Notes for Napoleon Bonaparte Hill: In 1860, when Napoleon Bonaparte Hill was 28, he married Arabella Evans the daughter of Charles Evans; b. 1798 in South Carolina. Arabella Evans was born in Haywood County, North Carolina on April 15,1833. The Evans family had moved to Cherokee County, North Carolina. Napoleon and Arabella's children were: Mary Ursula, was born in Cherokee County, September 14,1861; Benjamin Harrison, b. 1867; America Victoria, b. 1866; Julia Elizabeth [Lizzie], b. 1870; Martha Louisa [Mattie], b. 1872; Charles Napoleon, b. 1874.
in 1861, with the War Between the States looming on the horizon, in this relatively isolated mountain area, the Felix Walker Hill family would not escape it. The state of North Carolina and all the southern states feverishly began raising troops. Three sons of Felix Walker and Elizabeth Hill; Napoleon Bonaparte, at the age of 29, along with his brothers Abel Stanhope (Bud) born 1836 and Leonidas Charles born 1839 all enlisted on June 17,1861 as volunteers in Company "All, 29th Regiment, North Carolina Infantry, State Troops, Confederate States of America. Colonel R. B. Vance was the Commanding Officer of the 29th Regiment; Captain William C. Walker was the first Commanding Officer of Company "A". [Another son Noah Cooper would serve in 1864.
Unit History: The 29th Regiment, North Carolina Infantry, State Troops, Confederate States of America was organized September 24, 186 1, at Camp Patton at Asheville, under command of Colonel R. B. Vance. Assigned to various brigades in the Department of East Tennessee until December 1862. Joining the Army of Tennessee, at the Battle of Murfreesboro [Stones River] they were in Rains' Brigade; of McCown's Division; of Kirby Smith's Corps, serving in Hardee's Corps. Brigadier General Raines was killed, and Colonel Vance's of the 29th assumed Command of the Brigade. After General Bragg's Army withdrew to Shelbyville, a reorganization left Colonel Vance's Brigade made up of the 29th and 39th NC Infantry Regiments, 3rd Battalion Georgia Infantry and 9th Regiment Georgia Infantry. May 12,1863 the 29th and 39th NC were transferred to General Joseph E. Johnston's Army in Mississippi. The 29th NC was assigned to Wilson's, and after August 24, Ector's Brigade of Walker's Division. September 19 and 20,1863 at the battle of Chickamauga the 29th lost 80 men killed and wounded and 30 missing. September 22, the Brigade was transferred to General Johnston's Army in Mississippi and assigned to French's Division. [See the History of Ector's Brigade for the remainder of their service]. The Regiment assembled at Camp Patton in Asheville, North Carolina and continued training and drilling in Camp Vance, near Sulpher Springs, North Carolina. Company "A" was armed with the Mississippi rifle without bayonet. Future election of Officers was held, and Napoleon Bonaparte Hill was elected and promoted to Second Lieutenant on November 4,1861. [Record of events for the 29th Regiment attached].
The 29th North Carolina Regiment was ordered to East Tennessee on November 25, 1861, specifically to help guard bridges between Bristol and Chattanooga, Tennessee. The Regiment was serving under the Confederate Army of East Tennessee, Commanded by General Kirby Smith.
Sometime near February of 1862, they went into garrison at Cumberland Gap, Tennessee. In March of 1862, Company "All and the Hill brothers with their Mississippi rifles skirmished at Harlem Road and Fort Pitt in Kentucky.
On May 9,1862 Lieutenant Napoleon Bonaparte Hill signed a petition to senior Officers to appoint Morgan L. Nelson, MD, of Asheville, North Carolina as surgeon of the Regiment and to appoint Rev. Greenfield Taylor, AM, as Chaplain. The petition was dated Cumberland Gap, Tennessee.
Future movement of the Regiment was to Baptist Gap near Knoxville, Tennessee; then back to Cumberland Gap; then into Kentucky via Danville, Lancaster, Harrodsburg, Frankfort, Versailles, and Perryville. By November of 1862 the Regiment went back through Cumberland Gap to Knoxville, Lenoir Station, and McMinnville, Tennessee.
