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Ancestors of Roscoe Clinton Myers

Generation No. 7

      72. Henry Rhoads, Sr*, born 23 Jan 1711/12 in Manheim, Palatinate, Germany341; died 12 Apr 1774 in Brothers Valley, Bedford [later Somerset] County, PA. He was the son of 144. Heinrich* Roth and 145. Elizabeth Rhinehardt. He married 73. Catherine Cable Bet. 1728 - 1738 in Palatinate, Germany.

      73. Catherine Cable, born Bet. 23 Jan 1707/08 - 1712 in Germany; died Bet. 1780 - 1784 in Bedford County, PA. She was the daughter of 146. Abraham~ Cauble.

Notes for Henry Rhoads, Sr*:

There is conflicting data on who the Rhinehardt sisters married (Capt. Henry Rhoads' father or his grandfather). I have placed them with Capt. Henry's grandfather because the ages seem to be more compatible. Heinrich married Elizabeth first in Germany and they had children. She died c1713 and Heinrich soon after remarried her younger sister Catherine. Catherine came to the US with Heinrich and they had children also. There is also confusion about which children belong to which mother and even as to how many there were. Again, I have tried to attach them where the ages seem to indicate the best connection. ---Ron Myers


There is conflicting material on the father and grandfather of Capt. Henry Rhoads. Some seems to indicate two Heinrich Rodes (AKA Heinrich Roths) preceding Capt. Henry and some that indicates only one. The available information is variously included as one person or separated in two biographies. I have attempted to separate the two as best as possible, but, I am not yet satisfied about the actual true facts.

For example, p. 164 of "Two Centuries of Brothersvalley", "The children of Heinrich and Catherine Rhinehardt Roth were: Jacob, Joseph, Daniel, Henry, Jr., John, Susanna, married John Swisher, Barbara, married Michael Sills (Sells). (Barbara listed in the 1762 membership, Stony Creek Church), Catherine, married Frederick Sipe. [Note; this must be an error. It should be the children of Heinrich and Catherine Cable Roth ---RCM]

From "Two Centuries Of Brothersvalley" p. 163

Heinrich settled in the congregation of the old Trappe Church near Tulpehocken and became an admirer of Conrad Beissel. He left the Trappe Church and followed Beissel into his monastery at Ephrata (or Cloister) in 1742. In 1744, he met Elder George Adam Martin and followed him in his preaching. In 1748, Heinrich moved into the area of the present bounds of the Pleasant View Church of the Brethren, Middletown Valley, Frederick County, Maryland.

The Arnolds were influential in bringing other Brethren families into the community, so that well before 1800 there was a large Brethren settlement in the Burkittsville area and at Broad Run. In many instances, the Arnolds sold land to the new Brethren families. For example, on Feburary 9, 1748, Henry Rhodes, Sr., bought land of John George Arnold and settled on it. Later this same Henry Rhodes moved to Brothers Valley and was active in forming a Brethren Fellowship at that place.

Heinrich Roth was not satisfied with the community at Pleasant View for the Brethren were of the Elder Daniel Leatherman following and Elder Leatherman was a strict follower of Alexander Mack and Peter Becker, the two strongest preachers in the Church, and founders of the denomination. Roth had Sabbatarian leanings and was a strict follower of Beissel and Martin. Elder George Adam Martin was in the Pleasant View area in 1758 but was not well received because Daniel Leatherman would not accept his preaching and thus the members did not receive him. --- "Two Centuries Of Brothersvalley"

"Monoacacy and Cotoctin Early Settlers" page 170

Early German Baptist Brethren Congregations

The earliest evidence of the German Baptists, often called Dunkards, in the Monocacy area is in a letter to German Reformed leader Michael Schlatter written in 1748 by Christian Getzendanner, John Thomas Schley, Jacob and Eli Brunner, Jacob Storm, and Stephen Remensperger of the Frederick Reformed Church. They asked for advice from Rev. Schlatter on how to encourage their members from leaving to join the Dunkards. Already Nicholas Fink and Herman Rotts (Rhodes?) had joined the Pietist group. They were active in trying to convert others to the Dunkard beliefs. Fink and Rhodes held land on Tasker's Chance near Frederick. The Conoheague Congregation of Dunkards further west was begun by George Adam Martin. According to D. F. Durnbaugh in the book Brethren in Colonial America (1967), Jacob Danner or Tanner began his ministry in MD in 1747. Land records and a letter, which he wrote later to Alexander Mack, placed his later home in the Lingamore section. Anthony ??? was an assistant of Danner. Services were held in homes at first… The name German Baptist Brethren was changed in 1907 to Church of the Brethren. ---"Monoacacy and Cotoctin Early Settlers"


The following largely Germanic settlers of Monocacy Valley, led by Stephen Remsberg (Riemensperger) protested their treatment by tax collectors in June 1748 to the Maryland Council, which included Governor Samuel Ogle, Benjamin Tasker, Daniel Dulany, Edward Lloyd and Benedict Calvert:

Jacob Fout, Peter Apple, Henry Trout, Melchior Warfield, Christian Thomas, John Browner, Jacob Browner, Nicholas Reisner, Casper Windred, Peter Hoffman, Henry Roads, Conrad Kemp, Francis Wise, Isaac Miller, Joseph Browner, Henry Browner, David Delauter, Peter Shaffer, Christian Getzendanner, Jacob Smith, John Smith, George Loy, Thomas Johnson, Nicholas Fink*, Kenneth Bechdold, Martin Wetzel, Jacob Brunner.

Joseph Ogle testified in support of the harassed settlers and reported that several were planning to move to Virginia. ---"Monocacy & Catoctin" page 632


First Brethren Across The Alleghenies

"The first movement of Brethren across the Allegheny Mountains in Pennsylvania was to Bruederthal, Brother's Valley, in what is now Somerset County, PA. The congregation, known as Stony Creek, consisted of 17 members in 1770:

Elder George Adam Martin and wife; Henry Roth and wife and daughter; Henry Roth, Jr. and wife; George Newmoyer; Philip Aswald and wife and daughter; Abraham Gebel and wife; Wildebarger and wife." ---"A History of the German Baptist Brethren" Martin Grove Brumbaugh, Brethren Publishing House, 1899 at


The Stony Creek Chart of Organization shows that in 1769, Elder Daniel S. Arnold, from the Pleasant View congregation (which was then a part of Middletown congregation), was an elder in the Stony Creek Church, with oversight of the Eastern Allegheny Church, which was the forerunner of the old Wills Creek congregation, later mother-church to the Cumberland, Maryland Church. In 1784, Elder Arnold removed to
Kentucky, and in 1785, to the Beaver Run congregation, West Virginia.

Heinrich Roth and his family moved to Stony Creek in 1760. By courtesy of the late Mrs. W. H. Newmeyer, we have this note, 1954, a deed to land on the eastside of the Allegheny Mountain, in the Dunnings Creek section, not far from where Elder Daniel S. Arnold settled in 1769. (Indeed this may be the same tract.) Here is the deed as it is recorded in the Carlisle Courthouse:

"By the Proprietaries: Whereas Henry Rhoads, County of Cumberland and hath requested that we would allow him to take up (200) acres of land on the east side of Dunnings Creek---adjoining George Croghans land the said County of Cumberland. Providing said land does not interfere with the Manor Lowthers, And agrees to pay on terms of six months, from rate of fifteen pounds ten shiIlings yearly quit rent of one half penny sterling, Ju ly 7, 1762."

At that time Roth was living in the Glades of the Stony Creek in what is now Stonycreek Township.

From "Two Centuries of Brothersvalley"

This mill was used for a meetinghouse of the Brethren until 1771, when Roth built the first large house in all Stony Creek. In 1770, he bought 200 acres of land that is now "Round Meadows" belonging to Mr. and Mrs. William Glessner, just across the road from the old John Glessner tannery. Heinrich Roth was a blacksmith by trade. One of the very interesting things about early education in Bruedersthal is that Henry Roth taught Sunday afternoon Bible lessons in his mill as early as 1769, which was the forerunner of the day school taught in 1770.

