WHALEN’S Cheat Sheet for R1b & Irish Sub-clades

The following was developed because I could not for the life of me remember, or keep strait, all the alpha-numeric markers and their linkage to alpha-numeric classifications. In addition, some of the definitions found on the web are out of date and new testing and research have significantly changed the meaning or understanding regarding the groupings.

This ‘cheat sheet’, like any abbreviated list, suffers from a few inherent flaws such as over simplifying complex issues and being concise by leaving out pertinent information. Still, there are some virtues such as helping newbie’s and others that just can’t spend the time it takes to lock all the concepts and definitions into the memory bank. It’s also useful for the hobbyists that want a simple bottom line understanding and are really are not interested in the many nuanced and often confusing scholarly arguments that the experts engage in.

In any case, here is my little list…the first category is the SNP marker (sometimes 2 or 3 seperate names if tested at both EA and FTDNA or other Labs) that is tested and will come back to you as either + or -. The next 2 items are the old and new Haplogroup names as noted in the Y-line phylogenic tree, most of us know the first category (pre 2008, such as R1b1c7), but a major change occured in 2008 so there are alot of changes. The next set of information is only with some haplotypes and they are the categories that some well known researchers have developed such as McEwan’s ‘R1bSTR19Irish’

There are 4 subclades to the R1b1 haplogroup, my primary focus is on the 3rd group or old 'R1b1c' and all its subclades

SNP--Old Style--YCC/Karafet2008--ISOGG2008--McEwan

(I used U106 as an example of how it works but note that not all the following will have all of the above alternative catagories)

'A' subclade
M18--R1b1a--found only at low frequencies in samples from Sardinia and Lebanon


'B' subclade
M73--R1b1b--x--R1b1b1-a sub clade approximatly 10-12500 yrs old, 31 samples, mostly from central asia and a few from Italy-there appears to be 2 branches, the first is an Italian, Anatolian and Pakistani group while the second is Chinese-possible origin along the old 'Silk Road' that connected the named territories


**'C'** subclade
M269--R1b1c--R1b1b2--R1b1b2-a huge subgroup that is is the most common for European males-its fairly old but but there is alot of controversy about the exact ages of each of the sub groups-recently subdivided by new discoveries of P312 and L21

M37--R1b1c1--R1b1b2a--R1b1b2a2a - found in only 2 Australians but they are apparently of 'European' heritige-tiny sample-private/family SNP grouping

M65--R1b1c2--R1b1b2b-- R1b1b2a2b -only 2 Basque’s, tiny sample-private/family SNP grouping

M126--R1b1c3--R1b12h1--R1b1b2a2g1-only 1 European, tiny sample-private/family SNP grouping

M153--R1b1c4--R1b1b2c--R1b1b2a2c - branch of P312--Iberian Peninsula or descendants i.e. New World Latinos, small sample

M160--R1b1c5--R1b12h2--R1b1b2a2g2 -only 3 ‘Europeans’- tiny sample-likely private/family SNP grouping

M167 or SRY2627--R1b1c6--R1b1b2d--R1b1b2a2d -branch of P312-- ancient stock, mostly Iberia; some SW England and S Ireland, reflecting pre Celtic invasion stock? possibly S W France

M222--R1b1c7--R1b1b2e--R1b1b2a2e -R1bSTR19Irish-branch of P312-- ‘North West Irish Variety’, Ireland, W Scotland, W England, of ‘Naill of the 9 Hostages’ fame

P66--R1b1c8--R1b1b2f--R1b1b2a2f –Italy, tiny sample-private/family SNP grouping

U106 or S21--R1b1c9--R1b1b2g--R1b1b2a1 - R1bSTR22Frisian –originally known as ‘Frisian’ Invader marker, new research suggests the majority are more generally Germanic-likely North/West European/Netherlands in origin with two 'hotspots' in the Netherlands and western Austria. The large British Isles pop. is likely Germanic invasion legacy-U106/S21 is estimated to be found in about 25% of European ancestry men of the R1b-M269 haplogroup. This makes it the most common subclade of R1b-M269

S26 or L1--R1b1c9a--R1b1b2g3 or null439--R1b1b2a1c -branch of U106-Germanic Invader marker of British Isles, post Roman era, Angles, Saxon, Jutes, concentrated in central England, some Spain, Norway, S Germany-possible Norman or French ancient origin