On October 15,1862 Abel Stanhope Hill was listed as First Sergeant of Company "A", 29th North Carolina Regiment. Sometime during the month of October 1862, First Sergeant Abel Stanhope Hill was captured by Federal Forces In Lancaster, Kentucky and appears on a list of REBEL PRISONERS OF WAR paroled by the Ist Division, 14th Army Corps, Department of the Cumberland and Gallatin, Tennessee dated November 18,1862. On December 25,1862, the Regiment was ordered to Murfreesboro, Tennessee. [Battle of Perryville attached]
The Confederate Chain of Command for Battle of Stones River, Company "All continued to be Commanded by Captain Walker or Lieutenant Anderson or Lieutenant Sheaver and was under the 29th Regiment Commanded by Colonel R. B. Vance. The Regiment was under the Second Brigade, Commanded by Brigadier General James E. Raines, and the Brigade was under McGown's Division Commanded by Major General J. P. McGown. The Division was under Hardee's Corps, Commanded by Lieutenant General Hardee and the Corps was under The Army of Tennessee Commanded by General Braxton Bragg.
The 29th Regiment camped on the bank of the Stones River on December 30,1862. The stage was set for one of the major battles of the war, Stones River and Murfreesboro. The two armies - Federal and Confederate extended for some four miles along the river bank and battlefield. Early the morning of December 31,1862, the 29th Regiment forded the river with the rest of the Corps. The 29th was in the lead and brought on the battle.
it was reported that Trooper Waldrop of Company "D" was the first Southern casualty of the battle. Brigadier General James E. Raines, Brigade Commander, was shot and killed off his beautiful black horse. A Federal Officer supposedly caught this horse, and he in turn was shot off the horse. This was thought to be the only instance in the War In which an Officer of rank from both sides was killed from the same horse in the same battle. [Battle of Stones River; report from General Braxton Bragg and General Hardee attached]
January 1863 the Regiment and Army fell back to Murfreesboro and headquartered at Shelbyville, Tennessee.
In February 1863 Napoleon was promoted to First Lieutenant and Abel Stanhope was elected Second Lieutenant, on the 12th day of March 1863.
On May 11,1863 the Regiment was ordered to Wartrace, Tennessee; On May 12,1863 the Regiment, under Command of Colonel W. B. Creasman, was ordered to Vicksburg, Mississippi; on June 1,1863 the Regiment garrisoned at Yazoo City, Mississippi then continued on to fight in the battle. [The 29th and 39th North Carolina Infantry Regiments were transferred to Ector's Brigade and these units served briefly in the brigade were the Fortieth Alabama Sharpshooters, the Forty-third Mississippi Sharpshooters, and McNally' Arkansas Battery; [see Ector's Brigade history and Organization of the CSA at Vicksburg attached]
Some men were taken prisoners. The Regiment retreated back to Yazoo City; an July 13,1863 the Regiment was driven out of Yazoo City, Mississippi; on July 23,1863 the Regiment arrived by troop march at Martin, Mississippi; on July 27,1863 the Regiment arrived by rail at Meridian, Mississippi. Napoleon and Abel Stanhope were with their Company "A", 29th Regiment in Yazoo City, Mississippi and at Vicksbug.
On July 28,1863 at Meridian, Mississippi; Lieutenant Napoleon B. Hill requested 30 day leave to go home to Cherokee County, North Carolina, he had not taken leave in 2 years. According to the record it takes 8 days travel each way from Meridian to Cherokee County.
On August 24,1863 Lieutenant Abel Stanhope Hill was paid $240.00 for the period due May 1, 1863 to July 31,1863 at Meridian, Mississippi.