The name of Roth has undergone many changes, from the original name to: Roads, Rodes, Rhodes, Rhoads, Rode. This family has produced many ministers for the Church of Christ in her many denominational branches. Heinrich Roth was a man of great ability and fortitude. Though he disagreed with the elders of the Dunker side of the church, he remained a staunch supporter of his Seventh Day beliefs until his death in 1774.

His son, Henry, Jr., sold his land holdings in Stony Creek and moved to the Ursina tract in 1773, and lived there until his trek into Kentucky in 1785, where he spent his last days and died on March 6, 1814.

Following are the will and land survey of Heinrich Roth. The will is very interesting and quaint in wording. It is given here for it answers many questions about this important elder in the Old Stony Creek Church. The land survey is placed at this point in the story for it shows the original location of the old church. The author will go into greater detail about this area and its early settlers in his book, "The Church in the Wilderness."

The ownership of the land and old Roth Meetinghouse has followed this list from 1769-1962; Heinrich Roth, Sr., Joseph Roth, John Musser, Tobias Musser, Jacob Musser, Tobias Glessner, Edward Glessner, Leroy W. Glessner, William Glessner (1951-1962).

Situated on the East Branch of Stony Creek in Brothers Valley Township, Bedford County-and surveyed the 6th day of May 1774 by Warrent dated the 3rd day of October 1773.

This was the Henry Rhoads, Sr. homestead. His Will, January 28, 1774, states that Joseph has bought the "plantation." On June 19, 1773 Handry Rhoads deeded to Joseph Rhoads the following described property: "Lying in Brothers Valley Twp. Bounded by lands of Geo. Rimelon (Kimmel) on South and Michael Sell on the West and lands of John Rhoads on North, Bounded by a Creek with several courses to the mouth of said Creek and a west course from said creek to a hickory centaimny by estimation 300 acres. Consideration 150 f- pluss subject nevertheless to the purchase money & proprietary suit rent due or hereinafter due" (Deed Book A, page 180, Bedford Co.)* ---pp. 165-166

"If you treat the Indians in a Christian way, you can get along with them ." Heinrich Rode, Sr. ---page 66

The Redstone Peace Treaty, 1768, and Stanwix, NY, Peace Treaty opened Borthersvalley for white settlement. ---p. 102

Providing said land does not interfere with the Manor Lowthers, And agrees to pay on terms of six months, from rate of fifteen pounds ten shillings yearly quit rent of one half penny sterling, July 7, 1762." recorded at the Carlisle Courthouse. ---p. 164

"...17 persons are baptized (at Stonycreek Church) and may be considered as the constiituents of the church, viz. Rev. George Adam Martin and wife, Henry Roth and wife and daughter, Henry Roth, jur. and wife, George Newmoyer, Philip Oswald and wife and daughter, Abraham Gebel and wife, Philip Kimmel and wife, Mr. Widdebarger and wife." on the 1770 organizing of Stonycreek Church [from "Materials Toward History of the Baptists" by Morgan Edwards] ---p. 184


The Henry Roth, Sr., log house stood in a low meadow on the north bank of Rhoads Creek, which empties into the Stony Creek an eighth of a mile west.

In 1771, there was a large log meeting house built on high ground in a clearing belonging to his son, Henry Roth, Jr. This became the first meeting house of the Brethren west of the Allegheny Mountain...

...This meetinghouse was still standing in 1921 when it was torn down. --- p. 187

It was said that Henry Roth, Sr., "exhorted the people in his congregation ." ...he was an "exhorting deacon,"...the elder in charge. ---p. 192

There is another Henry Rhodes who came into New York harbor in 1723, but it seems that this Rhodes settled in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, and was a Mennonite.

In 1770, when Elder Martin took his third trip into the South the church was without enough elders to service the growing church on both sides of the congregation, Henry was elected to the ministry.

On June 5, 1762, Henry Roth bought another piece of land, in Cumberland County, that section in what is now Bedford County, known as Flat Spring. This was a parcel of 50 acres. The deed and settlement was drawn up, September 18, 1772. Sealed by: Abraham Cable, *August 31, 1775. (*This must have been Henry, Jr., for Henry, Sr., died in 1774.)

In 1768, Heinrich Roth, Sr., built a grist mill and saw mill in Stony Creek. This was yet Indian hunting territory. The final settlement or peace treaty was not signed until the following year. The grinding stones or mill stones were made at Fort Cumberland of Allegheny flint and were hauled on a sled all the way over the rough terrain by a brace of oxen. This mill was used for a meetinghouse of the Brethren until 1771, when Roth built the first large house in all Stony Creek. In 1770, he bought 200 acres of land that is now "Round Meadows" belonging to Mr. and Mrs. William Glessner, just across the road from the old John Glessner tannery. Heinrich Roth was a blacksmith by trade. One of the very interesting things about early education in Bruedersthal is that Henry Roth taught Sunday afternoon Bible lessons in his mill as early as 1769, which was the forerunner of the day school taught in 1770.

The name of Roth has undergone many changes, from the original name to: Roads, Rodes, Rhodes, Rhoads, Rode. This family has produced many ministers for the Church of Christ in her many denominational branches. Heinrich Roth was a man of great ability and fortitude. Though he disagreed with the elders of the Dunker side of the church, he remained a staunch supporter of his Seventh Day beliefs until his death in 1774.

His son, Henry, Jr., sold his land holdings in Stony Creek and moved to the Ursina tract in 1773, and lived there until his trek into Kentucky in 1785, where he spent his last days and died on March 6, 1814.

Following are the will and land survey of Heinrich Roth. The will is very interesting and quaint in wording. It is given here for it answers many questions about this important elder in the Old Stony Creek Church. The land survey is placed at this point in the story for it shows the original location of the old church. The author will go into greater detail about this area and its early settlers in his book, "The Church in the Wilderness."

The ownership of the land and old Roth Meetinghouse has followed this list from 1769-1962; Heinrich Roth, Sr., Joseph Roth, John Musser, Tobias Musser, Jacob Musser, Tobias Glessner, Edward Glessner, Leroy W. Glessner, William Glessner (1951-1962).---pp. 164-167

Will OF HENRY RHOADS, SR., JAN. 28, 1774
Will Book No. 1, Page 5; Bedford Co.-

In the name of God Amen. I Handry Rhoads of the County of Bedford and Province of Pennsylvania Being weack in health but sound in mind & mamry do this Twenty eight Day of January in the year of our Lord one Thousand seven Hundred & seventy four mack and ordain these my last Will and Testament in following manner first I do ordin all my just Debts to be paid and next that ny tow sons John Rhoads and Joseph Rhoads are to deliver unto my wife Caterina in yearly and every year as shee is a withe the sum of fourteen bushels of gut and clean wheat and to sow or cause to be so wet for her use one quarter of an acker of flocks and also to plant for her use one quarter of an acker of Potatoes and I do further will in this my last will and testament that the said John and Joseph Rhoads shall keep and feet two couse for her use also as long as she liveth and provide fler wod or case the same to be done and let her life where I life now during her life time but in case she marris again then all the above articles are to be void and I do further order in my last will and testament that all my children shall have an eckwill part of my estate of the sum of Sixty Pounds before my wife Caterina shall come in for her thords and I do further order in this my last will and testament that if all my children are of one eckwill sheer of the Sixty Pounds to each of them then John Rhoads and Joseph Rhoads is to take no more in sheer with the rest of my children Because the plantation is not offreset for them and I do further will and mack over to iny son Joseph Rhoads one plow and all the geirs and one Bolt Horse or gelten and the harrow and all the tacklinse there unto Belonging which the said Joseph Roads is to have and has cot to the plantation in his bargain of Beying the same and I do mack and order in this my last will and testament that the ececutators of this my will shall Bay a piece of land for my son Daniel Roads out of the first payment of my plantation as for his eckwill sheer with the rest of my children will allow for the same and I do hereby ordin and appoint Michael Syll and Abraham both of the County of Bedford to be the ececutators of this my last will and testament and lastly I do ereby revoke and mack void all former and other wills by me heretofore made Declaring this to be my last will and testament. In witness whereof I the said Handry Roads have to this my last will and testament set my hand and seal the day and year above written.

Signed sealed & published & delivered by the said Handry Roads the testator as for his Last Will & Testament in the presence of us who in his presence have subscribed our names & written hereunto.

