[A76Laroy.rtf ; last modified 28 February 2004]

What is Needed to Attain Success in Business

[by Laroy S. Starrett]

[Laroy S. Starrett was born on 25 April 1836 in South China, Maine ; he died on 23 April 1922. He founded the L. S. Starrett Company in Athol, Massachusetts, “Makers of Fine Mechanical Tools, Established 1880, Incorporated 1900” (according to his 1918 letterhead).]

[This story was originally read to the Men’s Club of the Methodist Church (Athol, Massachusetts). It was subsequently published in two parts, as:

Starrett, Laroy S. “Success in business.” The Athol and Worcester West Chronicle (Athol, Mass.), [section:] Athol : Home news, 21 January 1915 ; 28 January 1915.]

[Photocopies of these articles were provided in 1979 to Stephen L. Robbins, by Deb Blanchard of Athol (Massachusetts) Public Library with the assistance of Richard Chiasson [sic; i.e., Chaisson ?] of the Telegram and Gazette.]

[Steve Robbins’ notes and additions are enclosed within square brackets, “[ ]”.

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[Part One (published on 21 January 1915)]

Success in Business.

At a meeting of the Men’s Club of the Methodist Church, L. S. Starrett. president of the Starrett Tool Co. read the following paper on “What is Needed to Attain Success in Business.”

I have the honor of being asked, as one who has the reputation of being a successful manufacturer and business man, to talk before you of my business experience which has lead [sic; i.e., led] to success. To do this I shall feel obliged to go back to the root of things, even at the risk of appearing in the role of a self-conceited bragadocio. No man can well talk in public about the things he has made a success of without so appearing.

I have hesitated about taking this risk, but will venture to go back to my boyhood days and trace some events, more in evidence than others, which have marked the passing of my life from youth to a “Grandpa” of 16 grandchildren.

Some people think success is all luck, and it is true that luck may sometimes seem to favor even a blockhead, but in business, ability and a good reputation (which will gain the confidence of people) are two important essentials to success, and these combined with courage, hopefulness, industry and inventive ability, have formed the platform of mine.

My first six months away from home (at 17 years of age) working on a large fancy stock farm in Vassalboro, Maine, gave me a valuable experience. When I left there I was given a recommendation which I did not ask for and never used. It read: “This will certify that Leroy [sic; i.e., Laroy] S. Starrett has been in my employ the past six months. I consider him strictly honest, faithful, persevering and possessing very good judgment.” This was written 61 years ago. Possibly the “very good judgment” I was given credit for has been in part responsible for my success.

My father and mother were good old fashioned Methodists. I was the sixth of 12 children, six of whom are now living, our combined ages amounting to 478 years. We were all brought up to practice habits of industry and taught lessons of morality. As soon as I was big enough to lift a hoe my father gave me my first stint to hoe two hills of corn. I got a letter a few days ago from my eldest sister [i.e., Frances Ann (Starrett) Hussey]

(now 88 years of age) saying that father’s picture hung where she saw it every morning and asking if I remembered how before prayers in the morning he used to sing, “Lord, in the morning Thou shalt hear my voice ascending high.” I certainly do. Every morning immediately after breakfast father would read a portion of the Scriptures, then he, mother and some of the girls would sing a short hymn, followed by a prayer, after which we were ready to go to work. In short days this would be before daylight. Oxen and horses must be fed, ready to be hitched up by sunrise. When but 14 or 15 years of age I was trusted to drive loads of cord wood drawn by oxen to Augusta, 12 miles away, starting about 3 o’clock in the morning, and getting home about 8 in the evening, a day of 17 hours, at times in zero weather. It seems tough to think of it now, but I did not mind it then. Father would follow later with the horse team, and get into Augusta about the same time I did. My father was a natural mechanic, and my mother possessed great ingenuity, which you will understand it was necessary to make use of, when I tell you that all of us had to be clothed by the wool and flax raised on the farm. Mother and the girls would card the wool into rolls, spin the yarn, color, weave and make it into cloth which they cut up and made into garments. When a little chap[,] I would sit under the loom and pick up the shuttle when it would sometimes go through[,] and hand it up to mother, or my eldest sister [i.e., Orissa F. Starrett] who was doing the weaving[,] and [I] would sometimes bump my head against the framework of the loom in doing so (a loom which my father made).

