they were outstripped in the race of glory by the infant republic. I received a complimentary, letter from Capt. Parry, which is inserted below, and another expedition was fitted out under Lieut. Ross, which extended very much the field of geographical science, and found the location of the magnetic pole.






Admiralty. London, Jan. 30, 1826.



        "DEAR SIR: - I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 17th of December, enclosing an account of the proceedings of the House of Representatives upon an amendment moved by yourself to a resolution on the subject of discovery on the N. W. coast of America.


        In offering you my warm thanks for the very flattering manner in which you have been pleased to mention my humble services in the cause of science, as well as for your kindness in forwarding to me the account of your proceedings, I beg to assure you of the sense I entertain of the liberal and disinterested motives which have induced you to step forward in the same cause on this occasion. Enterprises of this kind, so liberal in their nature and their object, cannot fail to do honor to the country that undertakes them, even if they do not prove absolutely successful; and I cannot but consider it a proud distinction for you to have been the first individual of your Assembly to propose a measure so creditable as that of promoting science for its own sake. Though your first attempt in this way has failed, I trust, sir, that you will prove more fortunate in any future endeavors in furtherance of that end.


        I believe it is not in contemplation at present to send out any further expedition from this country to the Northwest. It is, indeed, more than probable that we shall await the return of Capt. Franklin, who is now about to proceed down Mackenzie's River in order to determine the actual position of the Northern coast of America. Should any future attempts be determined on, I need scarcely assure you that I am at all times willing and ready to undertake the enterprise, which will, I doubt not, one day or other be accomplished.


Your faithful and obedient servant,



To the Hon. Lemuel Sawyer.




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        On the 27th of January, 1826, I had to suffer a most severe domestic affliction in the loss of my faithful, kind and affectionate wife. As if she had a presentiment of her approaching fate, she had occupied a seat by me, every night during the winter, and while I was engaged till bedtime in reading books of general literature, she was intently engaged in perusing the Scripture. We had attended the Jackson anniversary ball on the night of the 8th, where she seemed to enjoy herself and was pronounced one of the handsomest women in the room being then in blooming health and only 20 years of age. In returning from the heated room, the night being cold, it is probable she took cold, for in a day or two afterwards she was troubled with a cough. She showed no serious symptoms, however, till the morning of the 18th, when she was seized with a chill, followed by a fever, and a violent affection, or inflammation of the lungs. Her breathing became quick and difficult, literally panting for breath with her tongue out. I never witnessed so violent a pulmonic affection, and saw at once her imminent danger. I attended her as constantly as I could, and frequently stole away from my seat in the house for that purpose and regretted one day in particular, when being called to the chair in committee of the whole house on a contested election case, I was detained from her till late in the afternoon, and upon flying to her bedside was shocked to find her fever much aggravated with the other symptoms, from the imprudent use of some cordials her relatives had given her. Her sufferings continued unabated and extreme, during the whole progress of the disease. I called in a physician, being a member of the house and a friend of ours, but I fear his remedy did harm. Her pulse was never under 140, and oftener 160 beats in a minute and yet he bled her three times. As it must have been of a typus grade, this depletion was injudicious. I called in another physician of the city of long established reputation, and be applied all the other remedies that suggested themselves, as a blister on the breast and m ild evacuation. But it was all in vain. Though she continued to suffer thus for nine days, such excruciating agony, without a moment's sleep or respite from pain, she never uttered a complaint. The violence of the disease, on the ninth day of its continuance, forced a premature delivery of a male infant which survived only twenty-four hours. She was sensible to the last. She began to sink gradually after the exhaustion from child birth. In the afternoon of the ninth day of her illness, seeing her friends seated around her with sorrow depicted in their countenances, she observed it and read her fate in their looks. I addressed her, and endeavoured to keep up her spirits, by assuring her I did not perceive any danger, and urged her to disregard any tokens of grief she might observe in the countenances of the female attendants and try and compose herself, to get a little sleep. She called me near her and gave the heart-rending sentence, that we must part for ever. She added some wholesome religious advice, on the score of reformation, and which I trust has not been lost on me. Besought me to be a friend of her mother, and to divide her effects between her and her sister. She then called them up end gave them her last commands, and good religious advice. - We were all overwhelmed with grief at this solemn spectacle. I asked her if she was willing to go, and she answered, yes. She rallied a little in the night, and took some soup her mother kept by the fire, and talked on religious subjects, and seemed to join in spirit and devout attention, while two Christian ladies of the neighborhood sung some hymns she requested. In the hope that she might still get some repose, I requested the company to retire, all but her mother and sister, who might rest in an adjoining bed, and to put out the light. - She endeavoured to obtain some sleep, but could not. At 3 o'clock she was seized suddenly with the pangs of death, said she could not see, and called for two candles. I was alarmed by the family, and hastened to her from another room, and found her speechless




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and moaning, and breathing heavy and hurriedly. After about five minutes from the time she was seized in the arms of the king of terrors, she drew a long breath, - it was her last. We followed her corpse, the second day after, to the Congress burying-ground, an appendage to the Presbyterian church, and situated near the eastern branch, not far from the navy yard, where she was deposited, with her infant, among the monuments of the mighty dead. She made so noble an end, that I made a memorandum of the circumstances at the time, and challenge the whole mortuary of philosophers or heroes to produce a more enviable one. But it was in a great measure constitutional. A happy temperament, a good, easy, and tranquil mind, not subject to nervous irritation, both ensure exemplary lives and happy ends. And to crown such blessed characters with the faith and holiness of Christianity in their last trying scene, is all that is required to elevate them to the dignity of angels, and console their surviving friends.



        I continued my course of reading, and filled my Album, or what I called Museum of Literary Curiosities, by transferring to it every remarkable fact and interesting passage, culled from natural science, history, voyages and travels. Humboldt's researches in South America afforded the richest mine of philosophical wealth. Sir Stamford Raffles' account of Java also furnished much novel and curious information. In the course of four or five years, during which I had made extracts from the choicest passages of the works I read, I had compiled two volumes of considerable size. I have to regret the loss of the first one, which was stolen from a room in Elizabeth City, with my trunk and various other articles, but I have the second one, which is full of curious and astonishing facts and circumstances, that would afford a vast deal of information and amusement, without the trouble of wading through a hundred large tomes to obtain them. I propose here, to add a few, taken at random, as specimens from hundreds which the diary contains:



Humboldt, Vol. IV. p. 188.

        The reason that the earth is soon impoverished by the culture of indigo, particularly between the tropics, is because the rays of the sun penetrate freely into the earth, and by accelerated combustion of the hydrurets of carbon, and other accidified principles, destroy the germ of fecundity. Trees and shrubs loaded with branches, such as sugar-canes, vines, &c. draw a part of their nourishment from the ambient air, and the virgin soil augments its fertility by the decomposition of the vegetable substance which progressively accumulates.


        Soil is often accused of being exhausted when in reality it is the atmosphere that is changed by the progress of cultivation and clearing. The air that embraces a virgin soil covered with forests, is loaded with humidity and those gaseous mixtures that serve for the nourishment of plants, and arise from the decomposition of organic substances. When a country has been long cultivated, it is not the proportions between azote and oxygen that vary. The constituent bases of the atmosphere remain unaltered; but, no longer contain, in a state of suspension, those vinary and ternary mixtures of carbon, azote and hydrogen which a virgin soil exhales, and which are regarded as a source of fecundity. The air, purer and less charged with miasma and heterogeneous exhalations, becomes drier, and the elasticity of the vapours undergoes a sensible diminution. - p. 245. The food of plants being already prepared and dissolved, they require no organs of digestion, because the stimulus is applied to these organs directly by the contact of the gaseous fluids which holds the pabulum in suspension; or is the food itself rather




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Too much wet and cloudy weather obstructs the growth of vegetables by preventing the sublimation of the airs in intercepting solar heat, thus causing a condensation of vapors at the surface.



Hot Springs of Trinchera - Humboldt.

        These springs are about three hours' ride from Puerto Cabello. They are the hottest in the world, except those of Urigint in Japan. They are 90° 3 of Reaumur, and boil eggs in four minutes. Notwithstanding their heat, the vegetation around them is luxuriant, and the roots of fig-trees and others have run into the bottom of the spring, at a temperature of 85°. - Hum.


        Note. - In the hot springs of Arkansas small fish exist - a species of aquatic salamander.



The Cow-Tree of Caraccas. - Humboldt.

        The Cow-Tree, Palo de Vaccas, grows at the plantation Barbula, near Puerto Cabello. This fine tree rises like the Broad-leafed Star Apple. Some of the leaves are ten inches. The fruit is somewhat fleshy and contains one and sometimes two nuts. When incisions are made in the trunk of the tree, it yields abundance of the glutinous milk, tolerably thick, destitute of all acrimony, and of an agreeable and balmy smell. It was offered us in the shell of the Calabash-tree. We drank considerable quantities of it in the evening, before we went to bed, and in the morning, without feeling the least injurious effects. The Majordomo told us the negroes grew fat during the season when the Palo di Vaca was in milk. This extraordinary tree appears to be peculiar to the Cordilleras of the coast. A common chain links together all organic nature. This tree is the connecting link between the animal and vegetable kingdoms. The inhabitants of the Andes Quindiu fabricate tapers with the thick layers of wax that cover the trunk of the palm tree. Lately has been discovered in Europe, Caseum, the basis of cheese, in the emulsion of almonds; yet for ages past the milk of a tree on the mountains of the coast of Venezuela, and the cheese separated from that vegetable milk, have been considered a salutary aliment."



Gymnotus Electricus. - The Electrical Eel.

        The electrical eel abounds in the rivers of South America, the Oronoco, the Amazon, and the Meta. In the Plains, particularly in the environs of Calabozo, the basins of stagnant water are filled with electrical eels. They are sometimes taken with the Barbasco, the root of the Piscidea Erythrina, and some pieces of phylanthrus, which, thrown into the pool, intoxicates or benumbs them.


        The Indians told me they could fish with horses - "embarbas car con cavallos" We found it difficult to form an idea of this extraordinary manner of fishing. but we soon saw our guides return from the savannah with about thirty wild horses and mules, which they forced into the water. The noise caused by the horses makes the eels rise from the mud, and excites them to combat. These yellowish and livid eels, resembling large aquatic serpents, swim on the surface, and crowd under the bellies of the horses and mules. A contest between animals of such distinct characters, furnishes a striking spectacle. The Indians, provided with harpoons and long slender reeds, surround the pool closely. Some climb the trees, the branches of which extend over the water. By their cries and their weapons, they prevent the horses from running away. The eels, aroused by the noise, defend themselves by repeated discharges of their electric batteries. During some time they appear to be victorious. Several horses sink beneath the violence of the invisible strokes they receive from all sides, and stunned by the force and




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frequency of the shocks, disappear under the water. Others panting, with mane erect and haggard eyes, raise themselves and endeavor to flee. They are driven back by the Indians, but some escape, When they reach the shore, stumbling at every step, they stretch themselves on the sand, exhausted with fatigue and benumbed by the electric shocks.


        In less than five minutes two horses were drowned. The eel being five feet long, and pressing against the belly of the horse, makes a discharge along the whole extent of its electrical organs. He attacks at once the heart, the intestines, and the plexus callideus of the abdominal nerves. The horses are probably not killed but stunned. They were drowned from the impossibility of rising from the prolonged struggle. By degrees the impetuosity of this unequal combat diminished, and the wearied gymnoti dispersed. They require long rest and nourishment to repair the loss of galvanic force. The mules and horses appear less frightened, their manes are no longer bristled, and their eyes express less dread. The gymnoti approach timidly the edge of the marsh, when they are taken by small harpoons fastened to long cords. When the cords are dry, the Indians feel no shock in raising the eels into the air. In a few minutes we had five large eels. The temperature of the water which the gymnoti inhabit is from 26 to 27° of Reaumur. It is remarkable that animals endowed with electro-motive organs, the effects of which are sensible to man, are not found in the air, but in a fluid that is a conductor of electricity. The gymnotus is the largest of electrical fishes. Two rows of small yellow spots are placed symmetrically along the back to the end of the tail. In consequence, the skin of this eel is constantly covered with a mucous matter, which, as Volta has proved, conducts electricity twenty or thirty times better than pure water. No electrical fish possesses scales They do not suspend their respiration in the air, but absorb the gaseous oxygen like a reptile furnished with lungs. I do not remember ever to have received from the discharge of a large Leyden jar a more dreadful shock than that which I experienced by imprudently placing my feet on a gymnotus just taken out of the water. I was affected, the rest of the day, with a violent pain in the joints. The electric action of the gymnotus depends onits will. They kill at some distance fish put in the same trough.



Edible Birds' Nests.

        Among the interesting subjects which still remain open for research are the habits and constitution of the Hirundo Esculata, the swallow that makes the edible nests, annually exported in large quantities from Java to the Easter Isles, and to China. These birds only abound among the fissures and caverns of several of the mountains and hills in the interior of the country. From every observation which has been made on Java, it has been inferred that the mucilaginous substance of which the nests are formed is not, as has generally been supposed, obtained from the ocean. [He is mistaken, as we shall show presently.] The birds, it is true, generally inhabit caverns in the vicinity of the sea, as agreeing best with their habits, and affording them the most convenient retreats for attaching their nests. But several caverns are found inland, at a distance of fifty miles from the sea, containing nests similar to those on the shore. Dr. Horsfield thinks it is an animal elaboration, perhaps a kind of secretion, but to determine its nature accurately, it should be analyzed. - P. 51. The quantity of birds' nests annually exported to China in junks, is not less than two hundred piculs. Their value as a luxury in that empire has been estimated to be weight for weight in silver; the price for the best being of late years at Canton $40 per katy, or one and aquarter pounds. The quantity of nests obtained from the rocks called Karang Bolang, on the Southern coast of Java, is estimated at a hundred piculs annually, and is calculated to afford an annual revenue to government of $200,000




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The quantity gathered in other parts by individuals on rocks and hills belonging to them is estimated at fifty piculs. The quality of the nests has been improved by European management. The caverns are cleansed by smoking with sulphur, and removing the old nests. The gathering takes place as soon as it is supposed the young are fledged. If they are allowed to remain till eggs are again laid in them, they lose their pure color and transparency. Those collected before the birds have time to lay in them, are superior. The best are those procured from rocks where nitrous damp prevails, where they imbibe a nitrous taste, without which they are little esteemed by the Chinese. The nest cavern will bear two gatherings a year. Those employed in gathering are lowered down with ropes, but it is attended with danger; and the packing away is done by the same persons, carefully.


        Now we conclude by declaring the substance to be no other than the Biche le M?/em>, found in large quantities among the newly-discovered islands near the shore, in the Pacific Ocean. It is a jelly, supposed to be an inert fish, which is of a delicious flavor, and which Capt. Morrill has brought into notice, in his last voyage. While engaged in preparing a quantity on shore for the China market, on a newly-discovered Island which he called Massacre Island, his party were attacked by a band of the inhabitants, and five or six slain. These the swallows no doubt, collect in their stomachs and bills, as materials well calculated to construct their nests, by its adhesive properties. And as to the five hundred miles, which they have to perform out and in, in the course of a day, it is but a few hours flight, and on their return at dusk with their cargo, they disgorge it as it is required for their mason work. In a few minutes, on alighting upon the substance, which floats on the surface, it is so abundant they can obtain their freight. - P. 51.



Worms for food. or retaliation. - P. 97.

        None of the palms of Java furnish the worms which areused for food in other eastern countries - but similar worms are found in various growths of rotan, solak, &c., which are considered as dainties, not only by the natives, but by the Chinese and some Europeans. They are called Gerdon. Worms of various species, but all equally esteemed as an article of food, are found in the teak and other trees. White ants are the common articles of food in parrticular districts. They are collected in different ways and sold generally in the markets. Their extensive nests are opened to take out the chrysalis. They are also watched, and swarms are taken in basins or trays, containing a little water."


        A picul of rice, 133 1/2 lbs., sometimes sells for only twenty-five cents Generally a katy, 1 1/4 lbs., sells for less than a penny.



Javan Ethics.

        Sir Stamford has given us copious extracts from a popular work, called Niti Sastra, in the Kanir language. We will select a few of their moral aphorisms.


        1. A wise man must on no account listen to the advice of a woman, be he ever so good, for the end of it will be death and shame. But he must always consult his own mind in what he has to do or not to do, never losing aught of the lessons of his instructors


        2. No. man ought to be termed a hero till he has conquered an hundred heroes, nor should any be termed a holy man until he can boast of surpassing in virtue a hundred holy men - for as long as a hero has not conquered an hundred heroes, or a holy man has not surpassed an hundred holy men, he can neither be considered a hero or a holy man. Note. - We fear these rules would prove too rigid in their application to our code of morals.





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        3. The signs of the approaching end of this world will be, all kinds of depravity among mankind. That is to say, the wise will turn foolish, the holy men will become worldly, children will abandon their parents, princes will lose their empires, the little will become great, and commit depredations. In short, every thing will be in confusion." Idem., 254 -


        I ought to stop here, and put my house in order. For if these are the true signs of the end of the world, we have not long to live. I submit them to Parson Miller as powerful aids in sustaining his prophecy, and hope there will be no occasion, after this, of further postponement.


        A bad man is like a fire that enflames all who approach it. We ought never to go near, with an intention to extinguish it. A good man on the contrary is like a sweet scented tree which continues to produce flowers and fruit, pleasant to the smell and taste of every one, and the fragrance of which remains in the wood even after the tree is cut down and rooted out. A perfect man should be in firmness and stability, equal to eight women, and to satisfy a woman, a man must be able to please her in nine different manners.


        4 Public employment is not unnatural in ascent, for there are degrees and regular steps to it; but if ambitious men will needs leap when they may safely walk, or run themselves out of breath when they may take time and consider, the fault is not in the steps, but in the intemperance of the person. - Idem. P. 510.



Java - by Sir STAMFORD RAFFLES. - Vol. ii.

        Tancuban-Prahu, a Volcano, visited by Doct. Horsfield. - Near the centre of the crater, it contains an irregular oval lake, nearly one hundred yards in diameter. The water is white, and exhibits truly the appearance of a lake of milk, boiling with a perpetual discharge of large bubbles, which rise with greatest force on the eastern side. The heat is 112° Farenheit. The apparent boiling arises from a constant development of fixed air. The water has a sulphurous smell, its taste is astringent and somewhat saline. Shaken in a bottle it explodes with great violence." - p. 15.


        "About the centre of this limestone district is a phenomenon. It is discovered by a large volume of smoke, rising and disappearing at intervals. Through this smoke a large hemispheral mass is observed of black earth, sixteen feet in diameter, rising to the height of twenty or thirty feet in a regular manner, as if pushed up by a force beneath, which suddenly explodes with a dull noise, and scattering about a volume of black mud. In two or three minutes it is repeated." - p. 24.



Denman and Clapperton's Travels in Africa, in the years 1822, 23, and 24.

        "The worms so celebrated in the kingdom (Bonou) are found in these lakes (Trona) they are small animalcul?almost invisible to the naked eye, surrounded with a large quantity of glutinous matter. They are of a reddish brown color, and have a strong slimy smell. When seen through a microscope, the head appears small and depressed, the eyes two large black spots. They are caught in a long hand net, after allowing the net to lay some time at the bottom. It is then drawn a little along the bottom, and when taken up several pints are caught at one haul. By the promise of a dollar, a small basin full was caught for us before breakfast." - p. 44.


        The Trona pond is of inconsiderable depth from evaporation. The Trona (a kind of soda), chrystallizes at the bottom. The cakes of trona vary in thickness from a mere film to several inches. The surface of the water is covered in several places with large thin sheets of salt, of the appearance of ice. In the beginning of winter the trona is the thickest and best, but in the spring it disappears entirely. The size of the lake has diminished considerably




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within the last nine years. There is always sufficient tr onarfe the demand. The quantity annually carried away amounts to four or fivo hundred camel-loads, containing each about four hundred pounds. It is put into square bundles; and sent to Tripoli and Fezzan. The price of each load is two dollars.



Dance of the Girls at Houka, the Capital of Bornou.

        "The Houkowy advance by twos and threes, and after advancing and returning and throwing themselves into various attitudes, accompanied by the music of several drums, they suddenly turn their backs to each other, and suffer those parts which are doomed to endure the punishment of all the offences of our youth, to come together with all their force, and she that keeps her equilibrium, and destroys that of her opponent, is greeted by cheers and shouts, and is led out of the ring by a matron, covering her face with her hands. They sometimes come together with such force as to burst the belt of beads which all the women of rank wear around their bodies, just above the hips, and showers of beads would fly in every direction. Some of the belts are twelve or sixteen inches wide, and cost fifteen or twenty dollars.


        Address is often used in these contests, with better success than strength, and a well-managed feint at the moment of the expected concussion, even when the weight of metal would be very unequal, oftentimes brings the more weighty to the ground, while the other is quietly seated.



Pompeii. - Pompeiena, Vol. 2, p. 106.

        Dice, supposed to be loaded were found in the ruins of Pompeii among other relics of the Romans. Augustus and his court used to play with dice, and they were the instruments of desperate gambling among the Germans, on whose throw the liberty of the adventurer was staked.


        A complete toilet, with combs, thimbles, rings, pins for the hair - Almonds, dates, grapes, eggs, raisins, chesnuts. No forks were found, but all other table and kitchen furniture. Sabinum Rufum - the name of the owner, is constantly found on the door post. A bakers' establishment with ovens, &c., and a loaf of bread, with the bakers name, and the weight and material stamped upon it. - The city was overwhelmed by an eruption of Mt. Vesuvius the 24th of August, in the 79th year and in the reign of Titus. The Appian Way, constructed by Appius Audius the Censor, extended from Rome to Capua. It was composed of three stratas - 1st. The lower, of rough stones and flint, cemented together, formed a foundation or stratum. 2d. A middle stratum of gravel. 3d. The upper and well pointed stones of irregular forms. It remains in many places perfect to the present day.