U198 or S29--R1b1c9b--R1b1b2g1--R1b1b2a1a - R1bSTR3-branch of U106-- confined to S. England (pre-Anglo-Saxon?). Known as Frisian 2 in K. Nordtvedt research-unclear if it’s a Saxon invasion marker or earlier Germanic migration

U152 or S28 --R1b1c10--R1b1d2h--R1b1b2a2g - branch of P312--Ancient Celts- Alpine Germany and Switzerland origins - possibly the ‘La Tene culture” Celts, also possibly a pre-roman era ‘Invasion’ or 'immigration wave ' marker of the British Isles pop.--moderate numbers in Scotland, England, Wales, large number in Switzerland, Alpine Germany and Italy, also in Greece, France, Poland, Norway, Netherlands-also an Ashkenazi group in Eastern Europe with Sephardic/Converso members constituting a separate cluster--L2 appears to be a significant sub-clade downstream of U152/S28, and may split the group roughly 2/3rds L2+ and 1/3rd L2-. Unknown relationship to M126 and M160.

S68--R1b1c11--R1b1b2--R1b1b2a2h - branch of P312--2 unrelated people in Sweden and Scotland, tiny sample-possible private/family SNP grouping

M269--R1b1c*--R1b1b2*- approx. 50% of R1b1b2 that tests negative for all known sub clades get the *


'D' subclade
M335--R1b1d--x--R1b1c--tiny subgroup based on a single sample found in Turkey/Anitolia


S25-NOTE--contrary to first hopes, this SNP has been proven to NOT be the marker for Irish III or any other R1b haplogroup-in fact, its higher on the Phylogenic tree and includes the Q,P and R haplogroups-very difficult to test for and EA no longer offers it

'Cutting Edge' SNP's-purpose and relationships in the R haplogroup are not fully understood

P312 or S116 or rs34276300 or R1b1b2a2--a new marker that splits R1b and particularly the old R1b1c/R1b1b2 group in two, with U126/S21 one main group and P312/S116 being the other-possibly along East/West European ancestral lines-impact unclear as of yet-P312 is thought to be older than U106

L21 or rs11799226--an exciting new marker that splits the large P312* group- discovered by the first R1b 23andMe test results submitted by 'Whalen, Reynolds, Kenyon and Price' -thought to be a very old SNP and is created by a mutation to G (derived) from the C (ancestral)-This SNP has a very strong 'Celtic' signal but origins unknown-early estimates is it is around 3500 yrs old

L2 or rs2566671--L2 appears to be a significant sub-clade downstream of U152/S28 (or within), and may split the group roughly 2/3rds L2+ and 1/3rd L2-. Unknown relationship to M126 and M160.

L11 or S127 or rs9786076-considered 'cutting edge' SNP's that are 'upstream' of S116 and give new info about the Phylogenic Tree and the 'R1b family' and said haplogroups

P107-branch of U106--P107 appears to be a 'private' SNP--according to the 'Rb1-U106 Project', it has not been found in even one of thier 372 members

P311 or S128 or rs9785659-considered 'cutting edge' SNP's that are 'upstream' of S116 and give new info about the Phylogenic Tree and the 'R1b family' and said haplogroups

P310 or S129 or rs9786283-considered 'cutting edge' SNP's that are 'upstream' of S116 and give new info about the Phylogenic Tree and the 'R1b family' and said haplogroups

S121, S121, S123, S124--research now indicates that these 4 new SNP's are 'private' or 'family' markers and no longer relevent

Other interesting SNP's, some new via the Mega tests (ie: 23andMe)
I include these so folks that have gotten the huge mega SNP tests can plug in the rsXXXX numbers below into thier 'raw data' section on their 23andMe web site as see for themselves if they are ancestoral, or derived (derived means you have it and its important to you)
*=new and major SNP's for the old R1b1c* super group

L44/rs34738655, L45/rs35760092, L46/rs13304625, L47/rs34283263, and L48/rs13303755
rs20321 = A is the Marker for M222-the NW Irish (Nial) clade

**EDIT-MAY 2008**
2008 ISOGG Haplogroup conversion chart for R
Note-this is slightly different than the new, similar 2008 FTDNA/Karafet Tree that is in the cheat sheet above so there is a possibility of 3 classfications for the exact same SNP <shrug-its a new science>

Old 2007--2008

Credit for the majority of above listing goes to the previous lists by; ‘scotdna’, J. McEwan, D. Faux, Wikipedia (Haplogroup R1b) and feedback from DNA-Forum members

Again, at various times I got confused as to which haplogroup types or sub clades had been found in Ireland and what were the markers or profiles. The following are the 4 most commonly known Irish haplogroups, with a few others noted at the end.