Our neighbor farmers would change work and several of them work in gangs, hoeing corn, etc. When my brother [i.e., probably John W. Starrett] and I were big enough, we were put on one row to keep up with the men. Some of the old men had intemperate habits, chewing tobacco or drinking. I would hear one of them say [that] if he could leave off he would give his best cow (the best cow being a prize in those days)[,] and another would say “so would I.” I took the hint, and made up my mind never to acquire such habits.

I liked working with tools and trying to make something useful better than anything else. When I was a small boy I went to an auction and bid off a bit brace with a set of pod bits and a draw shave, borrowing enough money from a cousin to make up the price. This was about the first money I ever had to spend, but it was the best trade I ever made. Later[,] father helped me to get a hand saw, a fore plane and a few chisels with which I spent much of my spare time.

I must skip a lot of (to me) interesting reminiscences and take up one that has had a great influence on my life work. After prayers one night[,] all had retired with the exception of father, mother, brother [i.e., probably John W. Starrett] and I. Father asked me to go, and requested brother to stop [i.e, stay]. I noted [that] father and mother looked sad, and my curiosity was aroused to know what was up, that they did not wish me to know about. I went up stairs and put my head through an opening over the kitchen[,] where I could distinctly hear every word that was said. Father had got deeply in debt to a firm in Augusta where he had for years done his trading, and had been requested to give[,] as security[,] a mortgage on the farm. Mother broke down and cried, and did not want to sign the mortgage for fear [that] we would lose our home and all be turned out of doors. My spmpathies [sic; i.e., sympathies] were greatly aroused, and I firmly resolved that I would never cease to help father and mother until they were out of debt. This led me to cconomize [sic; i.e., economize] and save every penny I could. It was more pleasure to turn all my earnings in to help clear the mortgage than to put it in a bank or spend it in any other way. Therefore I will say [that] economy (when the occasion requires it) is essential to success. By practicing it[,] I succeeded in not only paying off the debt, but was prevented from making bad use of my money[,] and a far reaching influence was created which has been a help to me in many ways.

I will relate its effect on one occasion: After I had worked a year on a milk farm in Newburyport [Massachusetts][,] a wealthy family of brothers and sisters living together wanted me to take the place of their butler[,] who was to be married after living with them 25 years. After interviewing my employer[,] they left word for me to call on them in the evening. I did so. They tried to convince me that I would have a soft job[,] on account of which[,] and the privileges I was to have[,] they offered me small pay. I said, “I cannot afford to work for small pay. I am trying to help father out of debt. I have the best father and mother in the world. They have always worked hard, but have been obliged to mortgage the farm[,] and I am helping clear it. Therefore I rather work hard and get more pay, than to work for you for less. One said to the other, “Joshua, Joshua, this way.” They stepped out into the hall[,] and after a consultation came in and said, “You come [and] we will satisfy you.” I could not help thinking of the promise in the Bible which reads: “Honor thy father and mother that it may be well with thee and that thou mayest live long on the earth, which the Lord, thy God, giveth thee.” I think [that] obeying this commandment is a duty and a virtue which all should observe as a link in the chain leading up to success. These people for whom I worked had a very wealthy sister-in-law, a widow, who owned 40 houses in the city of Newburyport [Massachusetts], besides her fine residence called Mt. Rural, in the centre [sic] of 20 acres of land. I lived there seven years and then got married, having served the same length of time as Jacob did for his wife Rachel.