        The loaf of bread found in the house attached to the house of Pansa is now preserved in the Royal Museum at Naples. It is eight inches in diameter. Upon the top is, Siligo, Cranii, E. Cicer. Siligo was a white, but little nutritive flour. A better sort, a mixture of vetch was probably indicated by Cicer, while Oranius was the baker's name. Over the oven was the baker's sign, painted a deep red and motto - Hic habitat felicitas.


        Sir William Gell visited the place twice and gave an account of the progress of the work of exhumation. By a regulation of the government of Naples, visiters at Naples are prohibited from taking drawings of the buildings and other curiosities. But he, being a member of their academy of arts, obtained the privilege. . . . Glass was found, which had lighted the cupola of some of the baths, of good plate glass. It was first brought from Egypt, called valas, from the Coptic. The Romans manufactured allf kinds of jewelry, imitations of precious stones. That they knew the art o glass blowing, the vast number of bottles discovered in Pompeii proves.


        Smegmata, or wash balls. Among the the perfumed oils, were the mendisium,




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the magaliurn, the metopium amaracetium, Cyrprinum, susinum, nardinum, spreatum and jasmine. Heliogabalus never bathed without oil of saffron or crocum. The Cyprian used in baths to put a stop to further perspiration, and its name is still retained. In bathing, according to Lucilius, the bather had to undergo scabor, suppelor, desquamo, pumecorornor, expilor, pingor. By the Turks, the term shampooing is applied, now borrowed by our barbers. At the house of the tragic poet, in the Mosaic pavement was a dog chained, and represented in black and white spots and cave canem, written under him. Among the ornaments found with the ladies' toilet, were two gold necklaces, a twisted gold cord, four braclets, one weighing seven ounces, and formed into serpents. A child's necklace, two small bracelets, four ear-rings and an engraved stone mounted on a large ring, and two gold coins, twenty-two silver coins, a braccierro for fire and a variety of utensils of bronze and earthen ware. In an adjoining house of refreshment, the skeleton of the proprietor was found. He had sought shelter under a stone stair case. His treasure was found near, consisting of gold rings, ear-rings, and 140 pieces of copper and silver coin. The buildings, as the temple of Isis, are fast losing their freshness and beauty, by exposure to the air. The stuccoes, which when first discovered, were fresh, and the paintings on the walls of bright colors, had disappeared on a second visit. The letters A. E. D., which had been supposed to refer to the house, seem, according to Bunocci to signify the ?dile whose favor was invoked by the owner of the shop. . . .



Prickly Pear. - COCKBURN'S Voyage, 1810.

        The prickly pear of Sicily has a peculiar quality. It changes the lava, in a manner breaks it up - and in p rocess of time, pulverises it, though ever so hard, and then it forms the most luxuriant soil. They bring a little earth to any crevise of lava, and plant a prickly pear tree. It spreads and splits the rock in about seven years. A thick growth is formed, and a little earth being added, in ten years more it is pulverised for some inches.



The Dead Preserved. - Idem. p. 362.

        They put the body in a small dry room, in the Capuchin Convent at Palermo, on a sort of large grating. They then close the door so as to exclude the air. By this means, in six months, it is completly dried and quite light, but much shrivelled. They then take out the body, wash and expose it some days in the heat of the sun, after which it is dressed and placed in a niche. A disgusting sight. A visit here might mortify the pride of som e and remind them,



                        "That all which beaut

                        All which wealth e'er gav

                        Await alike the inevitable hou

                        The paths of glory lead but to the grave."


        There are some hundreds of coffins also, on the ground, in which the bodies of the nobility and gentry are deposited in full dress. The relatives keep a lock on their chest or coffin, and occasionally come on a visit to their deceased friend. No woman, Brydon says, is ever admitted into this Convent dead or alive. In this he is mistaken.



The Weichselzoph, or Plica Polonica.

        Cracow is the centre of this singular and revolting disease. It derives its name from its prominent symptom, the entangling the hair in a confused




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mass. Is preceded by violent headache. Attacks the bones, joints, and even the nails of the toes and fingers. It is so obstinate as to defy treatment, it ends in blindness, deafness, or in the most melancholy distortions of the limbs, sometimes all these miseries together. The most extraordinary part of this disease is its action on the hair. The hair begins to swell at the roots, and to exude a fat, slimy substance, frequently mixed with suppurated matter. When the disease has reached a high degree of malignity, not only whole masses, but single hairs will bleed if cut! The hair growing rapidly amidst this corrupted moisture, twists together inextricably - into a clotted, confused, disgusting mass. - Russel's tour in Germany, 1822.



        I have thus ventured to give several pages of these extracts without apprehending any dissatisfaction for their exchange for as many pages of thnarrative. They will be viewed as handsome and valuable mosaic, added as an ornament to the dull uniformity of the work. I will now take up the narrative where I left off, hoping the reader is well refreshed by the agreeable relaxation and repose I have thus afforded him on his journey.


        On my arrival at Norfolk on the 10th of March 1827, on my r eturn home, I was met by the melancholy news of the death of my brother Enoch, the collector, one of the best and kindest of all my relations, a most amiable man and pious Christian. My only surviving brother, Doctor Sawyer, attended him in his last moments, being attacked with gout in the stomach and black vomit. His last end was that of the righteous, the last words he uttered being a quotation from the Bible: "Though I may pass through the dark valley of the shadow of death, I will not fear. The Lord is my rod and my staff. He feeds me in green pastures." His remains had been committed to the tomb of his fathers before I arrived home.


        I did not calculate that any person could find the least chance for success as a candidate against me. I had been in better health than usual, attended more regularly in my place, and as I thought had not been a useless or ignoble member. I met an antagonist, however, at the court house in Hertford, the extreme county, and commenced the campaign. There was always a large party, then called the federal, that maintained a standing opposition against me, and were ready to sustain any candidate that might venture to take their lead. Being fortunately blessed with such bodily health, though by no means robust, as to enable me to attend the public meetings, and to discharge the most irksome and no very reputable duties of electioneering till the day arrived, I succeeded again with a triumphant majority.


        I attended my seat at the commencement of the session, but in March, I was attacked with bilious fever, which was followed by utter prostration and debility, that brought me so low I could not turn in bed. For nine nights, as happened twice before, I did not obtain a wink of sleep, and was so weak, I could neither speak out, nor endure the sound of other's voices. I dismissed my physician, and made a wise exchange for a better one, and on his first visit, we agreed that I should resort to my never-failing soporific, fresh milk and hot rye mush, to which he added a few spoonfuls of limewater. It was the 10th night and day I had passed without a moment's sleep. I made a supper of the milk and mush, I got some sleep - I was saved. I was anxious to arise in time to vote on the tariff-bill, as I knew, after losing so many votes, if I was absent also on that momentous question, it would be noticed, and I should be called to severe account. Towards the last of April, after six weeks confinement, the Doctor ordered me to be taken out of bed, put in a carriage, and rode a mile, or as much as I could bear. A mile was beyond my strength, but the short excursion I took, with a sight of the green trees, and the breath of fresh air, revived me. I began to mend fast, and as I lived near the capitol, about a quarter of a mile, I had left orders




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with a friend, that as soon as the roll was called on the tariff bill, to despatch a hack for me. The debate was kept up till some time in May, and when the ayes and noes were ordered, the back called for me, and I was enabled to reach my seat before the clerk called my name, and thus saved distance and my influence by voting against it. I had heretofore supported these measures for the encouragement of our infant manufactures, and had gone further in the policy than any southern member, and encountered considerable opposition on that account, but as I thought this present tariff bill, of May 1828, went beyond the medium point of protection, I could not vote for it, although it passed.


        In June, I concluded, after so serious a spell, not to return home as usual, but to take a tour to the North, and spend the season at Saratoga Springs. I reached Philadelphia by easy stages by the 12th of June, where I met my sister who had agreed to wait for me there, a few days, that we might travel together to the springs. It was very unfortunate for me, that I found her, as I had passed four days in the vain search, she not having informed me of the house at which she meant to stop, and I had intended to start for Trenton that afternoon, that by broken journeys I might reach New York, without endangering a relapse by the heat and fatigue. I accidentally met her at church, and on waiting on her to her boarding-house, met with a lady from New York, of very respectable family, of considerable wealth. My sister immediately laid her off as a wife for me, and although she was of the order of old maids, was a pious, agreeable, and every way a suitable companion for me. I went on very encouragingly for two days, and from what my sister suggested to her, of our plans, she appeared to lend a favorable ear to the proposition. She allowed me to accompany her, nay, seemed to desire it, to the usual places of fashionable resort, as the academy of arts, the museum, and the rotunda of the hospital, which contained West's celebrated picture of our Saviour healing the sick. As luck had it, another lady from New York who had been indisposed for a few days, recovered sufficiently to join our party. Her brother had been persuaded by her to visit my sister's niece, who was a handsome and really accomplished young lady, and one we thought would be sure to captivate him. I was immediately struck with this lady's personal appearance. She was much younger and handsomer than the first acquaintance. I paid rather too much attention to her to be agreeable to the other, and did not know myself which bundle to choose, like the ass in the fable that hesitated between the two. - Strawberries were in season. I was very fond of them, and made so free with them at all hours, particularly for supper, accompanied with a glass of wine, that they put me much out of order. I had a considerable fever the evening before we were to leave, and did not get a nap of sleep till just before day. Soon after sunrise, I was awakened with a message from my sister to know if I intended to start with them at the hour of six, for New York. I did not reflect upon the impropriety of attempting the journey, in my febrile state and disordered stomach, and on a day in which the thermometer stood 96°. I thought my gallantry would be called in question, if I remained behind, and so I was impelled, by my ill fate, to arise from the midst of a most refreshing and critical sleep, to dress and join them at so early an hour. The hack that was in waiting had been taken by my sister for some little shopping business, and I was compelled to walk fully one mile to the boat, in company with the two ladies, my niece and her new beau being a little ahead of us. Before I got to Trenton, I found my fever increasing, and other very unpleasant symptoms supervening. While sitting on the binnacle in conversation with the youngest of the ladies, the eldest came up from the cabin and in a burst of jealously assailed her with such expressions and charges as confused and astounded us both. I at once saw the difficulty in which I had gotten




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myself, by dividing my attention between the two, instead of adhering to the first. I felt faint and sick all the way through, the travel then was by stage and a very rough road, and by the time I reached the boat at New Brunswick, was sensible that I had done for myself for one while. Yet I could not feel satisfied to stop anywhere on the road. I landed in New York, in a state of almost helplessness. There I found a barouche in waiting for each of the two ladies, and after seeing them off, went with my sister to a fashionable boarding-house in Broadway. As I anticipated, this accursed trip ruined my chance for a rich and respectable wife. I was so unwell for several weeks, that had enough to do to take care of myself, and often felt such horrid affections about the heart, as to make me fear every moment would be my last. It broke up my courtship. The youngest visited a fashionable watering place where she soon after made choice of another suitor much better calculated to make her happy than ever I could be. She however, did not long survive her connubial union, but died in childbirth, within three years. The other lives in single blessedness still. I, however, was determined not to be disappointed in the main object of my visit, and as soon as I gained a sufficiency of strength to adventure into the field of hymen, some friends undertook to make a match for me, and proccured a rich widow, a neighbor of theirs, who they judged would answer my purpose. I yielded to their negotiation. After an introduction and three short visits, we proposed in form, and they conducted the affair with such expedition that in three weeks I became married the third time. It was a desperate chance. I was poor and growing old, but my congressional dignity turned the scale in my favor; for I cannot conceive what other inducements led to the choice on the widow's part. I gained nothing on the score of age, as she exceeded me in that honored degree, and instead of a fortune, I found I had married a law suit, which involved all she was worth.


        I took my seat in December, leaving her to settle the affairs of her late husband, and at the adjournment of Congress, upon the accession of General Jackson to the head of affairs on the 4th of March 1829, I returned home. I had been absent more than sixteen mouths, and being married, and my wife being in another state, it was used as an argument against my re-election, by that party that was always on the watch to seize every circumstance that they could use to defeat me. My wife could not conveniently, or was unwilling to travel on so far south, at that season to join me, by which omission the objection on the ground of residency was much strengthened, and one of my most influential friends being gained over by the other party, I was defeated by my old antagonists, by a small majority. I returned to Brooklyn soon after the election: I found the suit ready for trial. Mrs. Sawyer's counsel demanded an interview with me at New York. On meeting them, they advised me to compromise the suit, or they feared we would lose it. It was on the will of her husband, who had left her the bulk of his estate. The heirs contested it. The surrogate of King's County had confirmed the will. The heirs appealed to the chancellor, Walworth, and he reversed the decision of the surrogate. Upon consulting with my wife on the propriety of compromising, which the other party were willing to do on liberal terms, she utterly refused to listen to the proposal, and forbade me at the risk of her displeasure, to mention it again. Two days before the day set for trial before the Court of Errors and Appeals, her lawyers wrote me a note, informing me that they had not received their fees, amounting to $600, and if they did not get them before the suit was called, they would abandon it to its fate. I had no money to pay them, and Mrs. Sawyer absolutely refused to advance a dollar, though she had thousands in the house at the time, besides stock and funds in the banks to three times the sum. I became alarmed at their threat; called on them and remonstrated at their course, but they persevered in their resolution not to appear.





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        I consulted another lawyer, and we agreed that I could compromise the suit, as far as the personal property was concerned, in defiance of my wife and her counsel, who now took her side against my proceeding without her consent. On the eve before the trial I accordingly entered into an agreement of compromise with the two heirs, one acting as attorney in fact for the brother, by which we agreed to divide the money and stock in the banks, amounting to more than $40,000, between us; she having no children, being entitled to one half. We left the real estate, consisting of houses and lots in Brooklyn, and tracts of land in the central parts of the state, worth $100,000 as it stood, untouched by our agreement, and subject to the future decision of the court under the will. That point has not been settled to this day, as Mrs. Sawyer, being displeased at the course I took, which upon the whole, was a very unadvised and foolish one, as it turned out, would never take any measures to bring it on. I allowed, very improperly, one of the heirs to administer. I received at different times, about $20 000, the first payment being made within a few days after they obtained letters of administration, amounting to $15,000. There were bonds and mortgages and dividends, that raised the assets in their hands to $50,000, but they held back a large part of it on the plea of outstanding debts. I returned to my old district, in December following, as I had promised my constituents, to show them that I had not abandoned them, as I had been charged. It would have been well for me, if I had remained with them. I was then comparatively rich. I had my horses and servant, enjoyed myself among them in hunting by day and the amusement of cards or other social pleasures at night, and had I known what it was to be happy, I then had the boon in my power. There was no possible objection to my abode there, but the climate. It was unhealthy in the fall. That could have been readily obviated by removing to the sea shore. Roanoke and the north Banks were within forty miles, a few hours' sail from Elizabeth City. The place, though of sandy soil. was annually growing up in thick foliage, and trees of considerable size, while the grape and the fig flourished in abundance. There is no place anywhere more salubrious. The inhabitants are stout and athletic, and powerful as mountaineers. It abounded in game, as all kinds of snipe in flocks upon the beach, wild fowl in the sound, and venison in the woods.


        I had spent many pleasant days there, and had recruited my weary body, by bathing in the sea, after an exhausting campaign in the upper counties of the district on my election tour. The inhabitants of Elizabeth City have wisely chosen this place, called Nag's Head, as a retreat in the warm season, where they have built cottages, and a large Inn, and where many families from the neighboring counties join them, and they pass a delightful season, and thus escape the annual scourge, - the bilious fever. To the other advantages of this location, we may add its most suitable one for wrecks. To those who may deem it no harm to speculate on the misfortunes of others, this place affords the best opportunities. Every winter, there are sure to be a wreck or two, and after some autumnal storms, the beach is strewed with goods and hulls of vessels. The bankers are expert in getting off vessels, and frequently buy the hulls of schooners, and other craft of not very burthensome tonnage, for a mere trifle, yet launch them again in the sea, and carry them into a neighboring port, and realize an immense profit. The merchants of Elizabeth City, and monied men from above, make handsome speculations by attending wreck sales. And often handsome funiture, carriages and pianos and harps bound to the south, are wrecked on this coast, and landed with little or no damage. I have known several thousand dollars made at one time, by a relation of mine on the purchase and sale of a quantity of such articles. I made more money while I resided during the winter of 1830 at Elizabeth City, than I expended. But I became discontented




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with my old home. It did did not afford sufficient stimulus to an indolent mind. I had been in New York too much. The country appeared dull to it. I had means to purchase the venal pleasures this great mart afforded.


        In making bargains the southerner has not the tact, the shrewdness, and the perseverance of the northerner. He does not so well see through the whole bearings of the subject, nor calculate the consequences. He is more the creature of impulses and of a sanguine temperament. In the encounter with the well disciplined corps of brokers, he is like contending naked with an armed adversary, and stands as little chance of escaping unhurt. It would be a very imperfect confession, and a criminal concealment, if I were to lay my present poverty to the score of losses or misfortunes entirely. For though I have experienced a full share of both, they are not sufficient to account for the considerable sums that have disappeared, that have taken wings and flown away since my residence here. The faults, follies, or sins which betrayed me into these losses, are fit only for the ear of my confessor. I have lived to see the error of my ways, however, and for years past have, I ttust, reformed them altogether. After all, if I could ever realize the costs of my investment in Texas land stock, the remainder of my days could be spent in the enjoyment of peace and comfort. We must admit, however, that of all the precious gifts that providence can bestow, a sound judgment is the greatest. The want of that has been the principal cause of my failure in discharging properly the purpose for which I was created, the social duties as a citizen, and the moral obligations as a responsible agent to the author of my being. As far as a life, for years past devoted to the performance of those religious duties which I had too long neglected, can compensate or atone for a long career of sinful indulgence, and a determination to discharge the duties which appertain to me as a member of the catholic church with faithfulness in future, I trust I may be secure in the respect and esteem which is extended to me by a numerous class of friends, and that my last days may be illuminated with the pleasing hope of a peaceful exit from this troublesome world to a happier.


        The great source of my discontent is the want of employment. That is a true saying, "quem diabolus non invenit occupatum ipse occupa," the devil employs those that have nothing to do. If not tempted by him to do mischief, he is sure to torment the indolent with ennui, restlessness, and discontent. I have in some measure, overcome these pests to happiness by a passion for reading. I have also relaxed my mind by occasional essays in literature, some of which have appeared in the periodicals and more evanescent daily prints.


        Having seen some notices of John Randolph in some of the monthly and other journals, which seemed only as scraps thrown to the literary public, and having myself contributed a few short numbers to a daily paper, I was encouraged to undertake a more full, connected, and, respectable work, in the form of a pamphlet biography of that celebrated character. As soon as I had collected a bulk of materials, and prepared the introduction, I called on some of the large and popular publishing houses but they all had their hands full, principally of foreign productions, or new editions of old works on which they had no consideration to pay for copyright, and declined the undertaking. I at length found a bookseller, who adventured, but I could obtain no better terms than about one twelfth of the retail price, or two cents a copy for a two shilling pamphlet, payable when the edition was sold, or a given number of copies calculated upon the issue of a second or third edition of 4000 copies each. I had not had proper time to arrange the materials, before they were in the hands of the printer. As he proceeded slowly, having two or three other jobs on hand, I added




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more matter, and put the undigested mass in better form, but did not follow exactly the regular order of time and dates on the principal events. When the impression was made, notwithstanding I corrected the proof sheets, there were many typographical errors; and although I offered a page of errata, the printer refused to prefix it. answering that he could find no room, or that he did not deem it necessary. It was accordingly flung into the face of the public with all its imperfections on its head, with those of the printer superadded. The publisher being possessed of but limited means, and apprehensive of a want of success in the sale of the edition, took a sample of it to another extensive publishing house, and which was the great mart for the sale of periodical and other pamphlets. After improving a night with a consultation over it, by a committee of critics, they accepted the terms, took off the whole edition of 4,000 copies except the few hundred reserved for me, as my share. and got up the pamphlet in a handsome style, making a three shillings work of it instead of the intended and usual price of two shillings. The publisher was thus released from his fears, made something handsome by the job, and the purchasers have, notwithstanding the dangerous experiment of raising the price a third above the fixed standard, I believe disposed of all or the greater part of the copies. Those I had, I found no difficulty in getting rid of in this quarter, but in Virginia such as were sent there to try the market have mostly remained on hand, in consequence of some of Mr. Randolph's relations raising an outcry against the work, either on the score of its want of merit, or from the fact of its having given their relative as he was, his dark side with the bright. It has been severely criticised in the Southern Literary Messenger, of Richmond. I have published an answer to it through the columns of the Daily Whig, of that place, which in order to show some of their grounds of complaint, I have thought proper to give below. An attack was also made as soon as the work made its appearance in Washington, in the Intelligencer, by a nephew of Mr. R's. as I was informed. But I never saw the article nor learned the name of the writer. Surmising, however, the nature of his objections, from an answer to a letter of mine to an old friend of Mr. Randolph's in Richmond, and from the fact that a citizen of that State was engaged in writing a biography of Mr. R. I wrote an answer to the editors of the Intelligencer, but have not seen it in their columns. I have, however, availed myself of the information which I have obtained from correspondents, corrected the errors as to dates and facts, suggested by the friends of Mr. Randolph, extended the work into the respectable size of a common octavo volume, and reduced the materials into a more regular form, ready for a new and I hope more respectable edition.