1)-Irish type I--R1b-NW-Ir....'North West Irish' or 'Niall of the 9 Hostages'-originally designated Irish Modal Haplotype (IMH) from the Trinity study, later acknowledged a misnomer as its very rare in South Ireland and NW/Niall is much more accurate
SNP M222

2)-Irish type II--R1b-S-Ir.... or 'South Irish' as identified by K Nordtvedt

NOTE***-I originally had put the following as the South Irish Modal, but Francis of the Whalen project spotted a problem...it did not match with Nordtverts!
I think the issue is there are some large family group studies out there and they are similar to the Irish II's modal. Its likely that some 'combining' has occured to create a 'hybred' Irish II. In any case, the reader is warned about modal variants out there that are called South Irish, but do not match the original cluster. (In fact, this caveat is probably true for most the modals out there, not just the Irish)
Alternative IrishII?-Clan Hybrid?

3)-Irish type III--R1b-Ir III.... determined by the following modals (with the AtlanticModalHaplotype to compare)
Irish Type III AMH
DYS 439 =
11 12
DYS 459 =
8-9 9-10
DYS 464 =
13-13-15-17 15-15-17-17
DYS 456 =
15 16
DYS 463 =
23 22
(credit also to Dennis Wrights research on III and also note that S25 has been proven to NOT be an Irish or even a 'R1b' marker)

4)-Irish Type IV--R1b-Ir/Cont....found all over Ireland and on the contenent-possible invader marker?

Other Irish Varieties noted

A- 'Irish Haplogroup 1'-- This 'Irish Haplogroup 1' that was first noted/developed by Hill, Jobling and Bradley, as reported in "Nature, international weekly journal of science" March 2000?
****UPDATE-further reading suggests this might be the same as the above Irish type I/NW Irish/Niall grouping

B- 'Leinster/Lagin Irish Modal'--R1bSTR7....associated with several historical Irish Clan names such as O'Beirne (Lagin Chieftans), Beatty, McLaughlan (a Kings of Meath sept)- a fairly small cluster or modal
13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 14 13 30 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 18 30 15 15 17 17 11 11 19 23 16 15 18 18 39 40 11 12

Other than 15c 15c 17g 17g at 464x, the group generally exhibits 14 13 30 at 389i 392 389ii, 18 at 448, 11 at 442 and high values at CDY a and b.

DYS 389-1 = 14
DYS 389-2 = 30
DYS 448, 449 = 18-30
DYS 460
GATA H4 = 11-11
DYS 442 = 11
credit to 'Kaybee' of DNA forums

C-'Irish Sea Modal'--apparently it is some sort of variant of the 'Irish Type 1'/NW Irish/Niall grouping in DYS values, but many in the grouping are actually negative for M222-very early classification scheme and seems less used now

DYS 393 390 19 391 385a 385b 426 388 439 389i 392 389ii 458 459a 459b 455 454 447 437 448 449 464a 464b 464c 464d
Alleles 13 25 14 11 11 13 12 12 12 13 14 29 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 18 30 15 16 16 17

D- Colla Uais & Dal Riata Kingdom- Colla Uais was a high king of Ireland. Circa 325CE Colla Uais seized Ulster subsequently taking his followers to Scotland. His descendants, known as the 'sons of Erc' (Angus, Fergus & Loarn), became the traditional founders of the Scottish line of the Dál Riata kingdom circa 465CE

DYS 393 390 19 391 385a 385b 426 388 439 389i 392 389ii 458 459a 459b 455 454 447 437 448 449 464a 464b 464c 464d
Alleles 13 24 14 10 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 30 18 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 15 15 17 17

E-Ulster-Derry/Down Modal--a small but destinct group that seems to share a common link to Ulster and the Derry and Down Counties-Olivers, Mcpherson & Beck are surnames associated so far
458- 19
Credit to 'Kaybee' for this Modal

F--O'Connor/Murphy Modal--this subgroup is another small but distinct grouping that mostly involves 20 to 30 family names such as O'Connor, Connor, Murphy but also has a few O'Tool's, Phalen's and Ryan. Many of these names are associated with Leinster Province. This sub group appears to be L21+

12 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 29 18 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 29 15 15 16 16

and the following being the most common according to Mike O'Connor

Thanks to all the folks on DNA Forums that helped. All mistakes are of course, mine alone.

Michael Whalen June 2008
updated Jan 19 2009