Abraham Cable
Johanny Fraze (Gross)
Jacob Cable

April 12, 1774 John Gross & Jacob Cable attested to the fact that the above was the last Will of Henry Roads. The same day Michael Syll & Abraham Cable were appointed Executors. ---end of will---

"Situated on the East Branch of Stony Creek in Brothers Valley Township, Bedford County---and surveyed the 6th day of May 1774 by Warrent dated the 3rd day of October 1773." This was the Henry Rhoads, Sr., homestead. His Will, January 28, 1774, states that Joseph has bought the "plantation." On June 19, 1773 Handry Rhoads deeded to Joseph Rhoads the following described property: "Lying in Brothers Valley Twp. Bounded by lands of Geo. Rimelon (Kimmel) on South and Michael Sell on the West and lands of John Rhoads on North, Bounded by a Creek with several courses to the mouth of said Creek and a west course from said creek to a hickory centaimny by estimation 300 acres. Consideration 150 f--- pluss subject nevertheless to the purchase money & proprietary suit rent due or hereinafter due" (Deed Book A, page 180, Bedford Co.).

pp 270-271, 274-276

Jacob Brunner was very active in the affairs of the Reformed Church. His name appears frequently in the early Frederick Reformed Church Book, and the Lutheran as well, as baptism sponsor for relatives and friends. He was an initial Elder of the Reformed Church as were his brothers-in-law Christian Getzendanner, Stephen Ramsburg and Jacob Storm, his father Joseph Brunner and the schoolteacher and innkeeper Thomas Schley. Together they "signed' the appeal of March 19, 1748 for a second visit from Pastor Michael Schlatter following his initial trip to the Monocacy area the year before. They were concerned about the inroads being made by the Dunkers through the efforts of Nicolaus Fink and Heinrich Rotts (Rhodes) (note #63). On October 20, 1748 Jacob Brunner and three others (note #64) were granted a passport by Governor Samuel Ogle for a return trip to Germany. That the trip was made is shown by the initial entry in the Frederick Reformed Church Book: 'Johann Jacob Bruner purchased this writing book for 50 kroner in Frankfurt am Main, April 16, 1749.’ (note #65)

In the year 1729, the year following Johann Jacob Brunner's arrival, only two shiploads of German immigrants sailed up the Delaware. The second of these, the ship Allen, anchored at Philadelphia on September 11th after a voyage from England lasting 70 days. Among her 126 passengers were Alexander Mack and some thirty families in his colony of German Baptist Brethren (note #66). But also on...

...Henry Rhodes, as he was called by English scribes, arrived at Philadelphia on August 17, 1733 with his family and that of Johann Conrad Kemp, destined to be next door neighbors on "Tasker's Chance” some thirteen years later. He signed his name as Henrich Roht, although the shilp’s Captain called him Henrick Roodt (note #84). He was 45 years of age at the time and brought with him his wife Catharina Roed, 40 years of age, and children Anna Eve 13, William 12 and Catharina Roed 9 (note #85)." The family's subsequent whereabouts is unknown until on July 28, 1746 Daniel Dulany deeded to Henry Roth 323 acres on “Tasker's Chance” (note #86). Known as “Olis," it was the third largest parcel carved out of the whole tract. It adjoined the Kemps on the West and Jacob Brunner on the south. Apparently this parcel had been occupied earlier by Dieter Lehnich (note #87 ), for Henry Rhodes, whatever the spelling of his name, was not listed among the 1737 would-be purchasers of "Tasker's Chance," although Lehnich was. Lehnich was also present in October 1742 when his name appeared on the petition to divide Prince George’s Parish. It was shown there as Jno. TeterLany (note #88).

At least initially Heinrich and Catharina 'Roth" were affiliated...

60. C/S: BY & GS 5:534, GS 1:92; Patent Y & S 6:227.
61. Frederick County Land Records, E:698. See below, p. 300.
62. Frederick County Land Records, E:697.
63. A copy of this letter was discovered in the church archives at The Hague in the Netherlands in 1896-1898 by James. I. Good and William Hinke and again in 1964 by John P. Dern. For a photographic copy and a translation by Miss Elizabeth C. Kieffer, former librarian of the Historical Society of the Evangelical and Reformed Church in Lancaster, see Ranck, op. cit ., pp. 15-16. Reference to Hermann for Heinrich Rotts (Henry Rhodes, q.v .) is, of course, a faulty reading. So also are Ranck’s interpretations relating to how the individual elders spelled their own names (e.g., Christian Geldtzedaner, Jacob and Joseph Brummer, Stephan Remensperger and Jacob Storm): Schley's letter, whatever its original signatures, was copied into the Dutch record by a third hand. See above, p. 150n.
64 See below, p. 293.
65. "Johann Jacob Bruner kaufte dieses Schreibuch fur 50 Kr. in Frnckfurt am Mayn Anno 1749 d 16 Aprile.” The book, rebound in 1824, was used for recording baptisms 1747-1875, marriages 1760-1768 and burials 1829-1874. A smaller book, given the congregation by Pastor Schlatter, contains confirmations 1753-1829, communicants 1758-1843, and marriages 1756-1759 and 1784-1833.
66. This religious group, sometimes nicknamed Dunkers because of their belief in adult baptism by immersion, was an outgrowth of the Pietistic Movement. In 1708 a small nucleus of eight families at Schwarzenau in Wittgenstein, Germany, under the leadership of Alexander Mack broke away from the formal state religion to establish its own church. Other churches were soon formed at Marienborn and Krefeld. Members of the latter group emigrated to Germantown, Pennsylvania in 1719, the same year the founding group under Mack moved from Schwarzenau to Surhuisterveen in Holland. It was the latter party which came to Pennsylvania in 1729. Cf. also Donald F. Durnbaugh, European Beginnings of the Brethren (Elgin, M., 1958) and The Brethren in Colonial America (Elgin, 1967). See also below, p 275...
79. Frederick County Land Records, B:585.
80. St8ver, OP. cit., p. 16.
81. See p. 172.
82. Prince George’s County Land Records, BB 1:431, 435.
83. See below, p. 292.
84. The German "oh" and the Dutch "oo" both produce a long 'o' vowel, as in Rhode; hence, to English ears, Rhodes or Rhoads. In this short summary, 14 spelling variations may be observed.
85. Strassburger-Hinke, op. cit., Lists 29ABC, pp. 107-112.
86. Prince George's County Land Records, BB 1:443.
87. For Lehnich, see above, p. 217.
88. See below, p. 371.

with the Reformed Church, and in 1747 they stood as sponsors there for Heinrich, son of Jacob and Margaretha Stahely. But early in the following year the Elders of the Reformed congregation were writing to Michael Schlatter complaining that Heinrich Rotts and his neighbor Nicolaus Fink were then associating with the Dunker sect and were attempting to convert others as well. In 1748 Henry Roads was listed by Stephen Ramsburg as one of those Germans being overtaxed by the Sheriff. In the following year, perhaps as a result, Henry Rothes deeded "Olis" on "Tasker's Chance" back to Daniel Dulany and went elswhere. In 1746 Daniel Dulany had had a 50-acre tract called "Round Meadow" surveyed on Hunting Creek in the Hauver's District of northwest Frederick County which was patented to Henry Rothers on September 29, 1750. Described as "near a branch that is noted for the Great Falls through the Mountain and runs to the Monocacy, a draft of the Potomac," it was the second survey in Hauvers District. Until 1753 there were no other surveys there, but on October 28,1754 Henry Rhodes had 28 acres surveyed just east of today's Foxville which he called "Stones Enough." In 1763 Henry Rhodes resurveyed "Round Meadow" into 375 acres with the certificate noting that on the land were one log cabin, 14 x 14 feet, and 13 acres of cleared land.