        I will now give a copy of my answer in the Richmond Whig, to the illiberal criticism of the editor of the Southern (Virginia rather) Literary Messenger.



To the Editors of the Richmond Daily Whig.

NEW YORK, May 1, 1844.


        GENTLEMEN: - Although I have not the pleasure of your personal acquaintance, I had the honor of serving with, in the National Councils, and enjoying the friendship of the father of the senior editor, (James Pleasants, Esq.,) and trust that I may be allowed to claim the protection of your columns, against a wanton and unprovoked attack. It is to afford me only the means of defence, as I wish not to employ those of offence, against the editor of the Southern Literary Messenger, from his severe and ungenerous criticismof my Biography of John Randolph, in the April number last. My attention was not called to the article till a few days since, too late to reply in time for the May number of that Magazine, supposing the editor would have deigned to notice it, after the contemptuous manner in which he has treated both me and my pamphlet. At any rate, it would be another




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month before the antidote to his poison could be administered at the centre of the small circle where it has done its mischief, and where it is destined to run its injurious but short career. He has thought proper to head his article by a short quotation at third hand, which he found ready, being the one applied by the subject of the biography, to the Hon. John W. Taylor, of New York, perhaps with as little justice as on this occasion. I presume of course, he meant myself as an ornamental frontispiece, an ass kicking a dead lion. As to my being the ass, if it is his opinion it is my misfortune I cannot help it. He has a right to enjoy it, and is welcome to express it too, but I cannot grant the use of his postulate that I ever kicked the dead lion. I defy the most minute inspection, aided by the most powerful microscope from his apparatus of satire to trace a mark or a scar left by any heels of mine upon the body of the lion. The hoof of his animal is not sufficiently indurated by practice, to become proof against the black and "corrosive ichor" which the author of the Tale of the Tub has pronounced superior to all other vessels for retaining that deleterious juice of "viporous slander." I never had the least cause, I never felt the least provocation, I never had the least motive for such treatment. The editor has classed me among Mr. Randolph's political opponents and from thence deduced the conclusion that I might have felt too much prejudice to deal fairly with my subject. If the privilege of being his biographer be limited to Mr. Randolph's little band of friends, amounting at one time to about half a dozen, the literary appetite of the reading public would have suffered a prolonged fast, for they are dead and gone years ago, Mr. Garnet having been the last survivor. Although Mr. Randolph, after his secession from the ranks of the Republican party under Mr. Jefferson's administration in 1806, voted of necessity with those of the opposition, the editor will hardly class them as Mr. Randolph's political friends, men whom in a published letter to a friend in New York, as late as January 31, 1833, not five months before his death, he described in the following terms: "I leave to General Jackson and the Hartford men, and ultra-Federalists and Tories, the office-holders and office-seekers, their triumph over the liberties of this country. They will stand damned to everlasting fame." In passing this dreadful sentence of condemnation, we will stop only to observe, that had I shown as little mercy to Mr. Randolph, as he has shown towards his old friend, from whom he had but lately received the high official favor of a foreign mission, I should deserve the title I have received at the hands of the editor. The relations of Mr. Randolph from some of whom I have better evidence than my own word (which in the opinion of the editor will not go for much) to prove the ties of friendship in which we stand, have felt a proper delicacy, during the unsettled question of the will, to undertake the task which has devolved on them of writing the biography of their worthy ancestor as the question of his sanity should not be prejudged. After waiting more than ten years for that decision, the community may well be pardoned for manifesting some impatience and to be content with such imperfect entertainment as I can afford them, "though coming from another State." Nor have I attempted to forestall public opinion on the subject of Mr. Randolph's sanity, as I have admitted that he had, at all times a greater share of good sense than ever I was blessed with, and that I should leave the question where it was to the judgment of the high court of errors and appeals.


        On statements of facts, I shall always feel pleased to stand corrected by any person better informed than myself, and thank them for any knowledge they may think proper to communicate, bearing on any of the numerous statements contained in the work. The editor has denied my statement, that there was any such message from the president of the 17th January 1806, proposing an appropriation for the purchase of the Floridas; which he takes for granted that I had offered as the cause of Mr. Randolph's change,




Page 47

from a friendly to a hostile attitude towards Mr. Jefferson. I think he is mistaken in my views on both points. I did not say that anything contained in the message was the cause, but the manner in which it was transmitted to the house, by the hands of Barnabas Bidwell, instead of the usual channel of Mr. Randolph. The mere date of the message, therefore, is perfectly immaterial to the main point, but even in that, I do not confess myself wrong. In the 26th page I stated that we are informed that on Friday, the 21st of March, the house sat with closed doors, which ended in the resolution for purchasing the Territory. I added that about the 17th of January, Mr. Jefferson had communicated to Congress a secret message, no doubt containing the proposition for purchasing the Floridas. I have since examined the old files of newspapers, wherever I obtained the information, I have not been able to procure the journals of that date; which is the true source of information to all editors of newspapers, but I have found the statement, just as I had given it, in a volume of the Morning Herald, a New York Gazette. The gentleman should recollect that he himself is the conductor of a magazine, and I am willing to admit, a respectable one, and I would ask him how he would like to have his authority questioned. The circumstance of that message is a part of the recorded history of the country, the measure growing out of it, too notorious to admit of a doubt, or to be called in question at this remote period.


        But the most grave and serious charge has to be met. It seems I have been guilty of an act that should call down upon me the vengeance of the relations of a lady, to whom I alluded as the one to whom Mr. Randolph was engaged to be married, and that I escaped by a mere misnomer. I should be sorry to have to depend upon that circumstance for protection against the personal assaults he has invited them to commit upon me, as from the circumstance related of her marriage with a cousin of Mr. Randolph, the lady is clearly enough pointed out. He has accused me of giving an indecent anecdote of that lady, for which he declares if there is a spark of spirit in the breast of her nearest male relative, he ought to visit me with a severe punishment. He has not thought proper to give the passage. I will do so, and if, after its perusal, any of her chivalric relatives can perceive the least matter of offence, he is welcome to inflict on me whatever punishment he may think I merit. In page 47 is this passage: "The occasion on which he came near being bound in the silken chains of matrimony occurred in Richmond, and not in the country, nor attended with the circumstances narrated by the Washington correspondent of the Tribune in July last. The lady's name was Miss Eggleston, whose father, we believe, was a member of Congress, in 1800 to 1804 - and she afterwards became the wife of Peyton Randolph of Richmond. They had proceeded so far in the ceremony, that a license was obtained, a clergyman sent for, and the happy pair, hand in hand, were about to stand up to be joined together, when the mother handed Mr. Randolph a paper to read, and, if he agreed, to sign. It was a deed of release or assignment of all the young lady's property for her exclusive benefit. Mr. Randolph asked the intended bride if it were a condition with her, or her will, that he should sign it. She answered in the affirmative, upon which Mr. R. saying there was no farther use for the minister, took his leave and departed."


        I will leave that extract to the most vindictive of all the lady's male relatives, to the greatest "fire-eater" among them, to gather one particle o cause for offence or anger. Had it not thus been presented to him, he might have surmised from the editors appeal to his worst passions, that I had used some insulting phrase, or called her chastity in question. The whole passage is perfectly inoffensive to all parties concerned. What is mere customary among the higher ranks, particularly in Great Britain, to make marriage settlements. Nor is it an unusual thing in this country, nor can it be tortured




Page 48

into the slightest reproach or dishonor to the lady in this case, if she felt some solicitude as to the disposal of her portion of their joint estates by expressing a wish to have it secured to her. She may blame her want of judgment for entertaining undue fears on that score (for her property could not have been entrusted to safer hands than those of her affianced bridegroom). She gave no possible grounds for improper insinuations on making the proposal, still less can any be deduced from a simple narration. And yet for these words, innocent as they are, the editor could calmly stand by and see me assailed by the cane, or dagger, until I was either maimed or fell covered with wounds and blood, and if I have escaped, it is owing more to the just forbearance and moderation of the party appealed to, than to the good will of the editor of the Messenger.


        What vengeance ought I not to deprecate against the head or the heart of the man who could thus bring my life in jeopardy for such groundless causes? Ought I not to feel wrought up to the highest pitch of fury? Ought I not to resolve upon a full revenge? I do. I will have it. I forgive him from my soul."



        I had also forwarded a defence against another assault, which I learned had been committed on the devoted biography, by a nephew of John Randolph. I did not learn the name of the writer, nor the particular heads of his condemnation, through the columns of the Intelligencer. I had a right to expect, however, as old friends and countrymen, they would act impartially, and allow me the use of their columns on the occasion. They have not done so, and thus the difficulty thrown in the way of the sale of the copies sent there, is unremoved, and for what I know, they may remain on hand. But I have had enough, both in honor and profit, in the sale of the rest to console me for this trifling disappointment. As a compensation for these two instances of anger, in which we may find a cause in my not giving a funeral oration, or a panegyric upon the memory of the honored relative, and the favored son of Virginia, instead of an impartial history, I have to offer the numerous articles of approbation and praise, in the public prints here, and in Washington City also, with the exception of the Intelligencer, whose lips were sealed with fear, probably of provoking the anger of his correspondent.


        I have now brought the history of my life to a close, to which my life itself, in the ordinary course of nature must soon follow. I have drained the bitter cup of existence to the dregs. I have no earthly object to live for nor have I the means to do so, with that comfort and ease which alone ought to reconcile it to superanuated infirmity. I have but to conquer one great and constitutional infirmity, a nervous weakness, a dread of death which has heretofore haunted me in every case of sickness to render the visit of the king of terrors under all the circumstances of the case perfectly welcome. I will try to bring my mind to view him in the light of a friend, beckoning me to follow him through his dark and icy gates, to a brighter and happier life, and not as a horird monster, sent to terminate by the most dreadful pangs, my mortal existence. When I come to reap the fruits of my firm faith, to ascend the regular steps of the catholic religion which I have embraced, to confirmation, and shall have received the last holy rites of the Church, through the hands of my pious and beloved confessor, I trust that the virtue of the unction applied to my eyes will close them in peace and perfect resignation to the will of God, and that a most assured hope of a happy immortality will vanquish the vain tyrant fear, that has heretofore enslaved me, and that I may depart like many others equally timid that I have seen, under such benign influences, without "casting one last lingering look behind," and with a pleasing foretaste of that beatitude which is the inheritance of every true Christian.








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More About Congressman Lemuel Sawyer, Jr.:

Burial: Unknown, Lambs Ferry, Camden Co., NC



        100.  Mary7 Gregory (Isaac6, Judith5 Morgan, Elizabeth4 Torksey, Mary3 Scarborough, ?2 Moore, John1) was born 27 Sep 1772 in Camden Co., NC, and died 08 Oct 1854.  She married Enoch Sawyer, son of Lemuel Sawyer and Mary Taylor.  He was born Abt. 1760 in Camden Co., NC, and died Abt. 1823 in Camden Co., NC.


More About Mary Gregory:

Date born 2: 27 Sep 1772


Notes for Enoch Sawyer:

From Jesse Forbes Pugh's "Three Hundred Years Along the Pasquotank: A Biographical History of Camden County, North Carolina," copied and pasted from an online reprint from



Host to the President of the United States




ca 1760-1823


WHETHER GEORGE WASHINGTON ever strayed over into Camden territory during his surveying expeditions in the Dismal Swamp may be a debatable question, but the visit of President James Monroe with a distinguished entourage to the residence of Enoch Sawyer, gentleman planter and Collector of the Port of Camden, has been recorded with copious details by the brother of the host, Congressman Lemuel Sawyer, who was present on the occasion. Incidentally, the quotations included in this narrative are all taken from the Congressman's Autobiography.


The visit came about in this manner. Partly for political reasons and partly to make a survey of the needs for internal improvements, Monroe came to Norfolk in June of 1818. From Norfolk he made a tour of the Dismal Swamp Canal, visited Lake Drummond and came on to Elizabeth City, possibly as the result of a suggestion from Lemuel Sawyer, Congressman from the First District. Following the President's trip to Lake Drummond, he spent the night at a public house along the canal, and in the morning he and his companions set out for Elizabeth City. A party from that town and environs, including Congressman Sawyer, met the advancing President and his escort whose approach could be detected a mile off because of the cloud of dust. In the town Sawyer introduced the chief executive to several of the assembled populace, after which all were entertained at the “City Hotel with an excellent repast in which a fine green turtle presented the most inviting dish.”


During the progress of the banquet the President was extended an invitation to remain over until the next day in order to meet more of his constituents in the vicinity. Among those present at the dinner was the Congressman's brother, Enoch, whose dwelling was the Sawyer ancestral home, “Richmond,” some three miles away over in Camden. His invitation to the President and his escort to be overnight guests at his home was accepted. Sawyer dispatched a messenger with a brief note of three lines to inform his wife of the imminent honor. Not unwarranted was Congressman Sawyer's later comment: “Had the President come, like Lear with his hundred knights, he would have been accommodated,” for not only was the “mansion” spacious, Enoch's wife Mary was not lacking in social experience. She was a daughter of General Isaac Gregory and from her youth up had been accustomed to assist in the entertainment of distinguished guests who frequently visited Fairfield Plantation, her girlhood home.


The Presidential party consisted of about a dozen men, among whom were Benjamin Williams Crowninshield, Secretary of the Navy; John C. Calhoun, Secretary of War; and Congressman J. H. Bassett of New York. Probably because of his acquaintance with the members, Congressman Lemuel seems to have made himself a sort of master of ceremonies, for he led the way with Calhoun in his barouche, “and all the rest of the Company followed in their carriages and on horseback.”


Enoch and Mary Sawyer's daughter Mary seems to have already acquired much of her mother's social charm since she contributed greatly to the pleasure of the evening's entertainment. She was the center of a diverting incident when, before tea was served, she went into the garden to gather some roses for the guest of honor, and one of the young men suddenly evinced a desire for flowers and almost captured Mary and her bouquet before she could place it in the President's hands. After refreshments she “entertained ’till bedtime, by some of her best airs on the harp, an instrument on which she excelled, accompanied by a sweet trained voice.” The next morning Monroe took his leave, appearing to have been highly gratified at his reception and afterwards “always making it a point to inquire particularly into the welfare of the family.”


Enoch Sawyer was a youngster of fifteen at the outbreak of the Revolution. If he bore arms at all in this conflict, he was with the state militia, and individual records for this branch of the military are practically non-existent. The first public attestation of any connection with martial activities is in 1781, when the returns of military supplies impressed from private citizens show 1045 pounds of sugar were requisitioned from him. Again in 1784 the Legislature approved his claim in the amount of sixty-five pounds “for cloathing for officers of the continental line.”


Coming from a family which for a century had continued to fill various public capacities, his election to the House of Commons in 1784, at the age of twenty-three, and for six more years in succession, seems almost a matter of routine. Political control was indeed in the hands of a few families and during four years of this period the senator from Camden was Sawyer's father-in-law, General Gregory. As would be expected, his voting record reflected the sentiments of the plantation aristocracy in the East, which generally opposed policies supported by the central and western sections. His vote in 1790 against advancing a loan to the newly chartered state university is a reminder that the public mind at the time had not accepted the principle of supporting educational institutions with funds from public revenue. Nevertheless, Sawyer was not a disloyal North Carolinian; in his will he left directions for his two sons to “be educated at the University of this State or at one of the colleges in the northern states.”


Other positions of a public character filled by Sawyer were: delegate to the Hillsborough and Fayetteville Conventions in 1788 and 1789, trustee of the Currituck Seminary of Learning; Collector of the Port of Camden, succeeding General Gregory in this office.


Partly as a result of the accident of birth but more largely because of his own admirable personality, this scion of the dominant family in the county was one of those fortunate individuals who pass their lives under agreeable circumstances. He augmented his considerable inheritance by his own initiative, was a merchant who apparently imported his supplies in his own schooner, and operated a plantation and the ferry for which his father had obtained a franchise and known in modern times as Lamb's Ferry. Highly esteemed because of his exemplary habits in his private life, his charming wife and fine family of two sons and six daughters added to the prestige of his household.


For more than a century political and social life had been dominated by four families—Burgess, Gregory, Jones and Sawyer—not only on the northeast side of the river but often on the southwest side as well, before Pasquotank was separated into two counties. Of the four clans the Sawyers were the most enduring and the most powerful. There were years during the colonial period when three of the five representatives from Pasquotank in the Assembly would be Sawyers from Sawyers Creek. This tribe was the first to rise in prominence and the last to decline. The union of three of these local dynasties at the end affords a dramatic climax. Colonel Dempsey Burgess married Enoch Sawyer's sister Elizabeth, and as has already been noted, Enoch's wife was a daughter of General Gregory. Three of the leaders, Joseph Jones, Burgess and Gregory, all died in 1800 and Sawyer, in 1823. New names now appeared to take the place of those whose potency had departed. But none of the later ones have ever wielded as much influence as those political leaders of the eighteenth century, and few have equalled them in ability.



Comments by Bryan S. Godfrey, descendant (at least two ways) of the Sawyer family (or families) of Camden Co., NC and vicinity, and of the Gregory, Barco, and Torksey families from which Enoch Sawyer's wife was descended:



The information quoted below casts rather unpleasant dispersions on the character of Enoch Sawyer in contrast to the above biography that was written in the 1950s in a time when county or family histories were more celebratory and less inclusive than histories are now. The below is quoted from pages 30-32 of Dr. David S. Cecelski's "The Waterman's Song: Slavery and Freedom in Maritime North Carolina" (2001). While attending a conference for teachers about whaling and the Underground Railroad in New Bedford, Massachusetts in July, 2011, sponsored by the National Endowment for the Humanities, I was provided with a packet of books by authors who came to speak to our group during the week we were there. Dr. Cecelski's book was one of them, and because it is set in Tidewater North Carolina where roughly half of my ancestry is rooted back to colonial times, I began reading it that week during my spare time and finished it the last day of the conference, the day Dr. Cecelski spoke. Because much of my paternal ancestry in that area is unknown more than seven generations back, due mainly to loss of records,  I was eager to to be inculcated with the heritage of that area and to read the sources that were utilized. According to the book, about 31 percent of Camden County's population in 1790 was African-American, and African-Americans dominated the coastal life of Eastern North Carolina, whether they were engaged in ferrying, fishing, sailing, canal digging, or other maritime pursuits. The book is known for its exceptional, groundbreaking coverage of slaves or free blacks engaged in martiime activity in contrast to earlier works concentrating on persons of color in agriculture, debunking the myth that slaves in the South were predominantly engaged in agriculture. These  pages are quoted thus:



In 1790 Moses Grandy's first master, William "Billy" Grandy, owned more slaves than almost anyone in Camden County. "My mother often hid us all in the woods, to prevent master selling us," his former slave recalled, but William Grandy eventually sold away most of Moses's brothers and sisters. At his death, he deeded Moses to his young son, James, stipulating that his son's guardian hire Moses out to other masters until James reached his majority. Like many slaves in the Albemarle Sound vicinity, Moses Grandy thus moved annually from master to master.


Moses Grandy worked first on the water as a ferryman. Hired from James Grandy's guardian by Enoch Sawyer, Grandy tended the ferry across the Narrows on the Pasquotank River. Three miles across at its nearby mouth on the Albemarle Sound, the river abruptly closed to a width of one-fifth of a mile at the Narrows, more recently remembered as Lamb's Ferry. First franchised to the Sawyer family during George Washington's administration, the ferry ran from the Sawyers' manor house in Camden to just north of Knobb's Creek. It carried local traffic as well as travelers and goods passing down the main road between Norfolk and Edenton, the seat of Chowan County to the west and at that time the largest port on Albemarle Sound.


The daily traffic of tidewater life was in the hands of slave ferrymen like Grandy. They conducted wayfarers across the multitude of creeks, rivers, and lakes that had yet to be bridged. Slave ferrymen usually made short trips and suffered stiff oversight compared to other watermen, but a few were absent from their masters for a day or longer during every crossing. A slave ferryman carried passengers across Currituck Sound, a six-mile journey, and another slave transported passerby across Lake Mattamuskeet, approximately a ten-mile round trip. Their boats ranged from periaugers and dugout canoes to cable-drawn barges, but the preferred craft on a slow, blackwater river like the Pasquotank would have been a wide flatboat operated by at least two hands using fore and aft sweeps, or long oars. Travelers contracted for ferry services with a local tavernkeeper or other merchant who had obtained a license to operate a toll ferry. In Grandy's case, they likely made arrangements at Sawyer's home. All ferry profits, of course, accrued to Sawyer.


Grandy tended Enoch Sawyer's ferry for three years. He later wrote that it was "a cruel living." Sawyer was a planter, merchant, and, from 1791 to 1827, collector of the port of Camden. The scion of one of four families that dominated Camden County in the eighteenth century, and brother of U.S. congressman Lemuel Sawyer, he owned two plantations, ten slaves, a schooner, eight lots across the river in the new port of Elizabeth City, and approximately 10,000 acres of swamp forest in Camden and Pasquotank Counties. Grandy acknowledged the decency of several of his other masters, but he recalled from his years on Sawyer's ferry only hunger, cold, and want. Grandy described being "half-starved" and his "naked feet being cracked and bleeding from extreme cold" while working for Sawyer. He rejoiced when finally George Furley hired him away from Sawyer, employing Grandy to haul lumber in the Great Dismal Swamp. There at least he had enough food and clothing. "I then thought I would not have left the [Dismal] to go to heaven," he wrote, a sentiment rarely shared by anybody who was not  a slave.


More than hunger and privation colored Grandy's comtempt of Enoch Sawyer. Sawyer later owned Grandy's first wife, and, short on cash, he sold the woman away from the Albemarle. Grandy never saw her again. "I loved her," he wrote in his "Narrative," "as I loved my life."