On August 24,1863 the Regiment, under Colonel Creasman, sent to Chattanooga, Tennessee. On August 30,1863 the Regiment arrived In Chattanooga, attached to Ector's Brigade, Walker's Division, 0. H. Hill's Corps, and Bragg's Army for September 19,1863 Battle of Chickamauga. [Napoleon may have been on leave to Cherokee County, NC during the battle of Chickamauga]. Lieutenant Abel Stanhope Hill was with the Ector Brigade in the Battle of Chickamauga. [See Battle of Chickamauga attached]
Hardships of the War back home: Late in the summer of 1863, an anonymous "Voice from Cherokee County" wrote a letter to the North Carolina Standard in Raleigh, bemoaning the oppressive impact of Confederate policy on the state's mountain region. He paid tribute to the highlanders he maintained were most victimized by those hardships--the women, that "class of beings entitled to the deepest sympathy of the
Confederate government the wives, children, mothers, sisters and
widows" left behind by the troops fighting for the Southern cause. This voice from the state's westernmost county went on to extol "the thousand instances of women's patriotism, in resigning without a murmur the being In whom her affections centered, to all the horrors of war, who after her husband's departure, uncomplainingly assume all the duties of the sterner sex; accompanied by her little brood, labor from morn to night in the corn-field, or wield the axe to fell the sturdy oak."
The glorification of Confederate womanhood was obviously well under way by the war's midpoint and was pervasive enough to have reached one of the most remote parts of the Confederacy. Yet even there, the hyperbole of heroism obscured the actual Plight of mountain women. While women did indeed spend much of the war laboring In cornfields, chopping wood, and caring for growing "little broods," they did not always do so "uncomplainingly" or "without a murmur."
On September 23,1863 Ector's Brigade and Regiment ordered back to Meridian and on October 2,1863 arrived at Meridian, Mississippi.
On October 23,1863 First Lieutenant N. B. Hill, 29th North Carolina Regiment appears on the roster of Ector's Brigade dated Brandon, Mississippi. On November 17,1863 in Meridian, Mississippi; First Lieutenant N. B. Hill requested detail to go to Cherokee County, North Carolina to get his company and captured men paroled from Yazoo City, Mississippi. Unable to perform duties for a period of 40 days because of his injured arm and hand. Colonel B. S. Ewell, A. A. General, 29th N. C. Regiment gave Lt. N. B. Hill orders and 40 days leave to go to Cherokee County, N. C. to recruit the absent, paroled, and recently released captured men of his company and regiment; recommended by Colonel W. B. Creasman, Regiment C. 0.; recommended by G. E. Gordon, Regiment Surgeon.
On November 16,1863 at Officers Hospital, Lander Springs, Meridian Mississippi; Lieutenant Abel Stanhope Hill asked for a leave of absence to visit his home in North Carolina; the following "having applied for a certificate to which to ground an application for leave of absence. I do hereby certify that we have carefully examined said Officer and find that he is suffering from the effect of a severe and protracted attack of Pneumonia which has left him very much emaciated. Believing a change would hasten his cure. We respectfully recommend a leave of absence for Thirty (30) days: signed Job F. Kennedy, Surgeon
January 1864, N. B. Hill, First Lieutenant, Company "A" C. 0. made request and certification of Special Requisition No. 40 for clothing, blankets and shoes as issued by Captain W. E. Weaver, Assistant Quartermaster, C. S. Army; recommended by Lt. Col. B. S. Proffitt; issue made at Meridian, Mississippi.
March 1,1864, First Lieutenant N. B. Hill, Company "A" requested to Lt. Col. Thomas M. Jack, A. A. General for permission to go to re-recruit his company again in Cherokee County, N. C.; dated Demopolis, Alabama. March 6,1864, First Lieutenant N. B. Hill, requested from Lt. Col. Thomas M. Jack, A. A. General for Permission to go to Montgomery, Alabama for five days to get uniform clothing made. March 8,1864, request granted for five days by Lt. Col. Jack, counter-signed by Major General Cockrell, C. 0. "P" Division under Lieutenant General Polk; dated Demopolis, Alabama.
March 1864 N. B. Hill apparently wounded again, April 10, 1864 Ector's Brigade participated in Atlanta Campaign. Records reflect that from April 24, to August 20,1864 First Lieutenant Napoleon Hill's name appears on the Officers accounted for, North Carolina Troops, with Ector's Brigade, French's Division, Stewart's Corps Army of Tennessee, Commanded by Colonel W. H. Young. Napoleon was in the General Hospital at Atlanta, Georgia. He was there 4 months.