Now, I will say that a reputation that inspires confidence, is one of the essentials to business success. I am tempted to give you a little of my experience to illustrate this. In February of 1862 I said to my wife: “I wonder if Squire Little who owns the Turkey Hill Farm (a farm of 600 acres) is having it managed to suit him. I will go and see him this evening and find out. Possibly I may make a deal with him.” I rang the door bell and inquired of his wife if Squire Little was at home. She invited me in and I said “Squire Little, I came to inquire how you are fixed for carrying on your Turkey Hill Farm.” [“]I am out of an engagement now, and at liberty to serve you.[”] He and his wife gave each other a significant look and he said, “Well, I inquired of Capt. Hale today if he knew of anyone he could recommend to carry on the farm, and he recommended you.” After some talk[,] he wanted me to carry it on “to halves.” I said, “Mr. Little, I don’t want to do that. I mean to be honest, but like many others am not above being tempted, to be selfish enough to take the best half. I want that temptation removed, and prefer, if we can agree, to hire the place.” He agreed to this if I would buy the stock at an appraisal. I told him I did not have the money to do it, but if he had confidence enough in me, I would give him my note with interest for the full value of the stock. I had his confidence, and the trade was made to my advantage. I had no notion of giving away one-half of all I did.

I bought for $75 the first mowing machine used in that part of the country. The neighbors, more conservative, thought I was reckless, but after they saw the execution it did[,] they all wanted me to mow for them. I would mow at home forenoons for my men to take care of, and for my neighbors afternoons and all day Saturdays, so as to have no hay out to get wet over Sunday. It so happened that the long storm of the season commenced Sunday. I had no hay out but all the neighbors had. They said next year they would have to buy a mowing machine, but the price went up to $125, on account of the war and the depreciation of currency. They could not stand that, but said they would wait until another year, but the next year the price went up to $150, so they would not buy. The consequence was [that] I did much of their mowing, and all of my own for three years, the machine paying for itself each year, and when I sold out at auction it went for $80, $5 more than I paid for it.

Another reckless thing the old farmers thought I did was to plant so large a field of beans, saying [that][,] if the crop failed[,] I would lose a lot of money, but the crop yielded great, and I threshout [sic; i.e., threshed] out 101 bushels of the most perfect white beans that ever grew, which, on account of the war[,] sold for a big price. I had been brought up on a farm[,] and farming was second nature to me, and I understood the importance of having a very mellow soil for beans. I had a large field on the farm which had been planted to corn the year before. This I had plowed and cross plowed, and gave my men instructions to plant the beans in hills about 18 inches apart, five or six beans in a hill. This work was being done by my men, while I was at market with the milk. When I came home at noon time the men appeared ve[r]y much disturbed. The Little’s [sic], our neighbors, were planting beans on the opposite side of the fence, but they sowed theirs in rows, very thick, and told my men they were doing wrong; that they were not putting in anywhere enough seed. I told them that we would learn in the fall who was right and who was wrong, and all I wanted them to do was to go ahead and do as I told them. Now to explain the nature of beans: When they are planted they come up quickly, and then stop growing at the top for a few days, perhaps a week, while they are growing at the other end, taking root, and if the soil is good, they reach down and branch out, and then the top grows at a great rate. If the soil is not mellow and the beans are planted on what we call green sward (ground plowed for the first time) the roots grow clubfooted, the tops grow slowly and are apt to rust. When the first hoeing time came[,] the neighbors said to my men, “Your beans look scattering. Look at ours.[”] Theirs were then very thick, but at the second hoeing ours had spread out and covered half the ground while theirs didn’t seem to grow. A little later my field was covered like a mat all over, while their beans were standing in stunted rusted rows. As I have said before[,] we threshed out 101 bushels of the best beans I ever saw, while our neighbors had but nine of inferior quality. They had used many times more seed and about the same amount of ground.

Was it luck that I had the best crop, or was it on account of intelligent action, the result of past experience and observation? To be successful in any line of business[,] one must use his knowledge gained by observation.