During the War of 1812, Grandy first ran boats on the Dismal Swamp Canal. Built by slave labor from 1793 to 1805, the canal ran 22 miles through cypress and juniper swamp, from Joyce's Creek, a Pasquotank tributary, to Deep Creek, a tributary of the southern branch of the Elizabeth River in Virginia. The narrow waterway linked Albemarle Sound to Norfolk's deepwater harbor, making it possible to reach other domestic and foreign markets without risking the dangerous shoals at Ocracoke Inlet. [Comment by Bryan: At that time, there was no Oregon Inlet, which is a closer way to get from the Sounds to the Atlantic Ocean, and the closest inlet then to the Albemarle Sound was the one separating Hatteras from Ocracoke.]








More About Enoch Sawyer:

Personality/Intrst: He was a venturesome scion of one of the most prominent families of Camden Co., NC (port collector, plantation owner, ferry owner, etc.), but a narrative written by one of his slaves, Moses Grandy, casts dispersions on Sawyer as a slave master.1


Children of Mary Gregory and Enoch Sawyer are:

        125             i.    William8 Sawyer, died Unknown.

        126            ii.    Frederick Sawyer, died Unknown.

        127           iii.    Fanny Sawyer, died Unknown.

        128           iv.    Martha Sawyer, died Unknown.

        129            v.    Sally Sawyer, died Unknown.

        130           vi.    Harriett Sawyer, died Unknown.

        131          vii.    Patsy Sawyer, died Unknown.



        102.  Thomas7 Torksey, Jr.? (Thomas6 Torksey?, Phillip5, Philip4, Mary3 Scarborough, ?2 Moore, John1) died Unknown.


Children of Thomas Torksey, Jr.? are:

        132             i.    Phoebe8 Torksey, born in Camden Co., NC?; died Aft. 1854 in Camden Co., NC?.


Notes for Phoebe Torksey:

The following deed from Phebee to her great-nephews is found in Camden County, North Carolina Deed Book A, page 182, transcribed by Garrett/Torksey descendant Celeste Garrett Beavers:



Sept. 12, 1854, Registered No. 7, 1855


This indenture made this the twentieth day of September, 1854 between Phebee Torksey of the first part and Frederick Garrett, Phillip Garrett, Newel Garrett, and Wilson Garrett, son(s) of Phebee Garrett of the second part, all of the county of Camden, state of North Carolina, witness, that I, Phebee Torksey, for the love and natural affection I do bare towards them, Frederick Garrett, Phillip Garrett, Newel Garrett, and Wilson Garrett, son(s) of Phebee Garrett, I give and bequeath unto the aforesaid Frederick Garrett, Phillipp Garrett, Newell Garrett and Wilson Garrett, son(s) of Phebee Garrett, all of the lands I now hold containing seventy acres more or less, the said lands (binds) the lands of Mary Palmer, Pasquotank River, Nathaniel Wright and others. I give out of the aforesaid lands to Newel Garrett ten acres and to Wilson Garrett aforesaid five acres, and the ballance of the aforesaid lands I give to Frederick Garrett and Phillip Garrett. I the said Phebee Torksey excepting my life estate in all of the aforesaid lands. The right and title of the aforesaid lands I warrant and defend unto them and the said F. Garrett, P. Garrett, N. Garrett, and Wilson Garrett, son(s) of Phebee Garrett, to them and their heirs forever.


In witness whereof I have here unto set my hand and seal.


Witness: J.G. Hughes

                C. Barco


Phebee (her X mark) Torksey


Camden County Court, September Term, 1855

The foregoing deed of Gift frm Phebee Torksey to Wilson Garrett was exhibited before me this term and the execution thereof proven by the oath of C. Barco, the subscription witness thereto. It is therefore ordered to be Registered.

J.A. Spencer, P.R.

Registered Nov. 7, 1855

Teste. Wm. A. Duke, Clk.


        133            ii.    Philip Torksey, died Unknown.

+      134           iii.    Susanna Torksey, born Abt. 1775 in Camden Co., NC; died Bef. 1832 in Currituck Co., NC?.



        108.  Julia Henrietta7 Scarborough (William6, William5, Macrora4, William3, ?2 Moore, John1) died Unknown.  She married Godfrey Barnsley 24 Jul 1828.  He was born 26 Aug 1805 in Derbyshire, England, and died 1873 in New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA.


More About Julia Henrietta Scarborough:

Burial: Unknown, Savannah, Chatham Co., GA


Notes for Godfrey Barnsley:

Godfrey Barnsley

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Godfrey Barnsley (1805-1873) was a nineteenth-century American businessman and cotton broker who became one of the wealthiest people in the southeastern United States.


Barnsley was born on August 26, 1805, in Derbyshire, England. His father was George Barnsley, an English cotton mill owner and his mother was Anna (Hannah) Goodwin Barnsley. He also has an older brother named Joshua. Barnsley began working in the cotton business at his Uncle Godfrey Barnsley’s importing establishment in Liverpool, England.[1] After Barnsley came to America, he too joined the cotton business and made his fortune.[2]


In 1824, Godfrey Barnsley emigrated to America from Liverpool, England. At the age of eighteen, Barnsley moved to Savannah, Georgia. He arrived in Savannah with no money and no distinguished education.[3] However, it was in Savannah that Barnsley made his fortune as a cotton broker[2] and became one of the most affluent men in the south through the cotton trade and shipping business.[4] He also served as president of the Savannah Chamber of Commerce for several years.[1] While living in Savannah, Barnsley met Julia Henrietta Scarborough, the daughter of William Scarborough,[3] a wealthy shipbuilder and merchant. In 1828, at the age of twenty-five, Barnsley married Julia on Christmas Eve.[2] Barnsley and Julia had eight children. In 1842, Julia’s health began to decline and Barnsley decided to move his family to north Georgia, where he believed there would be a more healthful climate for Julia.[2] Barnsley traveled from Savannah to Cass County (now Bartow County) on an expedition with three friends, William Henry Stiles, Reverend Charles Wallace Howard, and Francis Bartow. Stiles traveled to north Georgia because he was looking for land for future development. Howard was on a geological survey. Barnsley sought to find land where he could build a home that would be away from the heat and threat of yellow fever and malaria prevalent of the Georgia Coast where he lived.[3] He chose a piece of land in the small village of Adairsville, Georgia.


On 10,000 acres (40 km2), Barnsley began construction of his mansion for Julia.[2] He called his manor Woodlands, which later became known as Barnsley Gardens.[1] He designed the gardens of the estate in the style of Andrew Jackson Downing. Downing was considered “America’s first great landscape architect.”[3] Barnsley also brought in every known variety of roses to be planted in the garden.[3] The mansion had twenty-four rooms and was designed in the style of an Italian Villa.[2] It had mantels of black and white marble imported from Italy and also had “unheard of conveniences, such as hot and cold running water.”[3] Barnsley had his house built on an acorn- shaped hill. An old Indian, who worked with Barnsley, warned him not to build on that piece of property. He explained that the site was sacred to the Cherokee and that anyone who tried to live on it would be cursed. Barnsley ignored the Indian’s advice and started construction anyway.[2]


Barnsley’s fortune soon changed after moving into his mansion. His infant son died and in the summer of 1845, Julia died of Tuberculosis.[3] Barnsley still continued to build the mansion after Julia’s death because he felt her presence at the site.[5] He toured Europe in search of “elegant furnishings” to decorate his estate.[3] In 1850, Barnsley’s oldest daughter, Anna, got married and moved to England. Adelaide, Barnsley’s second daughter, died in the mansion in 1858.[3]


When the American Civil War started, the cotton Barnsley brokered was no longer sellable and wound up rotting in warehouses in New Orleans.[2] During the war, Barnsley moved back and forth from Woodlands to New Orleans.[1] Barnsley’s two sons, George and Lucian, joined the Confederacy [3] and in 1862, Howard, Barnsley’s oldest son, was killed by Chinese pirates while searching in the Orient for “exotic shrubbery” to add to the mansion.[3] On May 18, 1864, Colonel Robert G. Earle, who was part of the Second Alabama Light Calvary and a friend of Barnsley, rode to Barnsley’s house to warn him that Sherman’s troops were approaching. He instead was shot down within sight of the mansion. Earle’s body was buried at Woodlands.[2] When Union troops did arrive at the site, Federal General McPherson ordered his men not to destroy Barnsley’s estate, but his orders were ignored.[3] Italian statuary was smashed in hopes of finding hidden gold.[2] Wine and food were stolen. What could not be stolen was smashed,[2] including windows and china.[3]


By the end of the war, Barnsley moved to New Orleans to try to regain his lost fortune.[3] He left Woodlands to be managed by James Peter Baltzelle, a Confederate army captain, who had married his daughter Julia.[2] Baltzelle made a living by shipping timber from Woodlands, but was killed by a falling tree in 1868. Soon after, daughter Julia joined her father in New Orleans, along with her daughter, Adelaide.[3] In 1873, Barnsley died in New Orleans and was taken back to Woodlands, where he was buried.[1] The Woodlands manor house was destroyed in 1906 by a tornado, but the ruins are now open to the public and are part of the Barnsley Gardens resort.


1. *[6] Godfrey Barnsley Papers, Manuscript, Archives, and Rare Book Library, Emory University


2. *[7], Barnsley Gardens, by Kathleen Wallls


3. *[8] Godfrey Barnsley and Barnsley Gardens, Cartersville-Bartow County, GA Convention and Visitors Bureau,


4. *[9], History and Overview, www.barnsley


5. *[10] Barnsley Gardens


[edit] External links





Godfrey Barnsley and Barnsley Gardens



Godfrey Barnsley

Godfrey Barnsley came from Savannah to Bartow County (Cass County in his day) shortly after the Cherokee Indians were removed from northwest Georgia in 1838. He came on an expedition with three friends, all of whom would have a lasting impact on the county: William Henry Stiles, Reverend Charles Wallace Howard and Francis Bartow. He returned to build a mansion that was to become a legend and a showplace.


Howard came to northwest Georgia on a geological survey. Stiles was interested in acquiring land for future development. Barnsley, whose wife and five children sweltered under the heat and threat of yellow fever and malaria of the Georgia coast, sought the haven and comfort of the higher elevation.


The road to the newly opened Cherokee lands in Cass County had been a long, but fortuitous one for Godfrey Barnsley. He had come to America from Liverpool, England in 1823 at the age of eighteen without pedigree or distinguished education. In Savannah he was employed as a brokerage clerk to a prominent cotton shipper and rose swiftly in both business and social worlds. By the age of twenty-five Barnsley was a successful cotton factor and married Savannah socialite Julia Scarborough, the second daughter of William Scarbrough. A merchant and financier, Scarborough built the Savannah, the first ship partially powered by steam to cross the Atlantic. This endeavor, however, cost Scarborough his fortune.


In 1841, Barnsley moved Julia and their family to his northwest Georgia refuge and work on the estate was begun. Eventually, approximately 10,000 acres would be in his domain. Barnsley planned the mansion with the same bold imagination that had made him a wealthy man. He described the house in a letter to a friend as having 'six or seven different styles of widows, giving variety, yet harmonizing.... All the walls are of brick. The campanile is three stories high.... On the first floor is the drawing room, library, vestibule, hall, dining room, breakfast room, pantry, bathrooms, etc., with cistern above a large closet and safe.'



Julia Barnsley

Barnsley called his dream manor Woodlands. He designed his gardens in the style of Andrew Jackson Downing, considered America's first great landscape architect. He brought in every known variety of roses and numerous exotic plant specimens for the gardens. The splendid twenty-four room home was designed in the style of an Italian villa and featured such unheard of conveniences as hot and cold running water. The family kitchen featured an innovative spring-wound cooking spit that automatically turned cuts of meat over roasting coals. A copper tank to the right of the chimney furnished hot water to bathrooms, and a similar tank in the bell tower supplied cold water to house and gardens. The wine cellar held plentiful imported wines. Tiles for the verandah were imported. Doors and paneling were fashioned by London cabinetmakers, and mantels of black-and-white marble were brought from Italy.


The house was built on an acorn-shaped hill reputedly cursed, and Indian legend warned it should be avoided as an unlucky site. But, having enjoyed a Midas Touch, perhaps Barnsley was unconcerned with local legend.


The later life of Godfrey Barnsley was in tragic contrast to the early years that had made him one of South's wealthiest men. Fortune changed for Barnsley shortly after moving his family to Woodlands. Soon an infant son died and Julia succumbed to tuberculosis in the summer of 1845. In 1850, the oldest Barnsley daughter, Anna, married and moved to England. Their second daughter, Adelaide, died in the house in 1858. His oldest son Howard was killed in 1862 by Chinese pirates while he searched the Orient for exotic shrubbery to complete his father's garden.


But through it all, completing the mansion was an obsession with Barnsley. He toured Europe to furnish the home with the elegance he had planned for his wife and family. His travels netted an impressive stock of furnishings and art treasures. When the Civil War found its way to Woodlands, Union troops found Godfrey Barnsley alone with his treasures and his palatial manor still incomplete.


Barnsley's two remaining sons, George and Lucian, had left Woodlands to fight for the Confederacy. His daughter Julia married Confederate Army Captain James Peter Baltzelle in February 1864, and Baltzelle insisted Julia refugee to Savannah. The following spring, Sherman's forces were on the grounds. On May 18, 1864 a cavalry skirmish occurred at Woodlands that was depicted in the pages of Harper's Weekly. Colonel Richard G. Earle of the Second Alabama Light Cavalry rode to Woodlands to warn Barnsley of the Union approach and was shot down within a stone's throw of the house.


Charles Wright Willis, 103rd Illinois infantry, wrote this account of the event in his book Army Life of an Illinois Soldier:


May 18, 1864. Our cavalry had a sharp fight here this p.m. and on one of the gravel walks in the beautiful garden lies a Rebel colonel, shot in five places. He must have been a noble-looking man; looks 50 years old, and has fine form and features. Think his name is Irwin, there must be a hundred varieties of the rose in bloom here and the most splendid specimens of cactus.


Colonel Earle's grave is within a stone's throw of the manor house and enjoys a prominent place in a perennial garden today.


It is said that Federal Gen. McPherson forbade any looting of the unfinished mansion, but his orders had little apparent effect. Barnsley's Irish maid Mary Quinn is recorded as having called McPherson 'a gentleman surrounded by rouges and thieves.'


Carefully chosen furnishings were destroyed; an Italian statuary was smashed to see if it might contain hidden gold; windows and china settings were broken, and wine and stored foods were consumed or stolen.


The war's end brought little relief. George and Lucian Barnsley returned home, but refused to sign the oath of allegiance to the Union and emigrated to South American instead. Barnsley moved to New Orleans in an effort to recoup lost fortunes, leaving his son-in-law Captain Baltzelle and daughter Julia to manage Woodlands.


Baltzelle supported the family by shipping timber from the estate, but was killed in 1868 by a falling tree. Julia took her daughter Adelaide, born in 1864, to her father at New Orleans. Here Julia met and married a German ship captain named Charles Henry Von Schwartz


Godfrey Barnsley died in New Orleans in 1873 and Julia returned his body to Woodlands. Von Schwartz died in 1885. Julia's daughter Adelaide grew up and married a chemist named A. A. Saylor. Bearing out the prophecy of ill luck that lingered over the estate, Saylor died while their two sons, Harry and Preston, were quite young. A tornado in 1906 tore away the roof of the main house and forced the Saylors to move into the intact kitchen wing. In 1935 Preston Saylor a nationally recognized heavyweight boxer under the name of K.O. Dugan killed his brother and was sent to prison. When Mrs. Saylor died in 1942 the estate and its remaining furnishings were sold at auction. The property was bought by W. Earl McClesky and used for farming. Barnsley's grand dream was engulfed with kudzu.


In 1988, Prince Hubertus Fugger and his wife Princess Alexandra, Bavaria, purchased Barnsley Gardens. The remains of the old estate and gardens were rescued from 40 years of neglect. Today, Barnsley Gardens is a northwest Georgia historic showplace and home to a luxurious golf resort.


Tales of supernatural manifestations are plentiful in the long and tragic history of Barnsley Gardens. Barnsley wrote more than once that he could feel the presence of his dead wife everywhere. Mrs. Julia Barnsley Saylor, reported having seen Julia Barnsley, her grandmother Julia, in apparition form in the gardens so often that it became an accustomed sight. Mrs. Saylor also told friends that her Uncle George, one of Barnsley's sons who had settled in Brazil, appeared at the estate on the night of his death in South America.


With or without supernatural trappings, the Barnsley Gardens story is as compelling as it is tragic. One must wonder what life might have been like for the family if Barnsley had heeded the wisdom of the Indian curse and built his home on some other spot on the huge Woodlands estate instead of on that unlucky, acorn-shaped hill.


Learn More

Barnsley Gardens Resort Website




Child of Julia Scarborough and Godfrey Barnsley is:

+      135             i.    Julia Bernard8 Barnsley, died Unknown.



Generation No. 8


        110.  William8 Wilson (Martha7 Dixon, James6, Martha5 Moore, Augustine4, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born 29 Jan 1782 in Charles Parish (present-day Poquoson area), York Co., VA2, and died Abt. 1829 in York Co., VA.  He married Elizabeth Topping, daughter of Robinson Topping and Rachel Wise.  She was born Abt. 1789 in York Co., VA, and died Unknown.


More About William Wilson:

Probate: 18 Jan 1830, York Co., VA

Will: 14 Aug 1828, York Co., VA


Children of William Wilson and Elizabeth Topping are:

        136             i.    Josiah9 Wilson, died Unknown.  He married Elizabeth Hunt 30 Jun 18353; born 28 Jul 18124; died 03 Aug 18505.

+      137            ii.    Martha Wilson, born 27 Jan 1815 in York Co., VA; died 31 Mar 1884 in York Co., VA.

+      138           iii.    Wilton Wilson, born 01 Feb 1816 in York Co., VA; died 02 Oct 1886 in York Co., VA.

+      139           iv.    Sarah Wilson, born Abt. 1818 in Charles Parish (present-day Poquoson area), York Co., VA; died Unknown.



        111.  Sarah8 Roberts (Diana7 Dixon, James6, Martha5 Moore, Augustine4, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) died Unknown.  She married Curtis Patrick Hunt, son of Thomas Hunt and Elizabeth Patrick.  He was born 28 Aug 1785 in Messick (now Poquoson), York Co., VA6, and died 18287.


More About Curtis Patrick Hunt:

Military: 1813, Was wounded in the Battle of Hampton8


Children of Sarah Roberts and Curtis Hunt are:

+      140             i.    Thomas9 Hunt, Jr., born Abt. 1809 in Charles Parish (present-day Poquoson area), York Co., VA; died Abt. 1835 in York Co., VA.

        141            ii.    Elizabeth Hunt, born 28 Jul 18129; died 03 Aug 185010.  She married (1) Thomas Hunt Abt. 1830; died Unknown.  She married (2) Josiah Wilson 30 Jun 183511; died Unknown.  She married (3) Thomas Wornom 21 May 184212; died Unknown.

        142           iii.    Diana Hunt, born 16 Jan 1815 in Charles Parish (present-day Poquoson area), York Co., VA13; died 23 Dec 188814.  She married James S. Hopkins 01 Apr 1835 in York Co., VA15; born 06 Feb 181316; died 28 Mar 189017.

        143           iv.    William Hunt, born Abt. 1824 in Charles Parish (present-day Poquoson area), York Co., VA18; died 185719.

+      144            v.    Curtis Hunt, born Abt. 1821 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.



        113.  Robinson8 Phillips (Rosa7 Dixon, James6, Martha5 Moore, Augustine4, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born Abt. 1802 in York Co., VA, and died 1866 in York Co., VA.  He married Elizabeth Ann Riggins 28 Feb 1828 in York Co., VA.  She was born 03 Apr 1809 in Somerset Co., MD, and died Unknown.


Notes for Robinson Phillips:

Taylor Dixon - age 12 - was listed with the family in the June 16, 1860 Census.


More About Robinson Phillips:

Census 1: 05 Sep 1850, York Co. - age 48 - Farmer

Census 2: 16 Jun 1860, York Co. - age 57 - Farme


More About Elizabeth Ann Riggins:

Census 1: 05 Sep 1850, York Co. - age 42

Census 2: 16 Jun 1860, York Co. - age 51

Census 3: 15 Sep 1870, York Co. -  age 65 - shows birth in Maryland


Children of Robinson Phillips and Elizabeth Riggins are:

+      145             i.    Edward F.9 Phillips, born Feb 1830 in York Co., VA; died 1909 in York Co., VA.

+      146            ii.    Sarah Elizabeth Phillips, born 06 May 1834 in York Co., VA; died 05 Mar 1887 in York Co., VA.

+      147           iii.    Melissa Phillips, born 12 Dec 1837 in York Co., VA; died 27 Feb 1891 in York Co., VA.



        114.  Mary A.8 Phillips (Rosa7 Dixon, James6, Martha5 Moore, Augustine4, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born 23 Oct 1806 in York Co., VA, and died 06 Feb 1867.  She married Thomas Dixon 24 Dec 1825 in York Co., VA, son of William Dixon and Ann Parsons.  He was born Abt. 1801 in York Co., VA, and died Abt. 1858.


More About Mary A. Phillips:

Census: 05 Sep 1850, York Co. - age 45


More About Thomas Dixon:

Census: 05 Sep 1850, York Co. - age 49 - Farmer


Children of Mary Phillips and Thomas Dixon are:

        148             i.    Mary Elizabeth9 Dixon, born Abt. 1837 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.


More About Mary Elizabeth Dixon:

Census: 05 Sep 1850, York Co. - age 13


+      149            ii.    Anthony Dixon, born Abt. 1841 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.