Confederate Chain of Command for Beginning Atlanta Campaign-
Army of Tennessee ----- General Johnson and General Hood Polk's Corps ---------- Lieutenant General L. Polk Stewart's Corps -------- Lieutenant General Stewart French's Division ------- Major General Samuel French Ector's Brigade -------- Brigadier General M. 0. Ector Brigadier General W. H. Young 29th North Carolina ---- Captain W. W. Rollins [defected to enemy later] Company "A -- ------- Lt. Anderson, Lt. Sheaver, Lt. A. S. Hill
April 25,1864 First Lieutenant N. B. Hill, Company "A" 29th North Carolina Regiment under Ector's Brigade, French's Division, Stewart's Corps, Commanded by Col. W. H. Young, was listed in General Hospital, Atlanta.
July 27,1864; General Ector lost leg; General Young took Command. August 20,1864 N. B. Hill still accounted for in Atlanta Hospital, on roster. October 5,1864; 29th N. C. Regiment took breastwork at Allatoona.
Lieutenant A. S. (Abel Stanhope) Hill, Company "A" 29th North Carolina appears on an Inspection Report of Ector's Brigade, French's Division, Stewart's Corps, Commanded by Colonel W. H. Young, report dated Atlanta, Georgia, August 20,1864; the absent commissioned officer accounted for as "Prisoner of War". [See Battle of Atlanta, and others attached]
On October 5,1864; Hill with other scattered N. C. Troops reorganized and enlisted with Company "H", Ledford's Calvary Regiment of North Georgia Troops. list: N. B. (Napoleon Bonaparte) Hill as Captain; A. S. (Abel Stanhope) Hill as First Lieutenant and their younger brother Noah (Cooper) Hill as a Private.
The records show that there was an Order # 30 dated December 7,1864 by Major General Howell Cobb, Georgia Reserves, Headquarters, Macon, Georgia which refers to certain Battalions and Regiments Commanded by Major Ledford and others, formerly under General Hood, to be used for Georgia defense. It is believed that the troops of Major Ledford (later Colonel) were used to rout out certain renegades and bushwhackers in north Georgia and western North Carolina. Among the most notorious were a band of seventy-five bushwhackers, led by Montrevail Ray, a local tory leader, with his band of thieves.
On January 17,1865, at Verona, Mississippi; N. B. Hill was dropped from the rolls of Company "A", 29th North Carolina Regiment as he has been absent since March 12,1864. On February 17,1865 N. B. Hill's promotion to First Lieutenant dropped by North Carolina.
During January to April, 1865 N. B. Hill was elected to Major, while serving with Company "H", Colonel B. M. Ledford's Cavalry Regiment of north Georgia Troops until end of war.
Major N. B. Hill, [and others, including Captain Abel Stanhope Hill and Private Noah Cooper Hill] Ledford's Cavalry Regiment, Army of North Georgia, surrendered and was paroled on May 12,1865 at Kingston, Georgia, by order of Brigadier General Judah, U. S. A., through Captain R. B. Hughes. Napoleon Bonaparte Hill was Honorably Discharged May 25,1865. [and Abel Stanhope and brother Noah Cooper Hill]
The destruction and dislocations of the war were too great, and the needs of the army took too high a priority relative to civilian needs. The mountain society, including Cherokee County, North Carolina, was facing stresses from unexpected quarters as the Confederacy collapsed. By 1864, western North Carolina civilians found themselves victimized by increased abuse and terrorism from roving bands of bushwhackers or deserters, which were subject to no obvious control or authority. Even more unsettling to many was the randomness and the unpredictability of their attacks. This uncertainty and the growing meanness of spirit of the participants In this mayhem threatened to destroy the fragile economic, social and political fabric of mountain communities.