Another story: When I took the Mt. Rural farm[,] there was about an acre of land[,] which had been planted to corn the year before[,] that I wanted to lay down to grass. My experience on my father’s farm had taught me that grass would do better if sowed with wheat, and that wheat was the most valuable crop. None of the neighboring farmers had sowed wheat for years, but barley and oats instead. I inquired why they didn’t raise wheat. They said [that it was] on account of the weevils [that] they could never do anything with wheat and had not tried it for years. It struck me at once that the weevils most likely were all starved out, if they had had nothing to feed on for years, and I would take my chance at raising wheat. I sowed it very evenly myself, being an expert in the line from the experience at home years before. It grew to be the handsomest field of wheat I ever laid my eyes on. The heads grew long with full, plump kernels of wheat, which the stalks could hardly support. When threshed out[,] the yield was such that I have always felt ashamed to tell the truth about it[,] for fear [that] people would think I was lying. I had some on exhibition at an agricultural show and[,] of course[,] got the first premium, and the statement I made as to the yield people would not believe. Out West where the land is rich[,] 20 bushels to the acre is considered a good yield, but my yield was 60 bushels to the acre. I sold this by weight instead of measure and[,] as it didn’t take a bushel in measure to make a bushel in weight, it overran, just how much I do not now remember, but quite a few bushels.

{To be Concluded Next Week.)

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[Part Two (published on 28 January 1915)]

Success In Business

Concluded from last week.

When I went to work at Mt. Rural, I was advised that good potatoes could not be grown on the land there, and was advised not to plant many. I believed otherwise, and bought a few barrels for seed from my father, knowing them to be [of] fine quality. I plowed up land on a side [i.e., on a slope] but which lay to [face] the morning sun. I put the seed potatoes into the warm furnace cellar where they would sprout early. I put in each hill a lot of straw horse manure to help warm the ground as well as to enrich it, and planted as early as I thought it safe to do so. I never saw a more handsome field of potatoes, and they came to maturity before any others were on the market, so I dug and sold them all for 80 cents a peck. By the time I got through[,] other new potatoes began to appear on the market and the price suddenly went down so that but a small profit could be made. It was good luck, but intelligent action was behind it, and you will find it so in every business that is a success, with rare exceptions.

A large walnut grove on the Turkey Hill Farm gave me something to do to prevent the walnuts from being carried off by many young people who came from the city (two miles away) in the fall. I gave all who wanted to pick the privilege of doing so at halves. Most were glad to do this, but some had to be watched. I went up one afternoon when a lot of young people were picking. As soon as I came in[to] sight[,] I saw two young fellows with full bags on their shoulders running for all they were worth. I quickened my pace to the rate of about 2 40 [sic; i.e., 2:40 ?]. After hollering “Stop, thief,” they quickened theirs, but being heavily loaded, they couldn’t go very fast, while the group of young people on the side hill overlooking the plain watched the fun. The thieves soon came to a fence and threw the bags over, and in their haste to pick them up grabbed hold of the wrong end and dumped the nuts on the ground. They did not stop to pick them up, neither did I stop until I grabbed one of them by the shoulder and said, “I don’t know what I ought to do with you fellows, but the first thing[:] you march back and pick up those nuts and carry them back up the hill.” They obeyed orders, saying on the way back, “This is the worst part of it.” They were being laughed at and felt cheap. I told them I would be easy with them -- that I would confiscate the nuts and allow them to pick more on halves. They were thankful to get off so easy and went to work.

One of the pert young women thought to help them out by saying: “I don’t believe you own these nuts anyway; you are too young a man to own everything.”

“All right,” I said, “I will take all of yours and give you a chance to prove who they belong to.”

“Oh, don’t do that, I believe you.”

“All right,” I said, [“]it is a good thing to have confidence in your friends.”

My father, mother and sister visited me in September, 1864. As they stood looking over the waving fields of grain with great admiration, mother said: “Now, Leroy [sic; i.e., Laroy], if you only owned this farm wouldn’t it be nice?”

I have always felt a little sorry at the disappointing answer I made. I said: [“]No, I wouldn’t take it as a gift if I had to live on it always.”

She said: [“]Why?”

I replied: “Because it is making too hard work in the house and outdoors to take care of it, and I am hoping to do something better, sometime.”

Therefore you will see that hopefulness is an incentive to lead one to try to do something, especially if he has invention on the brain.

Well, the time had come now when I thought it advisable to sell out my farming interests and I did so at auction. Everything went at high water mark. Cows that were appraised for $20 apiece, when I bought, sold at auction for from $40 to $80, and other stock accordingly.

