Gelene Hamm's great grandfather, George W. Greenhaw, served in the Civil War. As with the majority of Newton County, residents, George W. fought for the Union army. According to Louise Greenhaw, George W. was in the 2nd Regiment of Cavalry, Co. 3.
Walter F. Lackey's comments: "By 1864, every able-bodied patriotic man of military age was in some branch of the army. This left only old men, women and children, which soon became a pry of disloyal men who became known as bushwhackers. these bushwhackers were local men, or men from other parts of the state who moved into the county where it was easy to hide and live by robbing and plunder. As the war went on, families left behind by enlisted men, suffered many hardships. They were in constant fear of guerrillas. Living conditions became so deplorable that it became necessary to move some of the families to Missouri where they could be protected. It became so that a Union soldier could not return to his home to visit his family without being shot by guerrillas. May men lost their lives while trying to visit their home and loved ones."
Information on the 2nd Arkansas Cavalry:
1. History of Newton County, by Walter F. Lackey
From the report of the Adjutant General of the State of Arkansas, (Union Army):
Second Regiment Arkansas Calvary Volunteers, Company D, Mary 18, 1864 to August 20, 1865.
John C. Bailey, Captain, Roland Hawkins, 1st. Lieut.,
This lists George W. Greenhaw as a private. Also listed of interest to Gelene's family were Hamilton Dickey, James M. Dickey, and Alexander C. and Andrew J. McCutcheon.
2. Internet Sources:
2nd Arkansas Cavalry Battalion
Organized in northeast Arkansas with 5 companies in February, 1862 under the command of Major W.D. Barnett. Sent east of the Mississippi and assigned to Hindman's Brigade, Hardee's Division, of the Army of Central Kentucky later that month. This command went to Columbus, KY, thence to Bowling Green, and performed outpost duty along the Green River. It covered, with other cavalry units, the retreat of General Albert Sydney Johnston out of Kentucky, to Nashville, Tennessee, and on to Corinth, MS. Served as a screening and security force at Shiloh and covered General Beauregard's retreat from Shiloh back to Corinth. and in the Corinth Campaign as part of Beall's Cavalry Brigade. Consolidated with Phifer's 6th Arkansas Cavalry battalion at Corinth, MS on May 15, 1862, and the consolidated unit renamed as the 2nd Arkansas Cavalry Regiment.
2nd Arkansas Cavalry Regiment
Two regiments bore this number.
Aliases: 4th Arkansas Cavalry Regiment
Battles: Served in Mississippi, Tennessee, Price's raid into
Missouri, captured at Marais de Cygnes
Commanders: William F. Slemons
Aliases: also 1st, 2nd, 9th, and 11th Arkansas Cav. Rgt.
Battles: Trans-Mississippi west
Commanders: Charles A. Carroll, Lee L. Thomson, A. Gordon
Organized on May 15, 1862 at Corinth, Mississippi by consolidating the 2nd and Phifer's 6th Arkansas Cavalry Battalions under the command of Colonel William F. Slemons. Field officers were Lt. Cols. H.R. Withers and Thomas M. Cochran , and Majors Thomas J. Reid, Jr., and William J. Somervell. Thomas Garrison was adjutant, W. Leeper quartermaster, and Wat Strong served as commissary. Company commanders were Co. A, Cpt. A.H. Christian, Co. B, Cpt. Joseph Earle (later H.S. Hudspeth); Co. C, Cpt. Thomas Cochran; Co. D, Cpt. James Portis (later Cpt. Watt Green); Co. E, Cpt. J.S. Somerville, (later Cpt. William Cooper); Co. F, Cpt. O.B.. Tebbs; Co. G, Cpt. E.L. Murtree (later Cpt. C. Stell); Co. H, Cpt. Phil Echols (later Cpt. James Oliver), Co. I, Cpt. M.L. Hawkins.
On the retreat from Corinth to Tupelo, MS the 2nd Arkansas again served as part of the rear guard of the army, under General John C. Breckinridge. On July 3, 1862 it was ordered with Clayton's 2nd Alabama Cavalry against the Federals at Booneville, MS, who were completely routed. Together with the 2nd Missouri Cavalry, it was ordered under Gen. Frank C. Armstrong to Tennessee, where it met at Middleburg, TN, the Federals under Colonel Leggett and defeated them, killing and wounding large numbers of the Federal force. About the last of July (1862) the 2nd Arkansas, under Col. Slemons, along with the 2nd Missouri and the 4th Mississippi engaged the escort of Federal cavalry and artillery guarding a train of supplies at Britton's Lane, TN, and after a stubborn fight of three hours captured the train, along with 300 prisoners and two pieces of artillery. The 2nd Arkansas lost 70 men killed or wounded in this engagement. In the campaigns of Price and Pemberton in early 1863 defending the approaches to Vicksburg, the 2nd Arkansas was in continuous active service, opposing Federal thrusts at Iuka, Colliersville, Salem, the Yazoo Pass, at Charleston, Austin, and near Commerce Mississippi and along the Coldwater River there. Under the command of Major General Nathan Bedford Forrest in late 1863, it participated in the masterly movements of that greatest of cavalry commanders, encircling armies, taking cities, capturing trains, and burning bridges. The 2nd Arkansas was transferred to the Trans-Mississippi in April, 1864, in time to fight with Cabell's, Gano's, and Dockery's brigades in the Camden Expedition including the battles of Poison Spring, Marks' Mills, and Jenkins' Ferry. It then served with Price's Army on the raid to the Missouri River in September and October of 1864, and engaged in the battles of Pilot Knob, Independence, West Point, and Marais des Cygnes, in Kansas. At this last battle, Colonel Slemons' horse was killed and fell with him, the saddle catching the colonel's leg under him so that he could nor disengage himself. Col Slemons, a number of his officers, 100 of his men, and two artillery pieces were captured and sent as prisoners of war to Johnson Island, later to Rock Island, where they were imprisoned until after the end of the war. The remainder of the regiment was reduced to battalion size at this time, and so was reorganized and renamed as the 18th Arkansas Cavalry Battalion.
Also Known As: Slemon's 4th Arkansas Cavalry Regiment
References: T.C. Dupree, The War-time Letters of Captain T.C. Dupree, C.S.A., 1864-1865
POSSIBLE SOURCES OF INFO ON GEORGE IN THE CIVIL WAR:
1. Arkansas Confederate Pension Applications from Carroll, Baxter,
Boone, Madison, Marion, Newton and Searcy Counties
44 pp, 1,620 veterans, $10.00
Order from Arkansas Research, PO Box 303, Conway, AR 72
2. Northwest Arkansas Civil War Heritage Trail
Covers: Benton, Carroll, Boone, Marion, Washington, Madison, Newton, Searcy, Crawford, Franklin, Johnson, Pope, Van Buren, Sebastian, Logan and Yell counties.
Call: Steve Adams at Pea Ridge (501-451-8122), Ed Smith at Prairie Grove (501-846-2990), Julie Galonska at Fort Smith (501-783-3961), or Suzie Rogers at Harrison, (501-741-5443, ext. 104).