We next find Henry Rod in 1749 acquiring 150 acres of "Cockholds Horns"95 and 102 acres of "Rams Horn." The latter's total 494 acres had been initially surveyed on March 10, 1739 for Daniel Dulany, who assigned the certificate of survey to John George Arnold on February 25, 1743\44. Arnold was a German who had arrived in Philadelphia on October 30, 1738. He was naturalized in Maryland on January 15, 1739 along with his sons John, Daniel, Samuel and Andrew. He sold the 102 acres of "Rams Horn" to Henry Rhods on September 5, 1749 and conveyed the remaining 392 acres on January 15, 1753 to his son Daniel Arnold. The 102 acres, subsequently called "Rod's Purchase," were located about a mile south of Myersville. Henry Rod and His wife Catherine held the land until February 12, 1750 when they deeded it to Jacob Keller. The latter is believed to have been Jacob Koller, father of the Culler family in Maryland and Virginia. Our last word concerning Henry Rotten was a suit against him by John Trammel for a debt of 2,204 pounds of tobacco. After three continuances, the record of the November Court of 1755 shows the case "abated by death of the plaintiff."

95 The survey of October 14, 1747 was for Robert Evans who assigned it to Henry Rhodes on May 4, 1749.

by James B. Whisker and Vaughn E. Whisker
Closson Press, 1983
p 6

Roth, Henry sr (died 1774). Seventh-day Baptist and Dunkard minister. Black and gunsmith. Trained at Ephrata, built guns although in contradiction to his religion. 1771-1774, Ursine, Brothers Valley Twp. Two Centuries of Brothers Valley p. 53.


From: "Rodger W. Bundy" <>
Subject: Huber/Hoover & Bachmans Valley MD
Date: Tue, 20 May 1997 10:19:58 -0700

Hi from Karen. This note is in response to Roland Brown response and
info about the HOOVERs and Pfoutzs of that area being related to
President Hoover.

Yes Roland oh yes I am aware of the Andreas Huber. Several years
ago we tried to save the Christian Geiman (wife is Anna
SHELLENBARGER) family burial ground which overlooks the Andreas Hoover Mill and farm. The land is located in Bachmans Valley, Carroll Co MD between the town of Wentz near PA line and the town of Westminster. The family burial ground of my relatives is off Hoover Mill Road and Ebbvale Road.

The area I am concerned about now leads into land of TRINE, George
HOOVER, Henrich WAREHEIME 1792, Israel WELLS 1748, David AND Michael and Frederich BACHMAN 1800'S. Nearby involvement will include BORN, SCHAEFFER brothers Jacob, John, ECKLER, REINHARDT, WEAVER, BIXLER, NEFF, LIPPY, LEISTER, Philip and Peter MYERS, and many more land owners. The area will change drastically in appearance in the next months so I want to find anything historic now, not later when it is bulldozed.

We are talking about 500 or so acres of farmland and those great
rolling hills and valleys. If you have anything to help, please let me
know. If you especially are looking for HOOVERS that you cannot find in
a church burial ground, please let me know if you think they may be
on/in the land!

Again, thanks to all who help out in this endeavor. Regards from
Karen in MD.


From: "Rodger W. Bundy" <>
Subject: Re: Huber/Hoover & Bachmans Valley MD
Date: Wed, 21 May 1997 00:51:44 -0700
References: <<>>

Hi Joan and other brethren researchers from Karen in MD.

Joan, someone sent me email about the Huber family--I thought it was
in one of the letters on Brethren too. They said that that Andreas Huber
was related to Pfoutz line and Brethren--I know nothing about this. I
only know that the Andreas Huber land borders my Christian Geiman and Anna Shellenbarger farm and it is near to the Miller/ Myers farm I am researching now, outside of Westminster and towards Ebbvale and
Wentz(Black Rock COB). Will look it up when I can. I had asked if there
were any researchers doing

Hoover/ Schaeffer/ Lippy/ Neff/ Myers/ Miller/ Warehime/Wolfe/Bixler in
Carroll Co MD near Bachman's Valley.

If you have anything to add, please do so. I have 2 more weeks before
the land is changed drastically by progress---and you know what historic
things I research that are in the grove of trees at the top of a hill
about 200 yards from an old house--you know the one with old slate
stones (family burial grounds).Thanks from tired Karen in Md.

Joan--this was forwarded to Karen in MD wrote: I must have missed the earlier messages re:

Andreas Huber/Hoover the ancestor of Herbert Hoover. Are you referring to the same Andreas Huber who arrived in America in 1738 on the Snow Two Sisters? He is identified in PA German Pioneers as the ancestor of Herbert Hoover although apparently there has been some discussion as to the correct Andreas Huber. Also, Annette K. Burgert's book 18th Century Emigrants from German-Speaking Lands to North America Vol. 1 The Northern Kraichgau discusses this Andreas Huber on pages 180-181 and lists him as previously being identified as the ancestor of Herbert Hoover.

However, the Gary Boyd Roberts book on the Ancestors of American
Presidents (written more recently than the other sources) seems to
indicate a different Andreas Huber as Herbert Hoover's ancestor.

Can you clarify as to which Andreas Huber is the correct ancestor of
Herbert Hoover and what proof this is based on? Thanks--I have been
wondering about these discrepancies for some time, and this discussion enables me to attempt to solve the mystery.

Joan Myers Young

More About Henry Rhoads, Sr*:
AKA (Facts Pg): Heinrich Rode, Sr
Burial: 1774, Rhoads Cemetery, later Somerset County, PA
Deed: 19 Jun 1773, Heinrich Rhoads deeds "the plantation" to his son Joseph
Forename Variant: 1712, Henry
Historical: 1744, One of the four original families in Brothersvalley
Immigrant Ancestor: 31 Oct 1737, Germany, Palatinate, to PA
Land Grant: 1764, Antrim Twnshp, on Dunnings Creek, Cumberland Co, 6/6/1762, 285 acres
Migration: Bef. 1744, ?Pipe Creek, MD, to Brothersvalley, PA342
Ministry: 1768, Henry Roth, Sr., elected to the ministry in Stony Creek
Occupation: Blacksmith
Probate: 12 Apr 1774, will recorded
Property: 1770, Stony Creek Twp, Cumberland County, bought 200 acres called Round Meadows from Wm Glessner, north of Berlin, PA
Religion: 1762, Stony Creek Church organized in the home of Henry Roth, Sr.343
Residence: Abt. 1766, Possibly not a permanent resident of Cumberland [later Bedford] County until this date
Sponsors: 18 May 1747, Baptism of Heinrich Strahely, son of Jacob and Margaretha344
Survey: 28 Oct 1754, 28 acres owned by Henry Rhoads called "Stones Enough"345
Tax Roll: 1767, Cumberland County, PA, Bedford Twp
Warrant: 13 Sep 1773, 372 acres, Turkey Foot Twp, to Henry Rhoads, Sr, and Samuel Evewald
Will: 28 Jan 1774, will written

More About Catherine Cable:
Deed: 24 Feb 1775, 150 acres, Turkey Foot Twp, Bedford County, to George Funk
Immigrant Ancestor: Germany to Pennsylvania

Marriage Notes for Henry Rhoads and Catherine Cable:

Conrad Beissel and his Communal Experiment

Written by Ronald J. Gordon ~ Published February, 1996 ~ Last Updated, March, 2005 ©
This document may be reproduced for non-profit or educational purposes only, with the provisions that the entire document remain intact and full acknowledgement be given to the author.

As the German Baptist Brethren established themselves in the New World, they quickly welcomed and provided assistance to other Brethren arriving from the Old World. Conrad Beissel was one such individual who later became a presiding member of the Conestoga congregation near Lancaster, Pennsylvania. After time he endeavored to influence them toward his own spiritual mysticism, particularly his teachings regarding celibacy and Sabbath (Saturday) worship. Elders from the Germantown Mother Church in Philadelphia attempted to return their brother back into their fold of orthodoxy through repeated visitations. After continuing friction with these Elders, Beissel finally broke with them and established his own experiment in faith at Ephrata in 1732. In the following years with the death of their founder and figurehead Alexander Mack in 1735, Brethren increasingly began leaving their congregations to join Beissel in his new mystical experiment along the Cocalico Creek. The wife of Brethren printer Christopher Sauer was a Prioress at Ephrata Cloister for fourteen years. During the early years and primarily under the guidance of Beissel's personal supervision, the community prospered, incorporated much industry, and produced a unique religious culture. But not long after the death of Beissel in 1768, the community began to wane and the buildings slowly deteriorated. After several decades, the remaining dwellers made notable attempts to preserve their society and repair the buildings, but there were not enough people left to maintain a viable community. In 1814, the few remaining dwellers incorporated the Seventh Day German Baptist Church which survived until 1934. Finally, the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission assumed ownership of the grounds and regressing structures in 1941, and initiated a program of research, careful restoration, and continuing maintenance. Tour guides in period costume now escort visitors throughout the park with knowledgeable and meaningful interpretation of cloistered life. A museum presents the historian with a snapshot of life at the Cloister, a gift shop offers souvenirs for the average traveler, and the genealogist will relish the opportunity to peruse the original cemetery which yields the names of those interred.

