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Descendants of Johann Kroll




Generation No. 1


1. JOHANN1 KROLL was born 1809. He married LOUISE RADKE.

Notes for J
OHANN KROLL:
Kulm - 1848 Village History (La Rose Ketterling) . . . . . .

Published by the Odessa Digital Library - 27 Nov 1997
http://pixel.cs.vt.edu/library/odessa.html

This document may be freely used for personal, nonprofit
purposes or linked by other WWW sites. It may also be
shared with others, provided the header with copyright
notice is included. However, it may not be republished
in any form without permission of the copyright owner.

Note: Please see the introduction to the Village
History Project in the file 1848hist.txt for additional
information.

Copyright June 1997, La Rose Ketterling, PO Box 90, Mercer
ND 58559


CULM

In the spring of 1815, as a result of a request for colonization from the
crown rulers of the Russian Germans who had immigrated into Poland, the
government authorities granted permission to establish a village in
Bessarabia. The place for the development of the village was to be in a deep
and wide valley at the foot of the highest place in Bessarabia. Soon after
their arrival, the settlers would be able to build their homes (huts) of earth
and reeds. However, it soon appeared to the village leaders that it would be
better to locate the colony on the hill because fog could lock in the
unhealthy air in the valley.

Then the question was - can the hill provide adequate water supply for the
colony? To explore this, a commission of 12 competent men was named whose
mission was to examine various places to find out if adequate water was
available. There was good news for the settlers when it was decided that there
were excellent water springs in several places, so much so that there were
swamps where several water sources flowed together. The result was that more
settlers wanted to settle on the hill than in the valley.

The land that had been designated by the authorities lay more than half
way up the hill and did not have much tillable land and the soil was found to
be a mixture of alkali and sand which would not be very fertile. At other
times, and because of construction of the colony in the valley, it was
difficult to get the native grasses to grow and it was dangerous to drive down
the steep hill with a loaded wagon.

After consideration of this and other land areas, a request was sent to the
colony administration to allow development on the hill. The authorities
granted permission on condition that adequate water was available. The next
step then was to prepare for the development of the colony. During this time,
wood, reeds and other building materials were provided by the crown and the
building of the homes could begin by the fall of 1815. The settlers received
adequate payment to build their own houses and could help others with the
building of their homes.

Until suitable changes could be made, a flourishing meadow was watered by the
flooding of the Kugelnik river. This river was 180W downstream from Moldavia,
was fed by other hillside streams, winds thru the Kugelnick valley and enters
an estuary of the Black Sea. The nearest district city was Akkerman to the
south and the government headquarters was in Kischenew to the north, both at a
distance of 100 W.

The land area of the colony is 6358 des(l7167 acres) and 2032 faden (14224
feet) with various soil conditions. At the top the soil is light which is very
fertile when there is sufficient rain. In the very dry years, there is little
production. At the same time, a recent flood in northern Bessarabia uncovered
an area of 48 des (130 acres) and 232 faden (1624 feet) of oak forest. At the
time of the founding of the colony, this forest was only brush and wasn't
replenished because of the annual burning of the steppe prairie. After a year
and with good care, everything prospered. After the first year of the
settlement, attention was given to the condition of the forest with the
objective being to restore the devastated forest by stripping the best wood
and after a time, restoration of the forest received acceptable attention from
the high authorities. From then on, the forest prospered and the settlers in
the colony rejoiced at the restoration of the forest.

The present name of Culm was not the original name of the colony, it was
Paulsberg, the name given by the colonial authorities. After a course of time,
the name was changed to Culm as it has been called since that time. The reason
for the change is unknown.

Originally there were 80 families that settled in the colony who came together
from Poland, later 28 Wuerttenbergers from other established colonies settled
in Culm to bring the total to 108 families. The majority of the settlers were
born in Poland and their ancestors had been born in Prussia and had immigrated
to Poland. The previous homeland of these ancestors was in the Posen Duchy and
others from the districts of Plotzk, Kalish and Warshau. Only one family was
from the Brandenburg province in Prussia. Most of the immigrants to the colony
of Culm arrived by train in 1814 under the leadership of Gottfried Radach, now
deceased. They found out that they were on their own on the steppe and found
only 3 Moldavian huts. Complete houses were not available and only after 5
months delay were they able to begin building their homes.

The settlers received assistance with building supplies, wagons, plows,
harrow, scythes and sickles from the government. Also supplied were household
necessities such as pots, and pails. For livestock, a pair of oxen and a cow
was provided. For food provisions, every month they received a pud (36#) of
rye flour and at the beginning of the month each family received an oka (3#)
of salt. Each family received 2 tschk (chetverik=45#) wheat, 1 tschk oats and
1 tschk potatoes which provided seed for the 1816 planting. The settlers
arrived with various possessions, property which included wagons and horses
and from 400-1000 rubles, silver (in 1850 1 ruble, silver = 75 cents)

Since the transfer of the colony from the valley to the hill, there were not
any changes in the dorf site and good health was enjoyed in the colony. There
wasn't much noteworthy to mention since the beginning of the settlement but
the earth quake of Feb, 1839 dried up good producing wells but there wasn't
much other damage. In some of the springs, dry wells received water from the
overflow. With regard to epidemics, the only one was cholera in July 1831. In
one month, 30 people died most in the age range of 30-50 years. The disease
was deadly, for example people could be healthy in the morning and working in
the fields, suddenly became ill and were dead after a few hours.

Thru the years, prosperity grew, excellent production of cattle, horses and
sheep and viniculture was especially profitable. In the 1ast years, the crop
failures and cattle plague threatened the main food supply. Extra resources
provided help and guaranteed the upkeep of the vineyards. Every time the
settlers were disappointed, thru mediocrity and drought, money from the
government and community taxes met the family needs. For many years, the
farmers' productivity was meager with continuing drought and destructive
insects which caused times when the family had only enough seed to provide
food for the family and there wasn't any left to sell.

CULM (no date) 1848.
Church school teacher and lay preacher: Christian Straub, writer
the school examiners: Mayor- Peter Schulz
First- Hildebrand
Second- Schelske

Translated by La Rose Ketterling, Mercer North Dakota - 1997
Coordinated with GRHS Village Research Clearing House
Coordinated with GRHS Translation Committee Chairman - Ralph Ruff


     
Children of J
OHANN KROLL and LOUISE RADKE are:
2. i.   AUGUST2 KROLL, b. November 1834, Russia.
  ii.   JOHANN KROLL, b. March 01, 1838.
3. iii.   GOTTLIEB KROLL, b. 1843, Kulm, Bessarabia, Ukraine, Russia.
  iv.   MARIE KROLL, b. 1845.
  v.   CHRISTINE KROLL, b. 1845.
  vi.   JAKOB KROLL, b. 1851.
  vii.   DANIEL KROLL, b. 1853.
  viii.   KAROLINE KROLL, b. 1858.


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