        150           iii.    Frances Dixon, born Abt. 1843 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.  She married Alpheus Holloway 02 Apr 1859 in York Co., VA; born 1833 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.


More About Frances Dixon:

Census: 05 Sep 1850, York Co. - age 7


More About Alpheus Holloway:

Census: 18 Jun 1860, York Co. - age 27 - Sailor Inland - living with father


+      151           iv.    William Kelsor Dixon, born 03 Apr 1844 in York Co., VA; died 11 Feb 1887 in York Co., VA.

+      152            v.    Thomas Dixon, born Mar 1845 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.

        153           vi.    Edward Taylor Dixon, born Abt. 1848 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.


More About Edward Taylor Dixon:

Census: 05 Sep 1850, York Co. - age 2


+      154          vii.    Elizabeth Ann Dixon, born 1851 in York Co., VA; died 21 Oct 1897 in York Co., VA.



        115.  Richard Eggleston8 Phillips (Rosa7 Dixon, James6, Martha5 Moore, Augustine4, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1)20 was born 08 Apr 1809 in Charles Parish (present-day Poquoson area), York Co., VA21, and died 27 Jul 1884 in Charles Parish (present-day Poquoson area), York Co., VA22.  He married (1) Mary Elinor Linton Abt. 1835, daughter of Elijah Linton and Ellinor Robertson.  She was born 25 Dec 1815 in Mathews Co., VA or Messick (now Poquoson), York Co., VA23, and died Unknown.  He married (2) Zelle Constance Wilson 21 Mar 1870 in York Co., VA24, daughter of Wilton Wilson and Amanda Huffington.  She was born 184025, and died Unknown.  He married (3) Isadora Beatrice Freeman 05 Apr 1877 in York Co., VA26, daughter of John Freeman and Mary White.  She was born 28 Aug 1860 in York Co., VA, and died Unknown.


More About Richard Eggleston Phillips:

Census 1: 10 Sep 1850, York Co. - age 40 - Farmer

Census 2: 16 Jun 1860, York Co. - age 50 - Farmer

Census 3: 04 Oct 1870, York Co. - age 63 - General Merchant

Census 4: 17 Jun 1880, York Co. - age 71 - Farmer


Notes for Mary Elinor Linton:

According to the Phillips family Bible, Mary Linton was the daughter of Elijah and Ellinder Linton and was born 25 Dec 1815.


More About Mary Elinor Linton:

Name 2: Mary Robertson Linton

Census 1: 10 Sep 1850, York Co. - age 25

Census 2: 16 Jun 1860, York Co. - age 43


More About Zelle Constance Wilson:

Date born 2: 1840, York Co., VA

Census 1: 05 Sep 1850, York Co. - age 12

Census 2: 14 Jun 1860, York Co. - age 20

Census 3: 04 Oct 1870, York Co. - age 30 - Keeping House


More About Isadora Beatrice Freeman:

Census 1: 17 Sep 1870, York Co. - age 10

Census 2: 17 Jun 1880, York Co. - age 19 - Keeping House

Census 3: 18 Jun 1900, York Co. - age 40

Census 4: 06 May 1910, York Co. - age ?


Children of Richard Phillips and Mary Linton are:

        155             i.    William9 Phillips, born 29 Jul 1836 in Messick (now Poquoson), York Co., VA27; died Unknown.


More About William Phillips:

Census 1: 10 Sep 1850, York Co. - age 13

Census 2: 16 Jun 1860, York Co. - age 23 - Sailor Inland - living with parents

Comment: Never married28


+      156            ii.    Capt. Thomas S. Phillips, born 25 Jul 1838 in Messick (now Poquoson), York Co., VA; died 14 Oct 1915 in Messick (now Poquoson), York Co., VA.

+      157           iii.    Airy Jane Phillips, born 10 Jan 1841 in York Co., VA; died 21 Dec 1911 in York Co., VA.

+      158           iv.    Mary Robinson Phillips, born 14 Jan 1843 in Messick (now Poquoson), York Co., VA; died 08 Mar 1917 in York Co., VA.

+      159            v.    Marcellus Phillips, born 07 Mar 1845 in Messick (now Poquoson), York Co., VA; died 17 Mar 1871.

+      160           vi.    Elizabeth Wordard Phillips, born 26 Mar 1848 in Messick (now Poquoson), York Co., VA; died 07 Nov 1891 in York Co., VA.

        161          vii.    Mark Phillips, born Abt. 1850 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.


More About Mark Phillips:

Census: 15 Jun 1860, York Co. - age 11


        162         viii.    Edward Phillips, born Abt. 1855 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.


More About Edward Phillips:

Census: 04 Oct 1870, York Co. - age 15 - At Home


        163           ix.    Willis Phillips, born Abt. 1857 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.


More About Willis Phillips:

Census: 04 Oct 1870, York Co. - age 13


        164            x.    Mollie Phillips, born Abt. 1859 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.


More About Mollie Phillips:

Caste: 04 Oct 1870, York Co. - age 11


        165           xi.    Benjamin Phillips, born Abt. 1861 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.


More About Benjamin Phillips:

Census: 04 Oct 1870, York Co. - ag



Children of Richard Phillips and Isadora Freeman are:

        166             i.    William9 Phillips, born in Messick (now Poquoson), York Co., VA; died Unknown.  He married Maggie E. Wainright 06 Jul 190029; died Unknown.

+      167            ii.    William Sidney Phillips, born Dec 1878 in York Co., VA; died 1968.

+      168           iii.    Minerva Phillips, born 14 Apr 1880 in York Co., VA; died 02 Apr 1960.

+      169           iv.    Richard Eggleston Phillips, Jr., born 12 Jan 1883 in York Co., VA; died 10 Dec 1970.



        116.  Sarah8 Phillips (Rosa7 Dixon, James6, Martha5 Moore, Augustine4, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born 1815 in York Co., VA, and died Unknown.  She married William H. Riggins 09 Dec 1831 in York Co., VA.  He was born 1811 in Maryland, and died 1876 in York Co., VA.


More About Sarah Phillips:

Census: 28 Jun 1860, York Co. -  age 4


More About William H. Riggins:

Census 1: 28 Jun 1860, York Co. - age 53 - Mast. Carpenter

Census 2: 05 Oct 1870, York Co. - age 63 - Ship Carpenter


Children of Sarah Phillips and William Riggins are:

        170             i.    Martha9 Riggins, born 1839; died Unknown.


More About Martha Riggins:

Census: 28 Jun 1860, York Co. -  age 21 - Seamstress - living with parents


        171            ii.    Thomas Riggins, born 1840; died Unknown.


More About Thomas Riggins:

Census: 28 Jun 1860, York Co. -  age 20 - Carpenter - living with parents


+      172           iii.    Levi Riggins, born 03 May 1841 in York Co., VA; died 23 Aug 1890 in York Co., VA.

        173           iv.    Cassandra Riggins, born 1845 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.  She married George Saunders 31 Jan 1867 in York Co., VA; born in York Co., VA; died Unknown.


More About Cassandra Riggins:

Census: 28 Jun 1860, York Co. -  age 15 - Housekeeper


        174            v.    Sarah Riggins, born 1846; died Unknown.


More About Sarah Riggins:

Census: 28 Jun 1860, York Co. -  age 14


+      175           vi.    Eugenia Riggins, born 1847 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.

+      176          vii.    George W. Riggins, born 1851 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.

+      177         viii.    Daniel Webster Riggins, born 01 Jan 1856 in York Co., VA; died 25 Jul 1921 in York Co., VA.

        178           ix.    Edward Sylvester Riggins, born 16 Mar 1857 in York Co., VA; died 01 Apr 1925 in York Co., VA.


More About Edward Sylvester Riggins:

Burial: Unknown, Emmaus Baptist Church, Poquoson, VA

Census 1: 28 Jun 1860, York Co. - age 4

Census 2: 05 Oct 1870, York Co. - age 13

Census 3: 11 May 1910, York Co. - age 52 - Ship Carpenter - living with brother Daniel

Census 4: 15 Jan 1920, York Co. - age 62 - Laborer - General - living with brother Daniel



        117.  Capt. Anthony8 Dixon (William Moore7, James6, Martha5 Moore, Augustine4, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born Abt. 1796 in York Co., VA, and died Unknown.  He married Mary Rooksland Sheild 23 May 1825 in York Co., VA30, daughter of John Ferguson Sheild.  She was born Abt. 1800 in York Co., VA or Baltimore, MD31, and died Abt. 1877 in York Co., VA32.


More About Mary Rooksland Sheild:

Burial: Unknown, Robertson Cemetery at bank of Topping Creek, Heron Court, Cedar Landing Estates, Poquoson, VA33

Comment 1: Her many descendants and her royal ancestry are traced in the booklet "A Virginia Genealogy: Mary Rooksland Sheild" by Dollie Hughes Vick

Comment 2: She is said to have been a medicine woman, making up many herbal remedies for various ailments that afflicted residents of present-day Poquoson and York Co., VA. 34

Comment 3: Undocumented information indicates she may have been the product of a marriage between half-siblings and that she was of American Indian descent. 35


Children of Anthony Dixon and Mary Sheild are:

+      179             i.    Mary Ann9 Dixon, born 08 Aug 1826 in York Co., VA; died 23 Nov 1865 in York Co., VA.

        180            ii.    Theodore Rawlin Dixon, born 27 Aug 1829 in York Co., VA36; died 19 Oct 183637.

+      181           iii.    William Rodolphus Dixon, born 28 Sep 1831 in York Co., VA; died 25 Feb 1852 in York Co., VA.

+      182           iv.    Robert Eugene Dixon, born 13 Feb 1833 in York Co., VA; died 1900 in York Co., VA.



        118.  Thomas8 Dixon (William Moore7, James6, Martha5 Moore, Augustine4, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born Abt. 1801 in York Co., VA, and died Abt. 1858.  He married Mary A. Phillips 24 Dec 1825 in York Co., VA, daughter of Thomas Phillips and Rosa Dixon.  She was born 23 Oct 1806 in York Co., VA, and died 06 Feb 1867.


More About Thomas Dixon:

Census: 05 Sep 1850, York Co. - age 49 - Farmer


More About Mary A. Phillips:

Census: 05 Sep 1850, York Co. - age 45


Children are listed above under (114) Mary A. Phillips.


        120.  Merritt8 Moore (William7, John6, Anne5 Moore?, Augustine4 Moore III, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born 14 Nov 1788 in York Co., VA38, and died Abt. 183039.  He married Frances ?.  She died Unknown.


Children of Merritt Moore and Frances ? are:

+      183             i.    William Henry9 Moore, born Abt. 1808 in York Co., VA; died Unknown in York Co., VA.

        184            ii.    John Moore, born 11 Jan 1825 in York Co., VA40; died 25 Jun 189241.



        121.  William Edward8 Moore (William7, John6, Anne5 Moore?, Augustine4 Moore III, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born Abt. 179142, and died 16 Nov 1841 in York Co., VA43.  He married Elizabeth Wright 28 Sep 1819 in York Co., VA44, daughter of Peter Wright and Henrietta Powell.  She was born Abt. 1802 in Charles Parish, present-day Poquoson or York Co., VA45, and died Aft. 03 Oct 1870.


Children of William Moore and Elizabeth Wright are:

+      185             i.    Edward Barney9 Moore, born 17 Jul 1820 in York Co., VA; died 20 Apr 1895 in York Co., VA.

+      186            ii.    Starkey Wright Moore, born 10 Sep 1824 in York Co., VA; died 25 Jul 1905 in York Co., VA.

        187           iii.    Mary Anne Moore, born Abt. 1825 in York Co., VA46; died Unknown.  She married Phillip Rowe 17 Jan 1845 in York Co., VA47; born Abt. 1821; died Unknown.

        188           iv.    William Henry Moore, born 23 Sep 1839 in York Co., VA48; died 05 Jun 1927 in York Co., VA.  He married Henrietta Powell Patrick; born 03 Sep 1843 in York Co., VA49; died 09 Jun 1917 in York Co., VA.


More About William Henry Moore:

Burial: Unknown, Providence United Methodist Church, York Co., VA

Occupation: Farmer


More About Henrietta Powell Patrick:

Burial: Unknown, Providence United Methodist Church, York Co., VA



        123.  Sarah8 Cartwright (Mark7, Jean/Jane6 Morgan, Joseph5, Elizabeth4 Torksey, Mary3 Scarborough, ?2 Moore, John1) was born 15 Nov 1809 in Camden Co., NC, and died 06 Feb 1870 in Camden Co., NC.  She married William W. Sanderlin50, son of Joseph Sanderlin and Charity Sawyer.  He was born 20 Dec 1802 in Camden Co., NC, and died 1887.


Child of Sarah Cartwright and William Sanderlin is:

+      189             i.    Wilson L.9 Sanderlin, born 25 Apr 1827; died 29 May 1901.



        134.  Susanna8 Torksey (Thomas7, Thomas6 Torksey?, Phillip5, Philip4, Mary3 Scarborough, ?2 Moore, John1) was born Abt. 1775 in Camden Co., NC, and died Bef. 1832 in Currituck Co., NC?.  She married James Garrett, Jr. Bef. 1795 in probably Camden Co., NC51, son of James Garrett and ?Edith ?.  He was born Abt. 1773 in Currituck Co. or Camden Co., NC52, and died Aft. 1859 in Elizabeth City or Weeksville, Pasquotank Co., NC.


Notes for Susanna Torksey:

Comments by Bryan S. Godfrey, great-great-great-great-great-grandson of James and Susanna Torksey Garrett:


Susanna's maiden name and the fact that she had a brother named Phillip Torksey and a sister named Phoebe Torksey are proven by a deed from Phoebe to Susanna's son Wilson, discovered by Garrett descendant Celeste Garrett Beavers of Camden County, North Carolina. However, no records have been found establishing who her parents were, but through process of elimination, I think it can be safely assumed that she was descended from the first Phillip Torksey who married Mary Scarborough and moved from Middlesex County, Virginia to present-day Camden County, North Carolina, and from the second Phillip Torksey in Camden who married Mary Raymond, daughter of William Raymond.


From process of elimination among the first few generations of Torkseys in Camden County, it seems almost certain that Susanna was a granddaughter of Thomas Torksey who named a daughter Susanna in his 1758 will. That Susanna could not have been identical with Susanna wife of James Garrett unless she was much older than James, since census records indicate that James was born about 1773. Susanna Torksey, wife of James Garrett, is either a daughter of Thomas' son Thomas or his son Phillip. I lean toward the former since she had a son named James Thomas Garrett in 1801 and a younger son named Phillip Garrett in 1806. James Garrett's father was named James, so it seems likely they would have named an older son for both of their fathers, whereas a younger son was named for her brother Phillip Torksey.


The following is Mrs. Beavers' transcription of the deed from Phebe Torksey to her nephew Wilson Garrett:


Camden Co., NC Deeds Book X, page 366

12 Nov 1842--registered 24 Oct 1843


This indenture made this the 12th day of November Eighteen hundred & forty two between Phebee Torksey of the County of Camden and State of No Carolina of the first part and Wilson Garrott of the County of Currituck and State aforesaid of the other part--Witnesseth that the said Phebee Torksey that for & in consideration of the Love and affection which she bears towards her neffew [sic] the said Wilson Garrott also for and in consideration of the Sum of One dollar to me in hand paid by the said Wilson Garrott the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged hath given, granted, bargain, conveyed and S____ by these presents do give grant bargain ______ unto the said Wilson Garrott his heirs & assigns forever One half of a certain Tract of land lying in the ______ and of said County of Camden in ______ called the neck, One half of which said Tract contains Seventy acres more or less (reserving my life Estate in said Lands). Beginning on the west side of Said Lands at the river & binding the Lands of Nathaniel Wright & others northardly to the back line & so running the dividing line in Said Lands as to containing the house & Lot where my Brother Phillip Torksey formerly Lived. To have and to hold the said Lands & premises? with all the improvements theron (excepting my life estate in Said Lands) to him the said Wilson Garrot his heirs & assigns forever. And I the Said Phebee Torksey for myself my heirs & assigns do covenant and agree to warrant & defend the title to the said land & premises against the _______ or claims of all persons whatever. In witness whereof I have here unto Set my hand & seal In presence of T_____ Walston  J.G. Hughes


Phebee (her X mark) Torksey (Seal)


Camden County Court Septr Term 1843. This deed of Bargain and Sale from Phebee Torksey to Wilson Garrett was exhibited in open court and proved in due form of law by Jos. G. Hughes a Subscripting witness thereto and on motion in open court ordered registered.


Test. A.H. Grandy  Clk

Registered October 24h 1843   J.G. Hughes P.R.


More About James Garrett, Jr.:

Residence 1: Bef. 1796, Camden Co., NC

Residence 2: Bef. 1810, Settled near Moyock, Currituck Co., NC, where his son Phillip and descendants later resided. He may have been related to Garretts already in that area.

Residence 3: 1860, Living with his grandson John Pailin in the Weeksville area of Pasquotank Co., NC, according to the census which lists his age as 87. John Pailin's wife and first cousin, Sarah Garrett, was James' granddaughter.


Children of Susanna Torksey and James Garrett are:

        190             i.    Newell B.9 Garrett, born 10 Aug 1796 in Camden Co., NC53; died Abt. 13 Oct 1841 in Washington, Beaufort Co., NC?.  He married Nancy ?; died Unknown.


More About Newell B. Garrett:

Comment: In the "Raleigh Register" newspaper, there is a death notice for an N.B. Garrett, late of Washington (NC), presumably this Newell B. Garrett. 54

Event 1: 08 Aug 1828, Wrote a letter to his parents while living at Washington, Beaufort Co., NC; no mention of wife or family. 55

Event 2: 18 Jun 1824, Was a witness for the wedding of John Fife and Celia Johnson in Edenton, Chowan Co., NC. 56


More About Nancy ?:

Census: 1850, She was listed as age 44 with a Susan Garrett (daughter?), age 15, in the home of Phoebe Torksey (her husband's aunt?) in Camden Co., NC. Wilson Wesley Garrett and family apparently lived two doors down. 57


+      191            ii.    Lydia Garrett, born 15 Jan 1799 in Currituck Co., NC?; died 18 Jul 1855 in Pasquotank Co., NC.

+      192           iii.    James Thomas Garrett, born 03 Mar 1801 in Camden Co., NC; died Unknown.

+      193           iv.    Frances Garrett, born 16 May 1803 in Currituck Co. or Camden Co., NC; died Aft. 1880 in Nixonton, Pasquotank Co., NC?.

+      194            v.    Phillip Garrett, born 27 Feb 1806 in near Moyock, Currituck Co., NC; died 22 Dec 1897 in "Red River Farm" near Moyock, Currituck Co., NC.

+      195           vi.    Wilson Wesley Garrett, born 04 Oct 1808 in Camden Co. or Currituck Co., NC; died Bet. 1853 - 1854 in Camden Co., NC.

        196          vii.    Phoebe Garrett, born 04 Jul 1813; died Unknown.

        197         viii.    John R. Garrett, born Abt. 1816; died Aug 1880 in Camden Co., NC58.



        135.  Julia Bernard8 Barnsley (Julia Henrietta7 Scarborough, William6, William5, Macrora4, William3, ?2 Moore, John1) died Unknown.  She married James Peter Baltzelle.  He died Unknown.


Child of Julia Barnsley and James Baltzelle is:

+      198             i.    Adelaide9 Baltzelle, died Unknown.



Generation No. 9


        137.  Martha9 Wilson (William8, Martha7 Dixon, James6, Martha5 Moore, Augustine4, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born 27 Jan 1815 in York Co., VA59, and died 31 Mar 1884 in York Co., VA.  She married William Freeman 25 Jun 1834 in York Co., VA, son of Henry Freeman and Elizabeth Presson.  He was born 25 Jan 1812 in Charles Parish (present-day Poquoson area), York Co., VA60, and died 12 Sep 1884 in York Co., VA.


More About Martha Wilson:

Burial: Unknown, Bayview Drive Cemetery, York Co., VA


More About William Freeman:

Burial: Unknown, Bayview Drive Cemetery, York Co., VA


Children of Martha Wilson and William Freeman are:

        199             i.    Ella Rebecca10 Freeman, died Unknown.

        200            ii.    Henry Freeman, born May 1835 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.

        201           iii.    William P. Freeman, born Abt. 1837 in York Co., VA; died Unknown in Civil War.

        202           iv.    Josiah W. Freeman, born Abt. 1840 in York Co., VA; died Unknown in Civil War.

+      203            v.    Mary Elizabeth Freeman, born Aug 1840 in York Co., VA; died 1923.

+      204           vi.    Martha Virginia Freeman, born 03 Sep 1842 in York Co., VA; died 15 Nov 1880 in York Co., VA.

+      205          vii.    Carroll Robertson Freeman, born 26 Aug 1844 in York Co., VA; died 18 Nov 1880 in York Co., VA.

        206         viii.    Sarah Emma Freeman, born Abt. 1846 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.

        207           ix.    Susan Virginia Freeman, born Abt. 1850 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.

+      208            x.    John Wesley Freeman, born 22 Mar 1850 in York Co., VA; died 12 Jan 1914 in York Co., VA.

        209           xi.    Hester Freeman, born Abt. 1857; died Unknown.

        210          xii.    Edward Russell Freeman, born 09 Jun 1858 in York Co., VA; died 20 Dec 1944 in York Co., VA.


More About Edward Russell Freeman:

Burial: Unknown, Tabernacle United Methodist Churchyard, Poquoson, VA


        211         xiii.    Albert Freeman, born Abt. 1860 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.