Parallel to recounting the positive accomplishments of Conrad Beissel and the members of Ephrata Cloister, this document attempts to examine one aspect of the story which few historians have endeavored to address. This author has repeatedly walked over the grounds at Ephrata, and one question persistently remains. After all the opinions and interpretations have been discussed from all the many histories written, this simple observation must eventually be considered and answered: “Why are these buildings now empty?”

The Visionary

Eberbach, Germany, was the birthplace of Johann Conrad Beissel in 1690. His father was a baker who died two months before he was born, and tragically at the age of eight, his godly mother also died. Raised by older brothers and sisters in poverty, he drifted from musician to baker and spiritual mystic. At Heidelberg he became friends with many Pietists and was briefly jailed. Upon his release, Beissel departed with two friends for America, and landed in Boston in 1720. Eventually arriving in Germantown he decided to become a weaver under the apprenticeship of Peter Becker who then presided over the Brethren. A bit restless and discontent, he soon left for the Conestoga territory (Lancaster) where he lived as a hermit. In 1724, a missionary expedition of Brethren from Germantown convinced him to rejoin the Brethren. He was baptized and regularly met with a newly formed congregation, and soon became the leader of this fledgling Conestoga group. However, it soon became noticeable that Beissel was more intent on persuading them to accept his own mystical interpretations of spiritual living. Referring to himself frequently as the Superintendent, he visited many other Brethren settlements with the idea of enlarging a group of sympathetic followers. This was not difficult since no firm organization structure existed between the Brethren congregations, and his personal charisma only strengthen his undeniable gift of leadership. Few historians obfuscate his extraordinary gift for persuasion. Little if any coercion was necessary, for Beissels magnetic personality literally drew people under his tutelage. In December of 1728, he openly declared his independence from the Brethren as he instructed follower Jan Meyle to rebaptize him in the Conestoga Creek. He soon moved to Ephrata and later established a formal colony in 1732, to pursue his own vision of spiritual mysticism. The attempts of the German Baptist Brethren to reconcile Beissel and return him to the fold where in vain. His vibrant personality and eloquent speaking abilities endeared other Brethren and attracted many outside converts. There was a gradual exodus from many Brethren settlements to the Cloister at Ephrata, especially following the death of Alexander Mack in 1735 (founder of the Schwarzenau Brethren). In the wake of Mack's influence, Beissel achieved prominence and embarked on a steady course of proselytizing which was immensely successful. He literally moved the entire Brethren congregation at Falckner's Swamp to Ephrata.

Beissel's followers were vegetarians and grew their own food in several gardens. Tour guides relate that lamb being served during communion was the only time the faithful were allowed to eat meat. Needless to say, communion was requested often. Members were generally monastic and segregated in rustic living quarters by gender. Married couples were later admitted, building their own houses on the grounds. The colony was very autonomous. It had orchards, gardens, grain-fields, the resources to manufacture clothing from flax, plus a saw-mill, gristmill, paper-mill, and printing press. A number of artisans were very skilled in crafts such as clock-making and decorative writing termed Fraktur. Some of the first "casement" type windows in American were installed in the larger buildings. Cloistered living was austere, members wore plain white hooded cloaks to disassociate themselves from the distraction of individual clothing styles. Most living quarters or cells in the Sister's House were very small with a hard wood bench for a bed and a solid wooden block for a pillow. Passageways in this large dormitory were narrow. Doorways often had a heavy support beam that forced dwellers to bend over as they entered another room. Park tour guides must frequently remind modern visitors to bend forward in order to keep from bumping their heads. One of the more significant elements of Beissel's teachings was that celibacy is the most advantageous means of opening and maintaining a reliable channel of spiritual communication to God, for it relives the mind of the recurring distraction of sensual pleasures. Since food and clothing were produced within the Cloister, much time was involved in tending to a variety of everyday chores, such as gardening, mending, transporting goods between the numerous buildings, and naturally the laborious tasks of cooking and preparing meals. These necessary activities easily reduced idleness and kept people busy. In the evenings after chores were finished, members participated in numerous other events such as choral singing, often in five part harmony in the main worship center - the Saal (worship hall on right) that adjoined the larger Saron (Sister's house from rear). Since Beissel was previously aligned with the Brethren, the modern Brethren visitor to Ephrata Cloister is frequently reminded of numerous Brethren elements of faith and practice or manners and customs - especially the communion service. One chief industrial activity of the colony was its printing press, certainly exceeded in significance and production by the Sauer press in Germantown. Power exists in the written word and this press authenticated the legitimacy of the Cloister by giving the dwellers their own self-produced literature. The Ephrata press also generated many outside compositions such as the Mennonite book of Martyrs in 1748. Of particularly special interest was the monumental production of Chronicon Ephratense in 1786 by Jacob Gass and Peter Miller (Beissel's successor). Although it is regarded by historians as indefensibly biased toward the activities of the Superintendent, nonetheless it offers the historian an opportunity to evaluate the development of the community, and especially it's relationship to the German Baptist Brethren (later Church of the Brethren).

Expansion to Snow Hill

In 1762, George Martin left Ephrata on a mission project to expand the teachings of Conrad Beissel along the southern border of Pennsylvania, especially since there were numerous kindred Brethren settlements in this region. His talented efforts garnered several family members of Swiss immigrant Hans Schneeberger (Ger. “Snow Mountain”) to the teachings of Sabbatarianism. Andreas (son of Hans) married Barbara Karper and these two Brethren (both of Brethren families) offered their home as a gathering place for a newly formed group. Barbara was the first to accept the new teachings and with her child, left a reticent husband for Ephrata. He succeeded in finding her and was later baptized into the new faith. Beissel visited them in July of 1763. These events were the beginning of the Snow Hill Nunnery, located along Route 997, about two miles north of Waynesboro, Pennsylvania, along one of the northern branches of the Antietam Creek. Buildings were later constructed on their farm, which consisted of a Dormitory and Saal (worship hall) with an open commons in between. The original cloister was brick encased in 1814 and officially incorporated in 1823. After a prosperous existence until about 1845, the Snow Hill experiment began to decline. An extremely small core of members kept the idea alive until 1998 when they sold the furnishings at public auction, offering the land to the Pennsylvania Southern District of the Church of the Brethren. After considerable discussions ranging over a period of several months, local District officials graciously declined the offer because of the enormous cost of meaningful restoration of the buildings. At this writing, the property may be acquired by a sub-group that had left Snow Hill for Morrison's Cove, establishing the Salemville German Seventh Day Baptist Church in Bedford County. This congregation is still in existence, however there are remarkable differences between Salemville and the groups at Snow Hill / Ephrata, such as the absence of cloistered dwellings, restrictive dress, and the practice of celibacy. In fact, the observance of Sabbatarianism is their notable distinction from the modern Church of the Brethren.