The brutal murder of William C. Walker, the Cherokee County political leader and Colonel In Thomas's Legion, was retaliation for three Unionists killed earlier in October 1864. Walker had been singled out as the most prominent Confederate target of five who were identified by friends of the Unionist victims. It was not simply Walker's murder but the attitudes of his executioners that captured the new mean spiritedness of internal warfare. The vigilantes first physically abused Walker, who was already in ill health, kicking him and striking him In the head. When it became obvious that they were going to kill Walker, his wife, Margaret, requested that they do so on the premises, so that they could give him a proper burial. But they denied her even that, carrying him off into the wilderness to execute him. His body was never recovered. The malice exhibited in this confrontation was typical of the growing nastiness of the internal war. Death and destruction were no longer sufficient; the infliction of pain and suffering seem to have been required as well.
In February 1865 some frustrated local citizens formed an Independent posse, outside of the authority of the home guards, that attempted to end the violence by unleashing a reign of terror upon the families of members of the outlaw bands.
The pretentious, newly constructed, brick Courthouse erected in the Public Square of Murphy, Cherokee County, North Carolina and was occupied by the county officials In 1844, the building is said by those who saw it, to have been quite an imposing and ample structure for that period. On the 5th of April 1865 It was burned by Federal soldiers under the Command of Colonel Kirk, shortly after the surrender at Appomatox, but probably before the news of that event had reached the county.
After the War, Napoleon farmed and built a large two-story house north of Reece Creek on the Blairsville, Georgia to Murphy and Culberson, North Carolina road. He operated a general store near their home and In the late 1800's, a small post office was established with the name of Napoleon, Georgia. He also served as Sheriff in 1876 and Clerk of Superior Court in the late 1880's of Union County, Georgia
On August 15,1899, with his health and disabilities beginning to get the best of him, Napoleon Bonaparte Hill made application for a pension based on his military service. N. B. Hill wrote: "that whilst engaged in such military service, and in line of duty in the State of Mississippi, on the 25th day of January 1864 he was disabled or wounded as follows:" "by the failing on him of said shanty broke his arm and smashed and displaced the bones of his hand near the wrist, that said fall also caused or produced, double hernia or rupture, and that said injuries now render him wholly incompetent or incapacitated to perform manual labor; that the nature of the wounds or Injuries caused or resulting from the above said accident now renders him wholly unable or incapacitated to perform or pursue the ordinary avocations of life and that he Is disabled to that extent". signed N. B. Hill. He personally appeared before the Clerk, Superior Court, Cherokee County, North Carolina on September 13,1899 where the application was sworn and subscribed.
On October 24,1865 Felix Walker Hill purchased 160 acres tract of land from Thomas Woodfin Rogers. Felix Walker became the third owner of this original tract of land on Reece Creek in Ivy Log section of Union County, GA which was allotted after the Indian removal in 1832. This land purchase was witnessed by Abel Stanhope (Bud) Hill son of Felix Walker Hill.
On November 20,1865; Felix Walker and Elizabeth Hill moved, with most of their family, from Snow Hill Community, Nottla Township, Cherokee County, NC to their property on Reece Creek In Ivy Log section of Union County, GA; perhaps seeking a new start In the midst of the political and economic upheaval of the Civil War era, or that their daughter Marie Louisa Hill who married Sylvanus Mauney had moved with their children; Martin Luther, b. 1853; George Rush, b. 1855; Robert Vance, b. 1858; Mary Elizabeth (Sis), b. 1860; Alice, b. 1862 to Union County adjoining her fathers property. Felix Walker was among the first families to develop this particular area. His early years were spent as a "drummer" (traveling salesman) in the western part of North and South Carolina.
The 1870 Census of Union County, GA; Coosa list our Hill family as follows:
# 807 Hill,Felix W. 63 Hill, Elizabeth 58 Hill, Adam 19 Campbell, Eliza 42 Campbell, Elizabeth 6
# 808 Hill, [Edith] Adelane 58 [Daughter of Charles and Tempy Hill]
Hill, Ursula [Ony] 56 [Daughter of Charles and Tempy Hill] Hill, Julia 27 [Daughter of John Clinton Hill and his first wife)
Mauney, Sylvanus 42 Mauney, Louisa 36 Mauney, Luther 16 Mauney, George 14 Mauney, Vance 12 Mauney, Elizabeth 10 Mauney, Alice 8 Mauney, Charles 2
Note the three families are living next to each other.