        138.  Wilton9 Wilson (William8, Martha7 Dixon, James6, Martha5 Moore, Augustine4, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born 01 Feb 1816 in York Co., VA61, and died 02 Oct 1886 in York Co., VA.  He married (1) Amanda Addine Huffington 25 Dec 1837 in York Co., VA, daughter of Jesse Huffington and Mary Sheild.  She was born 19 May 1818 in York Co., VA62, and died 1853 in York Co., VA63.  He married (2) Martha ? Aft. 1863.  She died Unknown.  He married (3) Ella Rebecca Cox 04 Jan 1880 in Poquoson, York Co., VA, daughter of Silas Cox and Sarah Freeman.  She was born 12 Mar 1862 in York Co., VA, and died 02 Mar 1925 in York Co., VA.


Notes for Wilton Wilson:

Occupation from marriage registrationLiving with the family in the 1870 census were Wilton Wilson, age 4, and Sally Wilson, age 6.


More About Wilton Wilson:

Burial: Unknown, Bayview Drive Cemetery, York Co., VA

Census 1: 05 Sep 1850, York Co. - age 34 - Farmer

Census 2: 18 Jun 1860, York Co. - age 43 - Farmer

Census 3: 24 Sep 1870, York Co. - age 53 - Farmer

Census 4: 15 Jun 1880, York Co. - age 61 - Farmer


Notes for Ella Rebecca Cox:

Name also given as Ella Rebecca - listed as Martha Ella in the family bible.


More About Ella Rebecca Cox:

Burial: Unknown, Tabernacle United Methodist Churchyard, Poquoson, VA

Census 1: 19 Sep 1870, York Co. - age 8

Census 2: 15 Jun 1880, York Co. - age 19 - Keeping House

Census 3: 23 Jun 1900, York Co. - age 38

Census 4: 26 Apr 1910, York Co. - age 48

Census 5: 03 Jan 1920, York Co. - age 57


Children of Wilton Wilson and Amanda Huffington are:

+      212             i.    Zelle Constance10 Wilson, born 1840; died Unknown.

+      213            ii.    Amanda "Malvina" Wilson, born 05 Dec 1843 in Messick (now Poquoson), York Co., VA; died 05 Mar 1923 in York Co., VA.

+      214           iii.    William J. Wilson, born Jan 1847 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.

+      215           iv.    Thaddeus B. Wilson, born 02 Oct 1849 in York Co., VA; died 05 May 1893 in York Co., VA.

+      216            v.    Rodolphus D. Wilson, born 28 May 1853 in York Co., VA; died 26 Jan 1916.



Children of Wilton Wilson and Martha ? are:

        217             i.    Sally10 Wilson, died Unknown.

        218            ii.    Wilton Wilson, Jr., born 10 Jun 1866; died Unknown.



        139.  Sarah9 Wilson (William8, Martha7 Dixon, James6, Martha5 Moore, Augustine4, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born Abt. 1818 in Charles Parish (present-day Poquoson area), York Co., VA, and died Unknown.  She married (1) Thomas Hunt, Jr., son of Curtis Hunt and Sarah Roberts.  He was born Abt. 1809 in Charles Parish (present-day Poquoson area), York Co., VA64, and died Abt. 1835 in York Co., VA.  She married (2) Josiah Evans.  He died Unknown.


Children of Sarah Wilson and Thomas Hunt are:

+      219             i.    Benjamin Wise10 Hunt, born May 1833 in York Co., VA; died 01 Dec 1919 in York Co., VA.

        220            ii.    William Curtis Hunt, born Abt. 1834 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.  He married Frances Susan White; born 26 Feb 184365; died Unknown.



        140.  Thomas9 Hunt, Jr. (Sarah8 Roberts, Diana7 Dixon, James6, Martha5 Moore, Augustine4, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born Abt. 1809 in Charles Parish (present-day Poquoson area), York Co., VA66, and died Abt. 1835 in York Co., VA.  He married Sarah Wilson, daughter of William Wilson and Elizabeth Topping.  She was born Abt. 1818 in Charles Parish (present-day Poquoson area), York Co., VA, and died Unknown.


Children are listed above under (139) Sarah Wilson.


        144.  Curtis9 Hunt (Sarah8 Roberts, Diana7 Dixon, James6, Martha5 Moore, Augustine4, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born Abt. 1821 in York Co., VA66, and died Unknown.  He married Mary Ann Dixon 27 Dec 1843 in York Co., VA, daughter of Anthony Dixon and Mary Sheild.  She was born 08 Aug 1826 in York Co., VA, and died 23 Nov 1865 in York Co., VA.


Children of Curtis Hunt and Mary Dixon are:

+      221             i.    William Eugene10 Hunt, born 22 Dec 1844 in York Co., VA; died 14 Aug 1926 in York Co., VA.

+      222            ii.    Curtis Theodore Hunt, born 28 Dec 1847 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.

        223           iii.    Sarah Hunt, born Abt. 1850 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.

+      224           iv.    Powhatan Hunt, born Abt. 1853 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.

        225            v.    Rodolphus Hunt, born Abt. 1856 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.



        145.  Edward F.9 Phillips (Robinson8, Rosa7 Dixon, James6, Martha5 Moore, Augustine4, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born Feb 1830 in York Co., VA, and died 1909 in York Co., VA.  He married Mary Elizabeth Freeman Abt. 1862, daughter of William Freeman and Martha Wilson.  She was born Aug 1840 in York Co., VA, and died 1923.


More About Edward F. Phillips:

Census 1: 05 Sep 1850, York Co. - age 21 - Farmer - living with parents

Census 2: 16 Jun 1860, York Co. - age 31 - Sailor Inland - living with parents

Census 3: 05 Oct 1870, York Co. - age 40 - Farmer

Census 4: 16 Jun 1900, York Co. - age 70 - Farmer


More About Mary Elizabeth Freeman:

Burial: Unknown, Emmaus Baptist Church, Poquoson, VA

Census 1: 05 Sep 1850, York Co. - age 9

Census 2: 26 Jun 1860, York Co. - age 17

Census 3: 05 Oct 1870, York Co. - age 36 - Keeping House

Census 4: 16 Jun 1900, York Co. - age 60

Census 5: 07 May 1910, York Co. - age 69 - living with son Edward

Census 6: 12 Jan 1920, York Co. - age 79 - living with son Edward


Children of Edward Phillips and Mary Freeman are:

+      226             i.    Martha Ann10 Phillips, born 01 Sep 1864 in York Co., VA; died 30 Nov 1892 in York Co., VA.

        227            ii.    William R. Phillips, born Oct 1865 in York Co., VA; died 1939 in York Co, VA.


More About William R. Phillips:

Burial: Unknown, Emmaus Baptist Church, Poquoson, VA

Census 1: 05 Oct 1870, York Co. - age 5

Census 2: 16 Jun 1900, York Co. - age 34 - Oysterman - living with parents


        228           iii.    Octavia Phillips, born Abt. 1867; died Unknown.


More About Octavia Phillips:

Census: 05 Oct 1870, York Co. - age 3


        229           iv.    Beulah Phillips, born Dec 1873 in York Co., VA; died 1945 in York Co., VA.  She married (1) John Thomas Wornom; born 1872 in York Co., VA; died 1936.  She married (2) William H. Hunt; born Abt. 1867 in York Co., VA; died 1895 in York Co., VA.


More About John Thomas Wornom:

Census: 10 Jun 1880, York Co. - age 8 - At Home


More About William H. Hunt:

Burial: Unknown, Emmaus Baptist Church, Poquoson, VA

Census 1: 17 Jun 1880, York Co. - age 13

Census 2: 03 Oct 1870, York Co. - age 2


+      230            v.    Edward F. Phillips, Jr., born 02 Mar 1880 in York Co., VA; died 29 Dec 1936 in York Co., VA.



        146.  Sarah Elizabeth9 Phillips (Robinson8, Rosa7 Dixon, James6, Martha5 Moore, Augustine4, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born 06 May 1834 in York Co., VA, and died 05 Mar 1887 in York Co., VA.  She married Benjamin Franklin Smith 19 Oct 1850 in York Co., VA.  He was born 01 Jun 1828 in York Co., VA, and died 14 Feb 1895 in York Co., VA.


More About Sarah Elizabeth Phillips:

Burial: Unknown, Hopkins-Cook-Smith Cemetery, Yorktown Rd., Tabb, York Co., VA

Census 1: 02 Jul 1860, York Co. -  age 26

Census 2: 05 Sep 1850, York Co. - age 15

Census 3: 13 Sep 1870, York Co. -  age 37 - Keeping House

Census 4: 29 Jun 1880, York Co. -  age 45


More About Benjamin Franklin Smith:

Burial: Unknown, Hopkins-Cook-Smith Cemetery, Yorktown Rd., Tabb, York Co., VA

Census 1: 06 Aug 1850, York Co. - age 21 - Clerk - living with brother George

Census 2: 02 Jul 1860, York Co. - age 32 - Farmer

Census 3: 13 Sep 1870, York Co. - age 43 - Farmer

Census 4: 29 Jun 1880, York Co. - age 52 - Farmer


Children of Sarah Phillips and Benjamin Smith are:

+      231             i.    Levin James10 Smith, born 01 Jun 1852 in York Co., VA; died 1909 in York Co., VA.

+      232            ii.    Robert Franklin Smith, born 20 Jun 1854 in York Co., VA; died 15 Feb 1915 in York Co., VA.

+      233           iii.    Edward Barney Smith, born 13 Jun 1856 in York Co., VA; died 27 Dec 1933.

        234           iv.    Ida Smith, born 30 Jun 1858 in York Co., VA; died 20 Aug 1883.  She married James Vaughan Jones 20 Oct 1880; born Abt. 1853; died Unknown.


More About Ida Smith:

Caste: 02 Jul 1860, York Co. -  age 2

Census 1: 13 Sep 1870, York Co. -  age 12

Census 2: 29 Jun 1880, York Co. -  age 21


+      235            v.    Sarah Elizabeth Smith, born 28 Jan 1862 in York Co., VA; died 08 Apr 1895 in York Co., VA.

+      236           vi.    Auylmer Pelham Smith, born 01 Jan 1864 in York Co., VA; died 1925.

+      237          vii.    Charles Carroll Smith, born 17 Aug 1866 in York Co., VA; died 07 Jun 1938 in Warwick Co., VA.

        238         viii.    George Washington Smith, born 08 Aug 1869; died 31 Aug 1869.

+      239           ix.    Mary Hubbard Smith, born 11 Oct 1870 in York Co., VA; died 07 Apr 1936.

        240            x.    Beulah Virginia Smith, born 12 Feb 1873; died 30 Jun 1873.

        241           xi.    Effie Melissa Smith, born 09 May 1875; died 19 Nov 1875.

+      242          xii.    Harry Gordon Smith, born 28 Mar 1878 in York Co., VA; died 26 Oct 1965.



        147.  Melissa9 Phillips (Robinson8, Rosa7 Dixon, James6, Martha5 Moore, Augustine4, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born 12 Dec 1837 in York Co., VA, and died 27 Feb 1891 in York Co., VA.  She married (1) William R. Hunt.  He was born Abt. 1824 in York Co., VA, and died 1857 in York Co., VA.  She married (2) Merritt Moore 02 Jun 1859 in York Co., VA, son of William Moore and Sarah Freeman.  He was born Abt. 1840 in York Co., VA67, and died 22 May 1907 in York Co., VA.


Notes for Melissa Phillips:

1880 Census - age 50


More About Melissa Phillips:

Burial: Unknown, Providence Methodist Church Cemetery, York Co., VA

Census 1: 24 Jun 1880, York Co. - age 50 - Keeping House

Census 2: 05 Sep 1850, York Co. - age 19 - living with husband at her parents

Census 3: 14 Jun 1860, York Co. - age 29

Census 4: 03 Oct 1870, York Co. - age 38 - Keeping House


More About William R. Hunt:

Census: 05 Sep 1850, York Co. - age 26 - Farmer - living with wife at her parents


Notes for Merritt Moore:

Living in the household in the 1870 Census were Robert F. Hunt, age 19, Farmer and Sarah E. Hunt, age 17, At home.


More About Merritt Moore:

Date born 2: 11 Mar 1839, York Co., VA

Burial 1: Unknown, Providence Church, York Co., VA67

Burial 2: Providence Methodist Church Cemetery, York Co., VA

Census 1: 10 Sep 1850, York Co. - age 10

Census 2: 14 Jun 1860, York Co. - age 20 - Farmer

Census 3: 03 Oct 1870, York Co. - age 30 - Farmer

Census 4: 24 Jun 1880, York Co. - age 41 - Farmer

Census 5: 25 Jun 1900, York Co. - age 60 - Farmer


Children of Melissa Phillips and William Hunt are:

        243             i.    William Franklin10 Hunt, born Abt. 1848 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.  He married Sarah K. Dawson 20 Apr 1874; died Unknown.


More About William Franklin Hunt:

Census 1: 05 Sep 1850, Not listed

Census 2: 14 Jun 1860, York Co. - age 12


        244            ii.    Robert Hunt, born Abt. 1851 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.


More About Robert Hunt:

Census 1: 14 Jun 1860, York Co. - age 9

Census 2: 03 Oct 1870, York Co. - age 19 - Oyster Catcher


        245           iii.    Sarah Hunt, born Abt. 1853 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.


More About Sarah Hunt:

Census 1: 14 Jun 1860, York Co. - age 7

Census 2: 03 Oct 1870, York Co. - age 17


+      246           iv.    Sarah Elizabeth Hunt, born 28 Jan 1853 in York Co., VA; died 29 Nov 1915 in York Co., VA.

+      247            v.    Alexander Hunt, born 21 Nov 1855 in York Co., VA; died 13 Dec 1944 in York Co., VA.



Children of Melissa Phillips and Merritt Moore are:

+      248             i.    Rebecca F.10 Moore, born 06 Mar 1860 in York Co., VA; died 08 Sep 1917 in York Co., VA.

+      249            ii.    James Isaac Moore, born 21 Aug 1861 in York Co., VA; died 24 Sep 1933 in York Co., VA.

+      250           iii.    William Henry Beauregard Moore, born 24 Mar 1865 in York Co., VA; died 31 Aug 1951 in York Co., VA.

        251           iv.    Merritt Moore, born 15 Feb 1867 in York Co., VA; died 24 Jan 1940.  He married Virginia H. Amory 10 Feb 1887 in York Co., VA; born 1868 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.


More About Merritt Moore:

Census 1: 03 Oct 1870, York Co. - age 4

Census 2: 24 Jun 1880, York Co. - age 13


Notes for Virginia H. Amory:

Possibly the Virginia Amory listed in the household of Thomas and Roberta age 6 in the 1870 census.


+      252            v.    Joseph Thomas Moore, born 03 Mar 1868 in York Co., VA; died 23 Jul 1960 in York Co., VA.

        253           vi.    Melissa Sarah Moore, born 14 Sep 1871 in York Co., VA; died 21 Sep 1927 in York Co., VA.  She married John R. Dawson 12 Dec 1893 in York Co., VA; born 31 Jul 1855 in York Co., VA; died 28 Jul 1915.


More About Melissa Sarah Moore:

Census 1: 24 Jun 1880, York Co. - age 8

Census 2: 18 May 1910, York Co. - age 37


More About John R. Dawson:

Date born 2: 31 Jul 1855, York Co., VA

Census 1: 30 Aug 1870, York Co. - age 13 - At Home

Census 2: 18 May 1910, York Co. - age 52 - Farmer


+      254          vii.    Martha Ann Moore, born 15 Sep 1877 in York Co., VA; died 12 Jul 1964 in Jacksonville, FL.



        149.  Anthony9 Dixon (Thomas8, William Moore7, James6, Martha5 Moore, Augustine4, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born Abt. 1841 in York Co., VA, and died Unknown.  He married Rosa.  She was born Abt. 1847, and died Unknown.


Notes for Anthony Dixon:

Name: Anthony Dixon

Occupation: Sailor

Age at Enlistment: 21

Enlistment Date: 28 Jan 1862

Rank at enlistment: Private

Enlistment Place: York County, VA

State Served: Virginia

Service Record: Enlisted in Company I, Virginia 32nd Infantry Regiment on 28 Jan 1862.


Description: height: 6 ft. 1 in., light complexion, blue eyes, light hair.

Birth Date: abt 1841

Sources: The Virginia Regimental Histories Series



More About Anthony Dixon:

Census 1: 05 Sep 1850, York Co. - age 9

Census 2: 01 Oct 1870, York Co. - age 30 - FArmer


More About Rosa:

Census: 01 Oct 1870, York Co. - age 23 - Keeping House


Children of Anthony Dixon and Rosa are:

        255             i.    Edward10 Dixon, born Abt. 1861 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.


More About Edward Dixon:

Census: 01 Oct 1870, York Co. - age 9


        256            ii.    Emma Dixon, born Abt. 1862 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.


More About Emma Dixon:

Census: 01 Oct 1870, York Co. - age 8


        257           iii.    Martha Dixon, born Abt. 1865 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.


More About Martha Dixon:

Census: 01 Oct 1870, York Co. - age 5


        258           iv.    Nora V. Dixon, born Abt. 1869 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.


More About Nora V. Dixon:

Census: 01 Oct 1870, York Co. - age 6/12



        151.  William Kelsor9 Dixon (Thomas8, William Moore7, James6, Martha5 Moore, Augustine4, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born 03 Apr 1844 in York Co., VA, and died 11 Feb 1887 in York Co., VA.  He married Elizabeth Wordard Phillips, daughter of Richard Phillips and Mary Linton.  She was born 26 Mar 1848 in Messick (now Poquoson), York Co., VA68, and died 07 Nov 1891 in York Co., VA69.


More About William Kelsor Dixon:

Died 2: 11 Feb 1882

Burial: Unknown, Tabernacle United Methodist Church, 831 Poquoson Avenue, Poquoson, VA70

Census 1: 05 Sep 1850, York Co. - age 5

Census 2: 04 Oct 1870, York Co. - age 25 - Farmer

Census 3: 16 Jun 1880, York Co. - age 38 - Farmer


More About Elizabeth Wordard Phillips:

Burial: Unknown, Tabernacle United Methodist Churchyard, Poquoson, VA

Census 1: 10 Sep 1850, York Co. - age 3

Census 2: 16 Jun 1860, York Co. - age 12

Census 3: 04 Oct 1870, York Co. - age 22 - Keeping House - living with brother George

Census 4: 16 Jun 1880, York Co. - age 34 - Keeping House


Children of William Dixon and Elizabeth Phillips are:

+      259             i.    Ellen Robinson10 Dixon, born 24 Jan 1868 in York Co., VA; died 27 Mar 1937.

        260            ii.    William H. Dixon, born 18 Jun 1870 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.


More About William H. Dixon:

Census: 16 Jun 1880, York Co. - age 10


        261           iii.    Marcellus F. Dixon, born 12 Apr 1872 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.

+      262           iv.    Ida Peterson Dixon, born 26 Sep 1874 in York Co., VA; died 11 Feb 1939 in York Co., VA.

        263            v.    Sarah D. Dixon, born 12 Aug 1877 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.


More About Sarah D. Dixon:

Census: 16 Jun 1880, York Co. - age 3


+      264           vi.    Nettie Florence Dixon, born 14 Apr 1879 in York Co., VA; died 14 Jan 1958 in York Co., VA.

        265          vii.    Mary E. Dixon, born 31 Dec 1881 in York Co., VA; died 27 May 1948.

        266         viii.    Maud L. Dixon, born 04 Mar 1885 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.



        152.  Thomas9 Dixon (Thomas8, William Moore7, James6, Martha5 Moore, Augustine4, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born Mar 1845 in York Co., VA, and died Unknown.  He married Ruby A. Routten 09 Jan 1866.  She was born Apr 1850, and died Unknown.


More About Thomas Dixon:

Census 1: 05 Sep 1850, York Co. - age 7

Census 2: 13 Jun 1900, Elizabeth City Co., VA - age 55 - Fisherman


More About Ruby A. Routten:

Census: 13 Jun 1900, Elizabeth City Co., VA - age 50


Children of Thomas Dixon and Ruby Routten are:

        267             i.    Alpheus10 Dixon, born Oct 1880; died Unknown.


More About Alpheus Dixon:

Census: 13 Jun 1900, Elizabeth City Co., VA - age 19 - Laborer (Day)


        268            ii.    Vera May Dixon, born May 1886; died Unknown.


More About Vera May Dixon:

Census: 13 Jun 1900, Elizabeth City Co., VA - age 14 - At School


+      269           iii.    Cora Lee Dixon, born May 1888; died Unknown.

        270           iv.    Vincent B. Dixon, born Nov 1894; died Unknown.


More About Vincent B. Dixon:

Census: 13 Jun 1900, Elizabeth City Co., VA - age 6



        154.  Elizabeth Ann9 Dixon (Thomas8, William Moore7, James6, Martha5 Moore, Augustine4, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born 1851 in York Co., VA, and died 21 Oct 1897 in York Co., VA.  She married Parker Bennett Topping, Jr. 19 Jun 1870 in Poquoson, York Co., VA, son of Parker Topping and Amelia Huffington.  He was born 14 Aug 1850 in Poquoson, York Co., VA, and died 15 Apr 1936 in York Co., VA.