The Superintendent

Learning to play the violin in Europe, Beissel taught music at the Cloister and wrote hundreds of songs. Many others also devoted themselves to poetry and music. Their choir became widely known. Over thirty people were involved in writing hymns and the printing shop soon began producing hymnals, especially Die Turteltaube. Unfortunately, all was not in perfect harmony, for Beissel ruled the Cloister with an iron hand and banished anyone who did not eventually yield to his authority. In the due course of time, friction with Israel Eckerlin, Prior of the Monastery, became open and somewhat hostile. This event soon formed cliques of smaller parties, each aligned with either Eckerlin or Beissel. Private agreements were often made on how to comport oneself, depending on which of these two protagonists should ultimately win the struggle. Accepting the Priory in 1740, Israel Eckerlin was a firm believer in hard labor. He was also a good businessman who added industry to the Cloister. It was actually his idea to add the mills, the orchards, purchase surrounding territory, and finally make the community self-supporting. His widowed mother came from Germany to America in 1725 with four sons, Israel, Samuel, Immanuel, and Gabriel. Each brother was very active in the Cloister, nearly from its beginning, and worked very hard to make it a success. Israel was a genius in many areas. He was deeply respected by the Ephrata community for his astuteness, but it also made Beissel extremely jealous. Eventually the feud became hostile with frequent exchanges of anger in public. In order to preserve tranquility, it was agreed that Israel should leave the Cloister for a short period of time, so as to allow emotional wounds to heal. While he was absent, Beissel literally destroyed much of what Israel had accomplished, including the burning of hymn books containing Eckerlin composed songs, plus the sawmill which Israel had personally constructed. When Eckerlin later returned and observed the wanton destruction of his grace inspired contributions, the feud waxed even hotter. It remains somewhat difficult to understand that Beissel then resigned as Superintendent for a short period of time, which left Eckerlin in control - but not for long. Through intrigue and minor stealth, Beissel was able to return and finally depose his adversary. To preserve unity and the very existence of this mystical experiment, close friends of Eckerlin urged him to permanently leave the Cloister. Unfortunately, deep seeds of bitterness remained, as also did the casual remembrance of which colonists were formerly aligned with whom during this struggle.

Clothing was manufactured

Others also began experiencing the ire of Conrad Beissel, who was otherwise a brilliant organizer with an undeniably charismatic personality. Dissidents would either capitulate or leave. As Beissel's intemperate nature emerged and became public, many became disillusioned while others felt their suspicions confirmed. Many who were formerly Brethren returned to their congregations. At the height of his proselytizing fervency, married women seemed to be a recurrent target. Maria Sauer, wife of Germantown printer Christopher Sauer, Sr. was enticed from her family to live at Ephrata, the wife of the Elder at Falckner's Swamp left her husband who forcibly took her back several times, and Brethren historians claim that Elder Martin Urner of Coventry begged his wife to remain faithful, to which she did. In 1744, only four years after Eckerlin had become Prior and at the height of the administrative struggle with Beissel, Maria Sauer returned to husband and son in Germantown with a full reconciliation. As the disruptions continued, other residents began to realize and more fully comprehend what the Elders in many Brethren settlements had perceived years before. Although he was genuinely bestowed with charisma and richly endowed with the gift of leadership, Johann Conrad Beissel was also a benevolent tyrant. It seems quite paradoxical, that as many Brethren residents were leaving, Alexander Mack, Jr. came to Ephrata seeking consolation following the death of his father, only to find bitterness and strife in open display. Hoping for peace and the very preservation of the Ephrata community, Alexander Mack, Jr., Israel and Samuel Eckerlin decided to leave. A journey that would leave a string of Brethren settlements and congregations in western Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia.

The Opportunist

Clock Making

It would be unfair to suggest that Beissel did not superintend this community with heartfelt convictions, but it may be historically more accurate to say that he constantly used his powers of influence to create opportunities that more directly benefited himself. Beissel used his Brethren affiliation to raid their congregations for his opportunistic enterprises. He benefited from the advantage of weak communication between the many scattered Brethren settlements which facilitated the imposition of his own beliefs on their congregations. Martin Urner forcefully opposed him at Coventry but the story was entirely different across the Schuylkill River at Falckner's Swamp where an enclave of Brethren had settled in the early 1720's. Beissel literally moved this congregation to Ephrata. He also had success in dislodging Brethren from other settlements at Conestoga, Oley, and Tulpehocken. This had a chilling effect on surrounding Brethren, especially at Germantown where dismay and helplessness described their efforts to combat his impassioned zeal. They recognized his spiritual gifts yet regarded him as a deceiver. Beissel seemed never content to be governed as merely one more of the fellowship. Historians note that if things did not go Beissel's way, he would regularly depart from the company of a larger group to live as a hermit. He was also intrigued with aspects of mysticism and frequently visited other groups such as Keithian Quakers on French Creek, Sabbatarians in Newtown or Providence, and especially the Labadists at Bohemian Manor. Unsubstantiated claims also suggested that he associated with Rosicrucians. A modest correlation of the more unusual aspects of the Ephrata community will show the lasting influence of the Labadists in the area of sexuality and asceticism. It cannot be denied that Beissel possessed a dynamic personality, enhanced with a profound gift of administration, but he unfortunately used these attributes to focus attention much too often on himself. The reader of the numerous histories of Ephrata will surely educe that much of the success of the Cloister was heavily dependent on the personality and charisma of one man - Conrad Beissel. When his presence left the community at his death in 1768, Ephrata Cloister simply began to irreversibly diminish.

Answering The Question

Upon concluding your visit to the restored Cloister, perusing the grounds, listening to the guides, reviewing the exhibits, and generally inhaling a deep breath of history, one must address the above question: “Why are these buildings empty?” This former religious colony is now a museum - not a flourishing congregation. Gone are the inhabitants and the vespers, singing, industry, and communion. Gone are the human endeavors to etch a religious experience into the wilderness of central Pennsylvania. Everyday articles of a once vibrant fellowship are now relics on display under glass. Paid staff go through the motions of retelling the story and maintaining the grounds. A special choir periodically returns to celebrate the original music, but the light of a former age became a flickering wisp that was extinguished by neglect.

Predictably, spiritual allegiance to the devoted work of one man and his own vision will eclipse the awesome majesty of grace from a God who loves unconditionally and guides providentially. Although many denominations have resulted from the activity of one individual, including the Church of the Brethren, their degree of success has usually hinged upon the degree of spiritual allegiance or yieldedness to God of that one individual. Luther is to Lutheranism what John Wesley is to Methodism and likewise Calvin to Presbyterianism. Each of these men have certainly exhibited their darker side on occasions, but what remains for history to evaluate is their resolute desire to obtain the likeness of Jesus Christ in their life. Instead of seeking divine acceptance through the rigidity of law and ritual, it was Luther's discovery of grace by reason of God's unmerited love that enabled him to understand his own inadequacy, and enjoy powerful enrichment from the infilling work of the Holy Spirit. Only when Martin Luther was able to accept his inabilities and recognize his limitations was he able to receive the fullness of life that God offers. It is nothing less than the dynamic, vibrant personality of Jesus Christ in the hearts of men and women that gives meaning and purpose to life. Without this transforming power of Christ, our lives remain empty, longing to be filled with meaning. It was Augustine, the 4th century Bishop of the city of Hippo Regius who eloquently concluded: “You have made us for yourself, O Lord, and our hearts are restless till they find their rest in you.” After searching for meaning along many different pathways, disappointment brought him to the ultimate conclusion that all searching can end when we discover the love of God. Mathematical genus Blaise Pascal said it differently, “There is a God-shaped vacuum in the heart of every man, which only God can fill through his Son Jesus Christ.” Without the indwelling presence of God through the person of Christ and the transforming power of the Holy Spirit, religious life tragically becomes an ascetic pursuit of attempting to satisfy God through ascetic efforts.

Religious Communities

Someone might respond to our question with the postulation that all such religious communities eventually go out of existence. In other words, it is the communal environment itself rather than a personality which is at fault. True, some religious communities have gone out of existence but some are thriving. The Amana Colony is one such community and their history points back to Europe during the exact same period of time as Conrad Beissel. In the early 1700s in northern Europe, people were becoming dissatisfied with the intellectualism of the liturgical churches. Pietism and Mysticism flourished because people wanted a personal experience with God. Groups started breaking away from the established state-church. One such group was the Community of True Inspiration which held that God still communicated through devout followers in the same manner as with the prophets of the Old Testament. In the 1840s they left an economically depressed and war ravaged Europe for America. Ebenezer was the name of their first settlement near Buffalo, New York, and it was an immediate success. Farms and industry were very successful, perhaps too successful because it soon outgrew the available land. They then moved to eastern Iowa and became the Amana Church Society, a word taken from Song of Solomon 4:8 which signifies fidelity. This one colony eventually grew into seven separate colonies. Their farms were fruitful and their industry was productive. In fact, their products were so dependable that they were able to secure government contracts to build refrigeration units during the Second World War. You can still buy an Amana refrigerator in most parts of the nation. These people origininated from the very same period and background as Conrad Beissel. Now here is the salient question. Do you know the name of any one of their leaders? Do you know the name of any person involved in their founding? Most people cannnot name one person because their success continues even to this day on a principle - not a personality. Their religious experience overshadows their leadership.


The answer to our question of empty buildings may simply rest in the counsel of the wise educator Gamaliel who advised the members of his own community that the works of men are doomed to failure without God's interaction and providential guidance. “For if this counsel or this work be of men, it will come to nought, but if it be of God, ye cannot overthrow it,” Acts 5:38-39. During the early to mid-years of Beissel's supervision, the cloistered dwellers at Ephrata prospered and accomplished many noteworthy projects, but as his darker side gradually became more evident, their growth and effectiveness was stymied. In the years following his death in 1768, the whole experiment simply began to dissolve as residents gradually moved away. The Cloister's own records show about 300 residents around 1750, falling to 250 residents in 1759 (mid-years), and by 1770 only two years after Beissel's death, the number had dwindled to 135 brothers, sisters, and householders. Those who remained, lived in a small community that was only a shell of its former glory. Absent from their community was a subsequent figurehead with the same dynamic gifts of charisma and wisdom to confidently pilot Ephrata Cloister into an uncertain future. In the course of time, their buildings slowly began to deteriorate as did their dream. As previously mentioned, there is one very small remnant group still existing in western Pennsylvania near Salemville in Bedford County. However, there are remarkable differences between the Salemville group and the community at Ephrata, noticeably the absence of cloistered dwellings, communal farms and industry, strict ascetic principles, restrictive dress, and the practice of celibacy. In fact, their emphasis on Sabbatarianism is one of the few remaining distinctions from the Church of the Brethren. Our conclusion is that these buildings are empty because they were founded upon a personality, not a principle.

The Legacy

In 1814, the scant few remaining dwellers of Ephrata Cloister incorporated themselves as the Seventh Day German Baptist Church, a title which survived until 1934. With its future in limbo during the late 1920's, these few members recognized the end of their communal experiment but strongly disagreed on how to best dispose of the grounds, buildings, and artifacts which held considerable monetary and historical value. The arguments escalated into legal action against each other to such a crescendo that the courts revoked the incorporation of their charter and placed the property under receivership. The Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission assumed ownership of the grounds and buildings in 1941, with a program of research, interpretation, and careful restoration. There are a few noticeable innovations that have been added to perhaps better explain former living conditions. The print shop has been moved (or better recreated) into its own structure, whereas it was most probably located in the Brother's House. These modest recreations and rearrangements, along with periodic archeological digs, help the visitors enjoy a convincing atmosphere and more deeply appreciate the energy of the Cloister legacy. There is a well organized visitors center, museum, and gift shop, offering numerous educational materials, tourist information, and historical literature. Also included is the original cemetery which yields lots of valuable information for genealogists, especially those interested in making connections with the German Baptist Brethren. Visitors can enjoy both a self-guided tour on the mostly unrestricted grounds or a group tour (recommended) with an interpretative guide in period dress. Phone the Service Desk about hours of operation, admission fees, reservations for large groups, or special needs. The staff is very friendly and more than willing to answer questions that would expand your understanding of that period of history and generally make your visit more enjoyable. The museum, bookstore, and gift shop are must visits.

Literary Resources:

Alderfer, E.G. - The Ephrata Commune: An Early American Counterculture, University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1985.

Best, Jane Evans - Turmoil in Conestoga, Pennsylvania Mennonite Heritage, January 1963, pp. 2-27.

Gass and Miller - Chronicon Ephratense: A History of the Community of Seventh Day Baptists at Ephrata, Translated by J. Max Hark, Lancaster: S.H. Zahn & Co., 1889.

Longenecker, Stephen - The Christopher Sauers, Elgin: Brethren Press, 1981, pp. 28-49.

Sachse, Julius Friedrich - The German Sectarians of Pennsylvania, 1708-1800: A Critical and Legendary History of the Ephrata Cloister and the Dunkers, Philadelphia, 1899-1900; reprinted by AMS Press, New York, 1971.

Seachrist, Denise A. - Snow Hill and the German Seventh-Day Baptists: heirs to the musical traditions of Conrad Beissel's Ephrata Cloister, Ph.D. Dissertation, Kent State University, 1993.

Viehmeyer, L. Allen - The Bruderlied and the Schwesterlied of the Ephrata Cloister, Yearbook of German-American Studies. 31 (1996): 121-136.

Cocalico means ...
During one of many visits to the Cloister, this writer gained the personal cooperation of Steve ....., one of the curators. When requested to be taken to the nearby stream, he exclaimed: “You don't want to go down there. It's full of snakes. Actually the word Cocalico is a Native-American term for Den of Snakes, and believe me, they're still there!”
Online Resources:
Alchemy of the Voice at Ephrata Cloister by Jan Stryz

Basic Agreement between Beissel, Mack, and Becker

Ephrata Cloister: A Sabbatarian Commune in Colonial Pennsylvania

Ephrata Community Songbook

Members of Ephrata Cloister (The Register)

Members of Germantown Congregation (German Baptist Brethren)

Members of the Conestoga Congregation (German Baptist Brethren)

Official Ephrata Cloister Web Site

Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission

Pennsylvania State Archives: Manuscript Collection

Stones Of Faith: Pennsylvania Germans & Their Gravestones
Tour the Cloister and Museum:
Please contact their Front Service Desk for admission fees and hours of operation at 717-733-6600 Ext. 3001
Ephrata Cloister, 632 West Main Street, Ephrata, Pennsylvania 17522

The main entrance is on the south side of Route 322 (West Main Street) about one hundred yards east of the Route 272 overpass in Downtown Ephrata . If approaching from Harrisburg, the entrance sign will be on the right.

Children of Henry Rhoads and Catherine Cable are:
  i.   Susannah Rhoads, born 1734 in Germany; married John Swisher; died 1784.
  ii.   Barbara Rhoads, born 1735 in Germany; married Michael Sells 1766; died 1813.
  More About Barbara Rhoads:
Religion: 1762, Member of Stony Creek Church346

  More About Michael Sells:
AKA (Facts Pg): Michael Sills
Census: 1790, 2-3-7, Bedford County, PA, Bedford Township
Migration: May 1772, Frederick Co, MD, to Somerset Co, PA
Property: 05 May 1774, 210 acres, War: 12/13/1773347
Religion: Stony Creek Church in Pennsylvania
Will Administrator: 28 Jan 1774, For Henry Roth, Sr.

  36 iii.   Capt Henry Rhoads, Jr, born 05 Jan 1738/39 in Germantown, PA; died 06 May 1814 in Browder, Muhlenberg County, KY; married (1) Henry More Notes II Rhoads; married (2) Elizabeth Stoner 19 Oct 1760 in Frederick, MD; married (3) Elizabeth ? Stoner 19 Oct 1760; married (4) Barbara Laramon Aft. 1807 in Muhlenberg County, KY.
  iv.   Jacob Rhoads, born Abt. 1742; died Abt. Jun 1790 in Londonderry Township, Bedford County, PA348; married (1) Rebecca Boyer; born in of Londonderry Township, Bedford County, PA; died Aft. 1790 in of Londonderry Township, Bedford County, PA; married (2) Rebecca Gilbert Bef. 1790; born Abt. 1755 in Frederick County, MD; died Aft. 1823.
  Notes for Jacob Rhoads:

RHOADES, RHOADS, RHODES posted by Rhodes J. Isenhart Jr. on Monday, Octob er 27, 1997

Am looking for any information on Jacob RHOADES/RHODES/RHOADS son of Hen ry Rhoades Sr. who died in Ursina in 1774. Jacob married a Rebecca Gilbe rt from Frederick Co. MD. Jacob died in Bedford Co in Londonderry twp in 1 790. Their children were Joshua, Abraham, Elizabeth, Mary, and Susnnah. Su sannah married my GG-Grandfather Jacob Isenhart in Cumberland MD in 190