Notes for Elizabeth Ann Dixon:

Name also given as Mary Elizabeth Dixon, b. Jan 1849


More About Elizabeth Ann Dixon:

Burial: Unknown, Tabernacle United Methodist Churchyard, Poquoson, VA

Census 1: 24 Sep 1870, York Co. - age 18 - At Home - living with husband and his parents

Census 2: 08 Jun 1880, York Co. - age 28 - keeping house


More About Parker Bennett Topping, Jr.:

Burial: Unknown, Tabernacle United Methodist Churchyard, Poquoson, VA

Census 1: 09 Sep 1850, York Co. - age 1

Census 2: 18 Jun 1860, York Co. - age 10

Census 3: 24 Sep 1870, York Co. - age 21 - Farm Labor - living with parents

Census 4: 08 Jun 1880, York Co. - age 29 - Farmer

Census 5: 20 Jun 1900, York Co. - age 50 - Farmer

Census 6: 25 Apr 1910, Elizabeth City Co., VA - age 64 - Waterman - Oyster

Census 7: 06 Jan 1920, Elizabeth City Co., VA - age 71 - Carpenter - Retired


Children of Elizabeth Dixon and Parker Topping are:

        271             i.    Alonza Cortiza10 Topping, born 14 Apr 1871 in York Co., VA; died 08 May 1919 in York Co., VA.  He married Mary Celestia Forrest 10 Sep 1907 in York Co., VA; born 12 Nov 1868 in York Co., VA; died 18 Jul 1946 in York Co., VA.


More About Alonza Cortiza Topping:

Burial: Unknown, Tabernacle United Methodist Churchyard, Poquoson, VA

Census 1: 08 Jun 1880, York Co. - age 9

Census 2: 19 Jun 1900, York Co. - age 29 - Farm Laborer - living with Uncle Josiah Topping's family

Census 3: 06 May 1910, York Co. - age 39 - Farm Laborer


More About Mary Celestia Forrest:

Burial: Unknown, Tabernacle United Methodist Churchyard, Poquoson, VA

Census 1: 22 Sep 1870, York Co. - age 1

Census 2: 23 Jun 1880, York Co. - age 11

Census 3: 21 Jun 1900, York Co. - age 30 - living with parents

Census 4: 06 May 1910, York Co. - age 42


+      272            ii.    Novada Topping, born 01 Oct 1874 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.

+      273           iii.    Edward Taylor Topping, born 04 Aug 1876 in York Co., VA; died 02 Aug 1965.

+      274           iv.    Parker Bennett Topping III, born 19 Feb 1880 in York Co., VA; died 06 May 1938 in Elizabeth City Co., VA.

        275            v.    Stephen Topping, born 15 Aug 1883 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.


More About Stephen Topping:

Census 1: 19 Jun 1900, York Co. - age 17 - Day Laborer - living with Uncle Lorenza Topping's family

Census 2: 25 Apr 1910, Elizabeth City Co., VA - age 23 - Boatman - living with parents

Census 3: 06 Jan 1920, Elizabeth City Co., VA - age 35 - Helper - living with father


+      276           vi.    William "Crooks" Topping, born 02 Sep 1886 in York Co., VA; died 1974.

+      277          vii.    Charles Amos Topping, born 14 Feb 1888 in York Co., VA; died 22 Nov 1964.

        278         viii.    Thomas Topping, born Feb 1890 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.  He married Estelle Mae Collins; died Unknown.


More About Thomas Topping:

Census 1: 20 Jun 1900, York Co. - age 10

Census 2: 21 Jan 1920, York Co. - age 29 - Carpenter - House - lodging with Powhatan K. Hunt family


+      279           ix.    Benjamin Hope Topping, born 01 Sep 1893 in York Co., VA; died 23 Jan 1988 in Hampton, VA.



        156.  Capt. Thomas S.9 Phillips (Richard Eggleston8, Rosa7 Dixon, James6, Martha5 Moore, Augustine4, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born 25 Jul 1838 in Messick (now Poquoson), York Co., VA71, and died 14 Oct 1915 in Messick (now Poquoson), York Co., VA71.  He married Amanda "Malvina" Wilson 11 Jun 1865 in York Co., VA71, daughter of Wilton Wilson and Amanda Huffington.  She was born 05 Dec 1843 in Messick (now Poquoson), York Co., VA71, and died 05 Mar 1923 in York Co., VA71.


Notes for Capt. Thomas S. Phillips:

The following biography of Capt. Thomas Phillips is quoted from Parke Rouse, Jr. in his book, "Along Virginia's Golden Shores: Glimpses of Tidewater Life," published in 1994 by the Dietz Press of Richmond, VA. Chapter 22 of this book is devoted to him, and titled "A Lone Confederate Hero." It is quoted in its entirety as follows:


Southerners grow up amid glorious legends of the heroic Confederate army, but little is said about the Confederate navy. The fact is that after a few early successes attacking the Northern commerce in 1862 and 1863, the few Confederate warships were driven from the seas by Yankee frigates and gunboats.


Federal control of Peninsula waters in the Civil War was seriously challenged only once, in March 1862, when the Confederate ship "Virginia," formerly the "Merrimack," battled the USS "Monitor" in Hampton Roads.


Throughout the Civil War, Federal blockade ships patrolled the James and the York rivers. In the summer of 1862, Harrison's Landing, now called Berkeley plantation, was a major Federal port because the Army of the Potomac was encamped there.


Federal control of shipping on the James River extended as far upstream as Drewry's Bluff in Henrico County. There a Confederate fort dominated a narrow span of the river and prevented Yankee gunboats from getting through and reaching Richmond.


Federal ships on the James River neutralized the effects of the Confederate Navy Yard on the James River at Richmond. There the Confederacy built several ships but was unable to send them into action because of the concentration of waiting Federal warships below Drewry's Bluff.


Among the Confederate sailors from the Peninsula was Thomas Phillips, a York County skipper. He was captured by a Federal warship in the Atlantic Ocean off the Carolina coast in January 1863, while he was trying to run the Yankee blockade with a cargo of provisions sent from Nassau in the Caribbean.


The incident was reported in an official dispatch by Lieutenant Commander William T. Truxtun. who commanded the USS gunboat  "Chocura" to enforce the Federal blockade of the Chesapeake. Unfortunately, many Confederate blockade runners were similarly caught by Yankees as they attempted to reach Southern ports, usually on moonless nights, when blockade-running was easiest.


Truxtun reported capturing the York County seaman in a dispatch to his superior, Acting Rear Admiral S.P. Lee, on January 21, 1863. Phillips was captured while commanding the schooner "Pride" with a cargo of 175 sacks of salt plus medical drugs and shoes, all badly needed in the Confederacy.


Peninsula descendants of Capt. Phillips own a copy of Truxtun's dispatch describing their ancestor's capture. It occurred about 15 miles southeast of Frying Pan Shoals, off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina.


Reported Truxtun: "As soon as she [Phillips' schooner "Pride"] discovered this vessel [USS "Chocura"] to be in chase of her, she made sail. The master, Thomas Phillips, on being asked why he was laying off the point of the shoals under easy sail with a fair wind blowing for his assumed port of destination [Baltimore], replied he wished to keep to windward."


Phillips, then only 25, was placed by the Navy in confinement aboard one of its ships and sent northward for trial and punishment. The rest of the crew were sent to Washington, DC, along with the seized ship.


Phillips' story was told by his grandson, Owen Phillips of Newport News.


I learned that Thomas Phillips grew up around Poquoson as a seagoing man serving chiefly aboard schooners and other vessels operating between Yorktown and Baltimore. When Virginia seceded from the Union in 1861, he enlisted with the York Rangers and served until needed by the Confederacy as a blockade runner.


Phillips survived the war to return to Poquoson and spend his life as a York River waterman and as sheriff. For years he commanded a large schooner sailing the Chesapeake.


In his obituary in the "Daily Press" on October 14, 1915, he was described as "a brave soldier, a fine officer and a man that was liberal with his money to a fault.  He had friends by the hundred, as was shown by the fact that for 25 years he had held the position of sheriff and never anyone had a chance to run against him during that time."


The obituary noted that Phillips "was known to everybody in York County as 'Capt. Tom.'"


A Hampton newspaper, the "Monitor," wrote of him in 1915: "He is readily accounted the most prominent citizen in the historic county of York."

Tombstone give birth date as July 6, 1838.


More About Capt. Thomas S. Phillips:

Burial 1: Unknown, Smith Cemetery #1 across from 257 Wythe Creek Road, Poquoson, VA72

Burial 2: Emmaus Baptist Church, Poquoson, VA

Census 1: 10 Sep 1850, York Co. - age 11

Census 2: 16 Jun 1860, York Co. - age 22 - Sailor Coast - living with parents

Census 3: 19 Sep 1870, York Co. - age 30 - Sailor

Census 4: 15 Jun 1880, York Co. - age 42 - Farmer

Census 5: 15 Jun 1900, York Co. - age 61 - Sheriff of County

Census 6: 10 May 1910, York Co. - age 71 - County Officer - Sheriff

Military: Bet. 1861 - 1865, Civil War-Confederate States Navy-was a blockade runner who was captured by Federal troops73

Occupation: Waterman and Sheriff of York County73


More About Amanda "Malvina" Wilson:

Date born 2: 05 Oct 1843

Burial 1: Unknown, Smith Cemetery #1 across from 257 Wythe Creek Road, Poquoson, VA74

Burial 2: Emmaus Baptist Church, Poquoson, VA

Census 1: 05 Sep 1850, York Co. - age 7

Census 2: 18 Jun 1860, York Co. - age 15

Census 3: 19 Sep 1870, York Co. - age 22 - Keeping House

Census 4: 15 Jun 1880, York Co. - age 35 - Keeping House

Census 5: 15 Jun 1900, York Co. - age 55

Census 6: 10 May 1910, York Co. - age 66

Census 7: 22 Jan 1920, York Co. - age 75 - living with son Benjamin


Children of Thomas Phillips and Amanda Wilson are:

        280             i.    Alice Virginia10 Phillips, born 06 Sep 1866 in York Co., VA; died 1912 in York Co., VA.  She married Robert Henry Smith, Jr. Abt. 1902 in York Co., VA; born 01 Mar 1865 in York Co., VA; died 12 Nov 1933 in York Co., VA.


More About Alice Virginia Phillips:

Burial: Unknown, Smith Cemetery, Wythe Creek Rd., Poquoson, VA

Census 1: 19 Sep 1870, York Co. - age 3

Census 2: 15 Jun 1880, York Co. - age 13

Census 3: 15 Jun 1900, York Co. - age 33 - living with parents

Census 4: 04 May 1910, York Co. - age 43


More About Robert Henry Smith, Jr.:

Burial: Unknown, Smith Cemetery, Wythe Creek Rd., Poquoson, VA

Census 1: 19 Jun 1900, York Co. - age 35 - Oysterman - living with mother

Census 2: 04 May 1910, York Co. - age 45 - Farmer - General Farm


        281            ii.    Lounetta Inez Phillips, born 02 Mar 1869 in York Co., VA; died 03 Aug 1891 in York Co., VA.  She married Levin James Moore 22 Aug 1890 in York Co., VA; born 15 Oct 1866 in York Co., VA; died 12 Nov 1938 in York Co., VA.


More About Lounetta Inez Phillips:

Burial: Unknown, Tabernacle United Methodist Churchyard, Poquoson, VA

Census 1: 19 Sep 1870, York Co. - age 6/12

Census 2: 15 Jun 1880, York Co. - age 10


More About Levin James Moore:

Burial: Unknown, Emmaus Baptist Church, Poquoson, VA

Census 1: 05 Oct 1870, York Co. - age 4

Census 2: 21 Jun 1880, York Co. - age 14

Census 3: 11 May 1910, York Co. - age 43 - Retail Merchant - General Store

Census 4: 02 Jan 1920, York Co. - age 53 - Farmer - Truck Farm

Census 5: 02 Apr 1930, York Co. - age 62 - Farmer - Truck Farm


+      282           iii.    Annie Florence Phillips, born 02 Sep 1871 in Messick (now Poquoson), York Co., VA; died 31 Jan 1952 in Poquoson, York Co., VA.

+      283           iv.    William Thomas Phillips, born 26 Jun 1875 in York Co., VA; died 03 Feb 1939 in York Co., VA.

+      284            v.    Benjamin S. Phillips, born 07 Nov 1879 in York Co., VA; died 06 Oct 1946.



        157.  Airy Jane9 Phillips (Richard Eggleston8, Rosa7 Dixon, James6, Martha5 Moore, Augustine4, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born 10 Jan 1841 in York Co., VA75, and died 21 Dec 1911 in York Co., VA.  She married (1) Levi Riggins, son of William Riggins and Sarah Phillips.  He was born 03 May 1841 in York Co., VA, and died 23 Aug 1890 in York Co., VA.  She married (2) William H. Callis 1859.  He was born Abt. 1833 in York Co., VA, and died Unknown.


Notes for Airy Jane Phillips:

Lynwood Riggins - age 7 - listed as grandson - living with her on the Sept. 13, 1900 Census.


More About Airy Jane Phillips:

Burial: Unknown, Emmaus Baptist Church, Poquoson, VA

Census 1: 12 May 1910, York Co. - age 69 - living with son Thomas

Census 2: 10 Sep 1850, York Co. - age 9 - listed as Jane

Census 3: 16 Jun 1860, York Co. - age 19 - listed as Amy - living with husband and daughter at her parents

Census 4: 28 Sep 1870, York Co. - age 30 - Keeping House

Census 5: 15 Jun 1880, York Co. - age 40 - Keeping House

Census 6: 13 Jun 1900, York Co. - age 59 - Head - Merchant


Notes for Levi Riggins:

Name:    Levi Riggins ,  

Residence:    York County, Virginia 

Occupation:    Farmer 

Enlistment Date:    01 February 1862 

Distinguished Service:    DISTINGUISHED SERVICE 

Side Served:    Confederacy 

State Served:    Virginia 

Unit Numbers:    789 

Service Record:   

Enlisted as a Private on 01 February 1862 at the age of 18

Enlisted in Company K, 32nd Infantry Regiment Virginia on 01 February 1862.

Deserted on 21 September 1864

Oath Allegiance on 24 September 1864

Height:    5'5 "

Eye Color:    grey 

Hair Color:    light 

Complexion:    light 


Military Records of Individual Civil War Soldiers


More About Levi Riggins:

Burial: Unknown, Emmaus Baptist Church, Poquoson, VA

Census 1: 28 Jun 1860, York Co. - age 18 - Farmer

Census 2: 28 Sep 1870, York Co. - age 30 - Farmer

Census 3: 15 Jun 1880, York Co. - age 40 - Farmer


More About William H. Callis:

Census: 16 Jun 1860, York Co. - age 27 - living with wife and daughter at her parents


Children of Airy Phillips and Levi Riggins are:

        285             i.    Christianna10 Riggins, born Abt. 1863 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.


Notes for Christianna Riggins:

June 15, 1880 Census lists her as Christian Willis.


More About Christianna Riggins:

Census 1: 28 Sep 1870, York Co. - age 9

Census 2: 15 Jun 1880, York Co. - age 18 - At Home - name appears to be Wilis, Chirstian


+      286            ii.    Sarah Elizabeth Riggins, born 16 Sep 1867 in York Co., VA; died 05 May 1904 in York Co., VA.

+      287           iii.    Henry Levi Riggins, born 24 Dec 1869 in York Co., VA; died 14 Jul 1938 in York Co., VA.

+      288           iv.    Marcellus Franklin Riggins, born 03 May 1876 in York Co., VA; died 04 Mar 1954 in York Co., VA.

+      289            v.    Thomas Benjamin Riggins, born 27 Feb 1882 in York Co., VA; died 15 Mar 1948.



Children of Airy Phillips and William Callis are:

+      290             i.    Mary Ellen10 Callis, born 25 Sep 1859 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.

+      291            ii.    Awilda Christina Callis, born 11 Oct 1863 in York Co., VA; died Unknown in York Co., VA.



        158.  Mary Robinson9 Phillips (Richard Eggleston8, Rosa7 Dixon, James6, Martha5 Moore, Augustine4, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born 14 Jan 1843 in Messick (now Poquoson), York Co., VA76, and died 08 Mar 1917 in York Co., VA.  She married William Peyton Phillips 25 Dec 1863 in York Co., VA, son of William Phillips and Mary Cox.  He was born 02 Nov 1840 in York Co., VA, and died 14 Jul 193677.


More About Mary Robinson Phillips:

Census 1: 10 Sep 1850, York Co. - age 7

Census 2: 16 Jun 1860, York Co. - age 17 - Housekeeper - living with parents

Census 3: 17 Jun 1880, York Co. - age 36 - Keeping House

Census 4: 17 Jun 1900, York Co. - age 57

Census 5: 12 May 1910, York Co. - age 66 - living with daughter Lillie's family


More About William Peyton Phillips:

Died 2: 14 Jul 1934, York Co., VA

Census 1: 05 Sep 1850, York Co. - age 10

Census 2: 18 Jun 1860, York Co. - age 19 - Oysterman - living with parents

Census 3: 17 Jun 1900, York Co. - age 59 - Merchant

Census 4: 12 May 1910, York Co. - age 69 - living with daughter Lillie's family

Census 5: 08 Jan 1920, York Co. - age 79 - Farmer - living with daughter Lillie's family

Census 6: 15 Apr 1930, York Co. - age 89 - living with daughter Lillie


Children of Mary Phillips and William Phillips are:

+      292             i.    Lilly Marie10 Phillips, born 26 Sep 1867 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.

+      293            ii.    Mary Elizabeth Phillips, born 24 Feb 1868 in York Co., VA; died 01 May 1949 in Hampton, VA.

+      294           iii.    William Thomas Phillips, born 09 Jan 1869 in York Co., VA; died 26 May 1931.

+      295           iv.    Kiturah Phillips, born 16 Aug 1871 in York Co., VA; died 21 Jul 1941.

+      296            v.    Clara Florence Phillips, born 21 Dec 1874 in York Co., VA; died 1949.



        159.  Marcellus9 Phillips (Richard Eggleston8, Rosa7 Dixon, James6, Martha5 Moore, Augustine4, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born 07 Mar 1845 in Messick (now Poquoson), York Co., VA78, and died 17 Mar 187179.  He married Keturah R. Hopkins 24 Nov 1864.  She was born Abt. 1847 in York Co., VA, and died Unknown.


Notes for Marcellus Phillips:

Tombstone gave the birth date as March 7, 1844, marriage as November 24, 1861.  Was the single marked grave in the orchard behind 99 Hunts Neck Road in Poquoson.  Tombstone has now disappeared.


More About Marcellus Phillips:

Date born 2: 07 Mar 1845, York Co., VA80

Died 2: 17 Mar 1871, York Co., VA

Census 1: 10 Sep 1850, York Co. - age 5

Census 2: 16 Jun 1860, York Co. - age 15 - Sailor Inland

Census 3: 03 Oct 1870, York Co. - age 25 - Farmer


More About Keturah R. Hopkins:

Census 1: 10 Sep 1850, York Co. - age 3 - listed as "Catherine"

Census 2: 14 Jun 1860, York Co. - age 13

Census 3: 03 Oct 1870, York Co. - age 22 - Keeping House

Census 4: 22 Jun 1880, Elizabeth City Co., VA - age 29 - Keeping House


Children of Marcellus Phillips and Keturah Hopkins are:

        297             i.    Anna D.10 Phillips, born Abt. 1865; died Unknown.


More About Anna D. Phillips:

Census 1: 03 Oct 1870, York Co. - age 5

Census 2: 22 Jun 1880, Elizabeth City Co., VA - age 14 - At School


        298            ii.    Sarah E. Phillips, born Abt. 1866; died Unknown.


More About Sarah E. Phillips:

Census 1: 03 Oct 1870, York Co. - age 4

Census 2: 22 Jun 1880, Elizabeth City Co., VA - age 13 - At School


+      299           iii.    Martha Keturah Phillips, born 28 May 1869 in York Co., VA; died 10 Nov 1945 in Newport News, VA.



        160.  Elizabeth Wordard9 Phillips (Richard Eggleston8, Rosa7 Dixon, James6, Martha5 Moore, Augustine4, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born 26 Mar 1848 in Messick (now Poquoson), York Co., VA81, and died 07 Nov 1891 in York Co., VA82.  She married William Kelsor Dixon, son of Thomas Dixon and Mary Phillips.  He was born 03 Apr 1844 in York Co., VA, and died 11 Feb 1887 in York Co., VA.


More About Elizabeth Wordard Phillips:

Burial: Unknown, Tabernacle United Methodist Churchyard, Poquoson, VA

Census 1: 10 Sep 1850, York Co. - age 3

Census 2: 16 Jun 1860, York Co. - age 12

Census 3: 04 Oct 1870, York Co. - age 22 - Keeping House - living with brother George

Census 4: 16 Jun 1880, York Co. - age 34 - Keeping House


More About William Kelsor Dixon:

Died 2: 11 Feb 1882

Burial: Unknown, Tabernacle United Methodist Church, 831 Poquoson Avenue, Poquoson, VA83

Census 1: 05 Sep 1850, York Co. - age 5

Census 2: 04 Oct 1870, York Co. - age 25 - Farmer

Census 3: 16 Jun 1880, York Co. - age 38 - Farmer


Children are listed above under (151) William Kelsor Dixon.


        167.  William Sidney9 Phillips (Richard Eggleston8, Rosa7 Dixon, James6, Martha5 Moore, Augustine4, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born Dec 1878 in York Co., VA, and died 1968.  He married Margaret Elizabeth Wainwright Abt. 1901.  She was born Aug 1880 in York Co., VA, and died 1962.


More About William Sidney Phillips:

Census 1: 17 Jun 1880, York Co. - age 1

Census 2: 18 Jun 1900, York Co. - age 21 - Day Laborer - living with mother

Census 3: 06 May 1910, York Co. - age 31 - Farmer

Census 4: 17 Jan 1920, York Co. - age 45 - Farmer - Truck Farm


More About Margaret Elizabeth Wainwright:

Census 1: 18 Jun 1900, York Co. - age 19 - living with parents

Census 2: 06 May 1910, York Co. - age 2

Census 3: 17 Jan 1920, York Co. - age 40


Children of William Phillips and Margaret Wainwright are:

+      300             i.    Rodney10 Phillips, born 17 Dec 1903 in York Co., VA; died 08 Jan 1973.