  More About Jacob Rhoads:
Property: 18 May 1775, 236 acres, War: 5/18/1775, vol 1, p. 109349
Religion: Stony Creek Church
Tax Roll: 1768, single freeman, Cumberland County, Colerain Twp

  More About Rebecca Boyer:
Census: 1790, 0-1-2, Londonderry Township [created out of Cumberland Township]

  v.   Soloman Rhoads, born 1744; died 1840 in Kentucky; married Nancy Bradley 1772; died Bef. 1798 in Kentucky.
  Notes for Soloman Rhoads:


The first fort or station in McLean County was built where Calhoun now sta nds in 1788 by Solomon Rhoads and was called Vienna. Most authorities rep ort that Henry Rhoads, Soloman's brother, established a station between 17 84-1788 where Calhoun now stands and that he was assisted by Soloman and D avid Rhoads, another brother. This station was called Rhoadsville.
---"History of Kentucky"

  vi.   Gabriel Rhoads, born 1744; died 28 Mar 1818 in Quemahoning Township, Somerset, PA; married Rachel Shedacre 28 Feb 1769 in Cumberland County, PA; born 15 Jan 1749/50; died 1829.
  More About Gabriel Rhoads:
Census: 1790, 2-1-6, Quemahoning Twp, Bedford County, PA
Migration: 1793, From Bedford Township, returning to Quemahoning Township
Military: 1773, Joined Bedford Militia
Oath of Allegiance: 1779, Bedford County, PA, Gabriel Rhoades?
Property: 04 May 1774, 247 1/2 acres, War: 9/20/1773, north of Great Glades Rd, in Stony Creek Twnshp.349
Residence: Bet. 1775 - 1793, Bedford Township, PA
Tax Roll: Bet. 1775 - 1793, Bedford Township, PA

  vii.   Catherine Rhoads, born Abt. 1745; married Frederick Sipes; died 1801.
  More About Frederick Sipes:
AKA (Facts Pg): Frederick Sheaf
Surname Variant: Spies

  viii.   John Rhoads, Sr, born 08 Feb 1746/47; died 12 Jul 1816 in Roxbury, PA350; married Catherine; born 1748; died 1837.
  Notes for John Rhoads, Sr:

John Rhoads was one of the largest landowners in Bedford Township, PA.
---"Two Centuries of Brothersvalley" page 105

  More About John Rhoads, Sr:
Burial: Rhoads Cemetery, Roxbury, PA
Census: 1790, 1-4-2, Stoney Creek Twp, Bedford County, KY
Deed: 19 Jun 1773, John Rhoads is mentioned in the deed transferred from his father to his brother, Joseph351
Property: 03 Oct 1774, From Antrim Twnshp, Franklin Co, 35 acres, situated on Stony Creek, Brothersvalley Twnshp
Religion: Stony Creek Church
Tax Roll: 1773, Quemahoning Township, Brothersvalley

  More About Catherine:
Burial: Glade Union Cemetery, Somerset County, PA

  ix.   Joseph Rhoads, born 1753; died 28 Nov 1799 in Muhlenberg County, KY352,353; married Elizabeth.
  More About Joseph Rhoads:
Census: 1790, 1-3-4, Fayette County, PA, Springhill Twp
Deed: 19 Jun 1773, Heinrich Rhoads deeds "the plantation" to his son Joseph--300 acres for f150354
Migration: 1778, Moved to Cumberland Township
Property: 06 May 1774, 291 3/4 acres, War: 10/3/1773
Residence: 1776, Single in Quemahoning Township
Tax Roll: 1778, Cumberland Township, PA
Will: 1799, recorded Muhlenberg County, KY

  x.   Daniel Rhoads, Sr, born 05 Oct 1755 in Bedford County, PA, or Frederick County, MD355; died 26 Apr 1839 in Kentucky, Edgar County, IL; married (1) Eva Faust 10 Feb 1777 in Nelson County, KY, or Bedford County, PA; born 19 Nov 1761 in England, Buck County, PA, or Lower Milford, PA; died 15 Jan 1792 in Nelson County, KY; married (2) Elizabeth Newman 10 Mar 1794 in probably Nelson County, KY; born 20 Mar 1773 in Botetourt County, VA; died 28 Feb 1855 in Edgar County, IL.
  Notes for Daniel Rhoads, Sr:

by Frances Smith Brownlee who was assisted by Mary Ellen Philips and Geor ge Willson White
[obtained at:]

Daniel Rhoads Minuteman

The role of Daniel Rhoads, Katie's ancestor, in the Revolution was short er than his brother's, but far more romantic. Although only a privat e, he was one of the famous MinuteMen.* At the time of the stirring even ts around Boston in the spring of 1775, it was decided to send MinuteM en from the general colonies for the relief of the Bostonians. The respon se was so generous that three colonies alone furnished the eight units cal led for, and Penna. sent six of them. Her expert riflemen, used to fighti ng Indians, were most acceptable. Capt. Francis Cluggage, in whose compa ny our Daniel Rhoads was a 19-year-old private, was ordered to march to Bo ston. By the last of
August, Cluggage was on his way. Under the date of August 25, 1775, Phil ip Fithian comments on the sorrow of Mrs. Cluggage, at whose home he was v isiting in Bedford:

"One of her sons has gone as a captain of a company of riflemen to Bosto n. Just now gone. her tears are not yet dried since his departure. Anot her of her sons has been chosen captain of the militia here. There are fi ve brothers of them, and all appear to be men of prudence and understandin g."

One may also read about Cluggage's riflemen in the Pennsylvania Archives:

"Cluggage' s men were at Bunker Hill (June 17, 1775) and Breed's Hil l. On the first of January, 1776, the organization of the Continental Arm ies began, and this company became a part of the First Regiment of the Con tinental Army, (aka First Pennsylvania Rifle Regiment) consisting of 693 o fficers and men. By March, they were ordered to Dorchester and later to N ew York to serve under Gen. Sullivan. Their standard, which now belon gs to the state of Pennsylvania, depicts a green tiger with a spear attern pting to pass, but being held back by riflemen. The company's motto was M olo Domari (I will not be conquered). When the time for the riflernen exp ired on June 30, 1776, they
nearly all reenlisted."

Daniel Rhoads did not re-enlist. He was homesick for his mountains and f or Eva Foust, the girl he left behind when he had set out for Boston. Bef ore he was 22, he married this girl, who became sixteen only one day befo re her first child was born. After a few more years in Penna. and after t he fourth child was born, Daniel brought his family in company with his th ree brothers and their families to Kentucky. They were part of a large mi gration from Bedford County under the leadership of Henry Rhoads, now a m an of 45...

...The marriage bond read: "Knowall men by these presents that Daniel Rhoa ds, am held and firmly bound unto ----, Clerk of Nelson County, State of K entucky, in the just and full sum of $500.00, by which payment well and tr uly to be made, I bind myself, my heirs, and assigns for and in the whol e, sealed with my seal and dated this 10th day of March, 1794.

"The condition of the obligation is such that whereas the above bound Dani el Rhoads has this day made application for license to join in matrimoni al bonds together with Miss Elizabeth Newman, now if said Daniel Rhoads do es not well and truly marry the said Miss Elizabeth Newman without any fra ud, partiality, or illegality attending the said marriage, then this oblig ation is to be void; otherwise to be and remain in full force and virt ue of the law. Bondsman, James Murphy. "---

Rhodes, Daniel
Captain Robert Cluggage's Company, Col. William Thompson's Battalion of R iflemen 1775-1776

  More About Daniel Rhoads, Sr:
Burial: 1839, Ogden Cemetery, Paris, IL
Migration: 1785, Pennsylvania to Kentucky
Military: 1775, Joined Bedford Militia, 1st PA Riflemen, under Col Thompson
Military service: 1775, one of the MinuteMen in Boston356
Pension: Revolutionary War pension #20, 142
Rhoads Migration: 1785
Tax Roll: 1778, Cumberland Twp

  More About Eva Faust:
Rhoads Migration: 1785

  xi.   David Rhoads
  xii.   Philip Rhoads
  More About Philip Rhoads:
Property: 14 Oct 1784, 268 acres, War: 10/3/1784. Called "Saw Seat." Situated next to Roth Mill357

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