+      301            ii.    William Emmet Phillips, born 31 Jan 1908 in York Co., VA; died 13 Nov 1980.



        168.  Minerva9 Phillips (Richard Eggleston8, Rosa7 Dixon, James6, Martha5 Moore, Augustine4, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born 14 Apr 1880 in York Co., VA, and died 02 Apr 1960.  She married Edward Taylor Topping 28 Jun 1900 in York Co., VA, son of Parker Topping and Elizabeth Dixon.  He was born 04 Aug 1876 in York Co., VA, and died 02 Aug 1965.


More About Minerva Phillips:

Burial: Unknown, Peninsula Memorial Park, Newport News, VA

Census 1: 18 Jun 1900, York Co. - age 19

Census 2: 30 Apr 1910, York Co. - age 29

Census 3: 20 Jan 1920, York Co. - age ?

Census 4: 02 Apr 1930, York Co. - age 48


More About Edward Taylor Topping:

Census 1: 08 Jun 1880, York Co. - age 4

Census 2: 20 Jun 1900, York Co. - age 22 - Oysterman - living with father

Census 3: 30 Apr 1910, York Co. - age 33

Census 4: 20 Jan 1920, York Co. - age 42 - Farmer - Truck Farm

Census 5: 02 Apr 1930, York Co. - age 52 - Farmer - General Farm


Children of Minerva Phillips and Edward Topping are:

+      302             i.    Richard Odell10 Topping, born 08 Feb 1901 in York Co., VA; died 03 Sep 1969.

        303            ii.    Elizabeth Topping, born 20 Nov 1902 in York Co., VA; died Jan 1985 in Poquoson, VA.  She married Preston Wilson Abt. 1925; born Mar 1897 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.


Notes for Elizabeth Topping:

Name: Elizabeth Wilson

SSN: 226-38-3519 

Last Residence: 23662  Poquoson, Poquoson City, Virginia, United States of America

Born: 20 Nov 1902

Died: Jun 1985

State (Year) SSN issued: Virginia (Before 1951 )


More About Elizabeth Topping:

Census 1: 30 Apr 1910, York Co. - age 7

Census 2: 20 Jan 1920, York Co. - age 16

Census 3: 07 Apr 1930, York Co. - age 27


More About Preston Wilson:

Date born 2: 26 Mar 1899

Census 1: 20 Jun 1900, York Co. - age 3

Census 2: 30 Apr 1910, York Co. - age 13

Census 3: 20 Jan 1920, York Co. - age 21 - Laborer - Langley Field - living with mother

Census 4: 07 Apr 1930, York Co. - age 32 - Farmer - General Farm


        304           iii.    Eudora Beatrice Topping, born 19 Aug 1904 in York Co., VA; died 02 Jan 1981 in Poquoson, VA.  She married Robert Lee Topping 28 Mar 1925; born Abt. 1907 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.


Notes for Eudora Beatrice Topping:

Name: Dora Topping

SSN: 228-40-4231 

Born: 19 Aug 1904

Last Benefit: 23662  Poquoson, Poquoson City, Virginia, United States of America

Died: Jan 1981

State (Year) SSN issued: Virginia (Before 1951 )


More About Eudora Beatrice Topping:

Census 1: 30 Apr 1910, York Co. - age 5

Census 2: 20 Jan 1920, York Co. - age 15

Census 3: 09 Apr 1930, York Co. - age 25


More About Robert Lee Topping:

Census 1: 04 May 1910, York Co. - age 3

Census 2: 16 Jan 1920, York Co. - age 13

Census 3: 09 Apr 1930, York Co. - age 23 - Joiner - Shipyard


        305           iv.    Edward Taylor Topping, born 04 Dec 1907 in York Co., VA; died 07 Oct 1990 in Poquoson, VA.  He married Ella Virginia Firth 24 Dec 1929; born 31 Aug 1912 in York Co., VA; died 22 Sep 2000.


Notes for Edward Taylor Topping:

Name: Edward Topping

SSN: 226-05-4959 

Last Residence: 23662  Poquoson, Poquoson City, Virginia, United States of America

Born: 4 Dec 1907

Died: 7 Oct 1990

State (Year) SSN issued: Virginia (Before 1951 )


More About Edward Taylor Topping:

Census 1: 30 Apr 1910, York Co. - age 2

Census 2: 20 Jan 1920, York Co. - age 12

Census 3: 22 Apr 1930, York Co. - age 22 - Laborer - Barrel Factory - living with wife at her parents


Notes for Ella Virginia Firth:

Name: Ella V. Topping

SSN: 228-40-4234 

Last Residence: 23662  Poquoson, Poquoson City, Virginia, United States of America

Born: 31 Aug 1912

Died: 22 Sep 2000

State (Year) SSN issued: Virginia (Before 1951 )


More About Ella Virginia Firth:

Census 1: 07 Jan 1920, York Co. - age 7

Census 2: 22 Apr 1930, York Co. - age 18


+      306            v.    Benjamin Gleason Topping, born 30 Aug 1910 in York Co., VA; died 04 May 1990.

+      307           vi.    Lady Lee Topping, born 31 Jan 1913 in York Co., VA; died Jul 1992 in Poquoson, VA.



        169.  Richard Eggleston9 Phillips, Jr. (Richard Eggleston8, Rosa7 Dixon, James6, Martha5 Moore, Augustine4, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born 12 Jan 1883 in York Co., VA, and died 10 Dec 1970.  He married Virginia Susan Wainwright Abt. 1904.  She was born 23 Apr 1883 in York Co., VA, and died 10 Oct 1972.


Notes for Richard Eggleston Phillips, Jr.:

Name: Richard Phillips

SSN: 228-18-9220 

Last Residence: 23362  Hallwood, Accomack, Virginia, United States of America

Born: 12 Jan 1883

Died: Dec 1968

State (Year) SSN issued: Virginia (Before 1951)


More About Richard Eggleston Phillips, Jr.:

Census 1: 18 Jun 1900, York Co. - age 18 - Day Laborer

Census 2: 02 May 1910, York Co. - age 27 - Oysterman - Tonger

Census 3: 16 Jan 1920, York Co. - age 36 - Farmer - Truck Farm

Census 4: 05 Apr 1930, York Co. - age 47 - Carpenter - House


More About Virginia Susan Wainwright:

Census 1: 18 Jun 1900, York Co. - age 17

Census 2: 02 May 1910, York Co. - age 27

Census 3: 16 Jan 1920, York Co. - age 36

Census 4: 05 Apr 1930, York Co. - age 46


Children of Richard Phillips and Virginia Wainwright are:

+      308             i.    Norena Elizabeth10 Phillips, born Private.

+      309            ii.    Lela Virginia Phillips, born Private.

        310           iii.    Harvey Roe Phillips, born 12 Jun 1905 in York Co., VA; died 14 Mar 1963.


More About Harvey Roe Phillips:

Census 1: 02 May 1910, York Co. - age 4

Census 2: 16 Jan 1920, York Co. - age 14

Census 3: 05 Apr 1930, York Co. - age 23 - Painter - House - living with parents



        172.  Levi9 Riggins (Sarah8 Phillips, Rosa7 Dixon, James6, Martha5 Moore, Augustine4, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born 03 May 1841 in York Co., VA, and died 23 Aug 1890 in York Co., VA.  He married Airy Jane Phillips, daughter of Richard Phillips and Mary Linton.  She was born 10 Jan 1841 in York Co., VA84, and died 21 Dec 1911 in York Co., VA.


Notes for Levi Riggins:

Name:    Levi Riggins ,  

Residence:    York County, Virginia 

Occupation:    Farmer 

Enlistment Date:    01 February 1862 

Distinguished Service:    DISTINGUISHED SERVICE 

Side Served:    Confederacy 

State Served:    Virginia 

Unit Numbers:    789 

Service Record:   

Enlisted as a Private on 01 February 1862 at the age of 18

Enlisted in Company K, 32nd Infantry Regiment Virginia on 01 February 1862.

Deserted on 21 September 1864

Oath Allegiance on 24 September 1864

Height:    5'5 "

Eye Color:    grey 

Hair Color:    light 

Complexion:    light 


Military Records of Individual Civil War Soldiers


More About Levi Riggins:

Burial: Unknown, Emmaus Baptist Church, Poquoson, VA

Census 1: 28 Jun 1860, York Co. - age 18 - Farmer

Census 2: 28 Sep 1870, York Co. - age 30 - Farmer

Census 3: 15 Jun 1880, York Co. - age 40 - Farmer


Notes for Airy Jane Phillips:

Lynwood Riggins - age 7 - listed as grandson - living with her on the Sept. 13, 1900 Census.


More About Airy Jane Phillips:

Burial: Unknown, Emmaus Baptist Church, Poquoson, VA

Census 1: 12 May 1910, York Co. - age 69 - living with son Thomas

Census 2: 10 Sep 1850, York Co. - age 9 - listed as Jane

Census 3: 16 Jun 1860, York Co. - age 19 - listed as Amy - living with husband and daughter at her parents

Census 4: 28 Sep 1870, York Co. - age 30 - Keeping House

Census 5: 15 Jun 1880, York Co. - age 40 - Keeping House

Census 6: 13 Jun 1900, York Co. - age 59 - Head - Merchant


Children are listed above under (157) Airy Jane Phillips.


        175.  Eugenia9 Riggins (Sarah8 Phillips, Rosa7 Dixon, James6, Martha5 Moore, Augustine4, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born 1847 in York Co., VA, and died Unknown.  She married Henry Harris 17 Apr 1869 in York Co., VA.  He was born Abt. 1843 in York Co., VA, and died Unknown.


More About Eugenia Riggins:

Census 1: 28 Jun 1860, York Co. -  age 13

Census 2: 16 Aug 1870, York Co. - age 22 - Keeping House

Census 3: 17 Jun 1880, York Co. - age 32 - Keeping House


More About Henry Harris:

Census 1: 23 Sep 1850, York Co. - age 8

Census 2: 16 Aug 1870, York Co. - age 26 - Oysterman

Census 3: 17 Jun 1880, York Co. - age 36 - Farmer


Children of Eugenia Riggins and Henry Harris are:

+      311             i.    Thomas Sheild10 Harris, born Jan 1870 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.

        312            ii.    Luzetta Harris, born Abt. 1872 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.


More About Luzetta Harris:

Census: 17 Jun 1880, York Co. - age 8


        313           iii.    Jane Harris, born Abt. 1877 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.


More About Jane Harris:

Census: 17 Jun 1880, York Co. - age 2


        314           iv.    Alford Harris, born Dec 1879 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.


More About Alford Harris:

Census 1: 17 Jun 1880, York Co. - age 4/12

Census 2: 04 Jun 1900, York Co. - age 21 - Grocer Clerk - living with brother Thomas

Census 3: 28 May 1910, York Co. - age 29 - Merchant - Gen. Mdse. Store - living with brother Thomas



        176.  George W.9 Riggins (Sarah8 Phillips, Rosa7 Dixon, James6, Martha5 Moore, Augustine4, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born 1851 in York Co., VA, and died Unknown.  He married Elizabeth Jane Callis 26 Dec 1872 in York Co., VA.  She was born 1848 in York Co., VA, and died Unknown.


More About George W. Riggins:

Census 1: 28 Jun 1860, York Co. -  age 9

Census 2: 05 Oct 1870, York Co. - age 20 - Sailor - living with father


More About Elizabeth Jane Callis:

Census 1: 15 Sep 1870, York Co. -  age 22 - At Home

Census 2: 08 Jun 1900, York Co. - age 48 - Head

Census 3: 23 Jan 1920, York Co. - age 73 - Head


Children of George Riggins and Elizabeth Callis are:

+      315             i.    William W.10 Riggins, born 18 Sep 1873 in York Co., VA; died 21 Aug 1931 in York Co., VA.

+      316            ii.    George W. Riggins, born Sep 1881 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.

        317           iii.    Levi Sylvester Riggins, born 06 Dec 1886 in York Co., VA; died 06 Dec 1943.


More About Levi Sylvester Riggins:

Burial: Unknown, Emmaus Baptist Church, Poquoson, VA

Census 1: 08 Jun 1900, York Co. - age 16 - Day Laborer

Census 2: 23 Jan 1920, York Co. - age 34 - Tonging - Oyster - living with mother



        177.  Daniel Webster9 Riggins (Sarah8 Phillips, Rosa7 Dixon, James6, Martha5 Moore, Augustine4, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born 01 Jan 1856 in York Co., VA, and died 25 Jul 1921 in York Co., VA.  He married Margaret Anne Hopkins 25 Dec 1875 in York Co., VA, daughter of Edward Hopkins and Amelia Freeman.  She was born 07 Jun 1855 in York Co., VA, and died 30 Aug 1942 in York Co., VA.


More About Daniel Webster Riggins:

Burial: Unknown, Emmaus Baptist Church, Poquoson, VA

Census 1: 28 Jun 1860, York Co. -  age 7

Census 2: 05 Oct 1870, York Co. - age 18 - Farmer - living with father

Census 3: 18 Jun 1880, York Co. - age 24 - Farmer

Census 4: 13 Jun 1900, York Co. - age 45 - Farmer - Birthdate given as Jan 1855

Census 5: 11 May 1910, York Co. - age 55 - Farmer - General Farm

Census 6: 15 Jan 1920, York Co. - age 65 - Farmer


More About Margaret Anne Hopkins:

Burial: Unknown, Emmaus Baptist Church, Poquoson, VA

Census 1: 18 Jun 1860, York Co. - age 5

Census 2: 17 Sep 1870, York Co. - age 15

Census 3: 18 Jun 1880, York Co. - age 24 - Keeping House

Census 4: 13 Jun 1900, York Co. - age 43 - Birthdate given as June 1856

Census 5: 11 May 1910, York Co. - age 54

Census 6: 15 Jan 1920, York Co. - age 63

Census 7: 05 Apr 1930, York Co. - age 74 - living with daughter Ella's family


Children of Daniel Riggins and Margaret Hopkins are:

+      318             i.    Octavia E.10 Riggins, born 11 Sep 1876 in York Co., VA; died 24 Jan 1948 in York Co., VA.

        319            ii.    Sarah V. Riggins, born 25 Nov 1878 in York Co., VA; died 10 Apr 1918 in York Co., VA.


More About Sarah V. Riggins:

Burial: Unknown, Tabernacle United Methodist Churchyard, Poquoson, VA

Census 1: 18 Jun 1880, York Co. - age 2

Census 2: 13 Jun 1900, York Co. - age 19 - living with parents

Census 3: 11 May 1910, York Co. - age 31 - living with parents


+      320           iii.    Edward T. Riggins, born 28 Jan 1879 in York Co., VA; died 28 Jun 1910 in York Co., VA.

        321           iv.    Cassandra A. Riggins, born 03 Mar 1881 in York Co., VA; died 10 Jun 1900 in York Co., VA.


More About Cassandra A. Riggins:

Burial: Unknown, Tabernacle United Methodist Churchyard, Poquoson, VA

Census: 13 Jun 1900, York Co. - age 16 - Birthdate given as March 1884


+      322            v.    William F. Riggins, born 29 Apr 1882 in York Co., VA; died 27 Apr 1947 in York Co., VA.

        323           vi.    Margaret Ann Riggins, born 20 Jan 1883 in York Co., VA; died 02 May 1899 in York Co., VA.


More About Margaret Ann Riggins:

Burial: Unknown, Tabernacle United Methodist Churchyard, Poquoson, VA


        324          vii.    Emma Clide Riggins, born 17 Jan 1884 in York Co., VA; died 22 Oct 1886 in York Co., VA.


More About Emma Clide Riggins:

Burial: Unknown, Dryden Cemetery, Emmaus Rd., Poquoson, VA


        325         viii.    Zella C. Riggins, born 01 Nov 1886 in York Co., VA; died 24 Sep 1888 in York Co., VA.


More About Zella C. Riggins:

Burial: Unknown, Dryden Cemetery, Emmaus Rd., Poquoson, VA


+      326           ix.    Luella Florence Riggins, born 07 Aug 1890 in York Co., VA; died 31 Aug 1949 in York Co., VA.

        327            x.    Daniel Webster Riggins, born 02 Jul 1892 in York Co., VA; died 22 Oct 1892 in York Co., VA.


More About Daniel Webster Riggins:

Burial: Unknown, Dryden Cemetery, Emmaus Rd., Poquoson, VA


        328           xi.    George S. Riggins, born 01 Jan 1894 in York Co., VA; died Unknown.


More About George S. Riggins:

Census 1: 13 Jun 1900, York Co. - age 6

Census 2: 11 May 1910, York Co. - age 16



        179.  Mary Ann9 Dixon (Anthony8, William Moore7, James6, Martha5 Moore, Augustine4, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born 08 Aug 1826 in York Co., VA, and died 23 Nov 1865 in York Co., VA.  She married Curtis Hunt 27 Dec 1843 in York Co., VA, son of Curtis Hunt and Sarah Roberts.  He was born Abt. 1821 in York Co., VA85, and died Unknown.


Children are listed above under (144) Curtis Hunt.


        181.  William Rodolphus9 Dixon (Anthony8, William Moore7, James6, Martha5 Moore, Augustine4, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born 28 Sep 1831 in York Co., VA, and died 25 Feb 1852 in York Co., VA.  He married Henrietta Frances Roberts, daughter of Robert Roberts and Harriet James.  She was born 02 Feb 1833 in York Co., VA, and died 04 Nov 1878 in York Co., VA.


More About Henrietta Frances Roberts:

Burial: Unknown, Forrest Road Cemetery, Poquoson, VA


Child of William Dixon and Henrietta Roberts is:

+      329             i.    Rhodelia Florence10 Dixon, born 25 Feb 1852 in York Co., VA; died 31 Dec 1919 in York Co., VA.



        182.  Robert Eugene9 Dixon (Anthony8, William Moore7, James6, Martha5 Moore, Augustine4, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born 13 Feb 1833 in York Co., VA86, and died 1900 in York Co., VA86.  He married Frances Baptist Moore 16 Jun 1858 in York Co., VA, daughter of William Moore and Sarah Freeman.  She was born 18 Sep 1843 in York Co., VA86,87, and died 04 Mar 1915 in York Co., VA88.


Children of Robert Dixon and Frances Moore are:

+      330             i.    Amanda Malvina10 Dixon, born 04 Dec 1859 in York Co., VA; died 30 Nov 1916 in York Co., VA.

        331            ii.    Sambia Dixon, born Abt. 1861; died Unknown.

+      332           iii.    William Rodolphus Dixon, born 23 Apr 1865 in York Co., VA; died 16 Nov 1940 in York Co., VA.

        333           iv.    Robert Anthony Dixon, born 09 Apr 1869 in York Co., VA; died 1923 in York Co., VA.


More About Robert Anthony Dixon:

Burial: Unknown, Tabernacle United Methodist Churchyard, Poquoson, VA


+      334            v.    Margaret Susan Dixon, born 25 Aug 1876 in York Co., VA; died 09 Dec 1957 in Hampton, VA.

+      335           vi.    Sarah Frances Dixon, born 10 Sep 1884 in York Co., VA; died 11 Feb 1958 in York Co., VA.



        183.  William Henry9 Moore (Merritt8, William7, John6, Anne5 Moore?, Augustine4 Moore III, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born Abt. 1808 in York Co., VA89, and died Unknown in York Co., VA.  He married Sarah Freeman 17 Dec 1829 in York Co., VA90, daughter of Henry Freeman and Elizabeth Presson.  She was born 18 Apr 1806 in Charles Parish (present-day Poquoson area), York Co., VA91, and died Unknown.


More About William Henry Moore:

Burial: Unknown, Jim Parkers (?) Cemetery, York Co., VA


Children of William Moore and Sarah Freeman are:

+      336             i.    William10 Moore, born Abt. 1830 in Messick (now Poquoson), York Co., VA; died 27 Jul 1862 in Richmond, VA.

        337            ii.    Henry Moore, Jr., born Abt. 183292; died Unknown.

+      338           iii.    James Presson Moore, born 08 Sep 1834 in York Co., VA; died 05 Feb 1915 in York Co., VA.

        339           iv.    Sarah Moore, born Abt. 1836 in York Co., VA92; died Unknown.  She married Thomas Ray; died Unknown.


More About Sarah Moore:

Burial: Unknown, Grafton Church, York Co., VA92


+      340            v.    Merritt Moore, born Abt. 1840 in York Co., VA; died 22 May 1907 in York Co., VA.

+      341           vi.    Frances Baptist Moore, born 18 Sep 1843 in York Co., VA; died 04 Mar 1915 in York Co., VA.

        342          vii.    Martha Moore, born Abt. 1846 in York Co., VA92; died Unknown.  She married Tilton? Wilson; died Unknown.

        343         viii.    Margaret Moore, born Abt. 1848 in York Co., VA92; died Unknown.  She married William Sound; died Unknown.



        185.  Edward Barney9 Moore (William Edward8, William7, John6, Anne5 Moore?, Augustine4 Moore III, Augustine3, Augustine2, John1) was born 17 Jul 1820 in York Co., VA93, and died 20 Apr 1895 in York Co., VA93.  He married Ann Holloway 26 Jul 1845 in York Co., VA93, daughter of James Holloway and Elizabeth Holloway.  She was born 05 Mar 1823 in York Co., VA93, and died 27 Aug 189293.