I had been spending much of my time in winter and on stormy days working in the stable chamber making a meat chopper which I believed might be made more profitable than farming, but I had no experience in the manufacturing business, and had I known what I would have to go through with before I could make a success[,] I might have been discouraged. But I gained experience as I went along, always trying to profit by learning from others.

In watching the pattern maker I employed, taking the patterns to the foundry to get castings made and watching the operations of molding[,] I soon learned what was needed in a pattern to make a good casting.

In employing a machinist to make the choppers[,] I got hold of one who was self conceited and took great pride in telling me all he knew about machinery and manufacturing processes. I was an apt pupil and profited by all he told.

I made up my mind that I would have to start a machine shop and manufacture myself before I could make the choppers to put upon the market at a price at which people would buy. A small chopper that I hoped to sell for $5, cost, when made by piecemeal, in a machine shop, $35.”

So I hired a room, fitted up with shafting and machinery and the fixtures needed to make the choppers economically. I was obliged to pay high rent for power, so felt a good deal handicapped.

As my money was going fast, I took in a silent partner, who put in some money, but before we began to make a success of the business I had hard work to keep his courage up and make him think we were coming out all right in the end.

When we got two or three sizes of choppers ready to sell, I started out and sold what we had on hand very quickly; but as I could not be on the road selling and in the shop manufacturing at the same time, I concluded to sell the patent [i.e., distribution] rights and let the parties buying the rights have the machines at a big discount. Then I would let them do the selling and I would do the manufacturing.

Now Maine, I knew, was a conservative old state, and I believed [that] if I could sell the patent rights there[,] I could in other states; so I would try Maine first. Well[,] I started out to take orders for the choppers and sell the patent rights. In Waterville, Kennebec county, I made my first sale. I then went to Bangor, Penobscot county, and sold the patent rights for that county to a hardware man.

I then went to Rockland and sold the Knox Co. [i.e., Knox County distribution rights] to a fellow who wanted to make money selling the choppers. After returning home, a few days later, a man by the name of Brown called at my shop and was carried away by the chopper.

He was going to Chicago [Illinois] and wanted to sell them there[,] and remarked[,] “I have a brother in Portland [Maine] who has just sold out his interest in the Portland Match Co. [i.e., Portland Match Company.] I wish he could see this. I have no doubt [that] he would take the agency.”

I replied that I was going to Portland in a few days, and would call on him if he would write and tell him about the chopper. He did so, and I went to see him and got him enthused. He gave me $500 for the option on the balance of the state [distribution rights] for one week, at a price agreed upon.

I went home and[,] two or three days later[,] I received a telegram from him saying, “Come to Portland at once. I have sold the whole thing.” This was about 8. 0 [sic; i.e., 8:00] in the morning, [and] a train left for Portland about 9 o’clock, so I had but about half an hour. I jumped out of my overalls, ran to the livery stable, told them to hitch up a team as soon as possible and take me to the house and back to the depot.

The horse was driven at a great pace. I ran into the house, told my wife I was going to Portland and must change my clothes quickly. I got back to the depot in time, went to Brown’s office in Portland, but found that instead of his selling the whole thing, that he had a prospective customer and wanted me to help him clinch the trade.

The prospective customer was a sea captain who was having a ship built in Portland, that was to be ready in the fall. This was in June, and he wanted to get his money back and enough to pay for the ship. He was the son-in-law of a hotel keeper to whom I had sold one of the choppers [on] the half day [that] I took orders for a dozen from saloons, bakeries and hotels, a short time before.

We went to see him and[,] when he learned [about] the commission of 40 per cent. [which] I offered on each chopper and that I had sold about $100 worth in one-half day, and, believing he could do as well, we clinched the trade. But Brown had given him a bigger price than I asked Brown, and as the captain didn’t have money enough to meet it all, Brown advanced money enough to make up the difference and took the captain’s note. So I got the big roll of bills and Brown got the Captain’s note.

I learned that the captain, who was a short, fat fellow, carried one of the heavier choppers through the streets [for] a half day, sweating like a good one, and never got an order, and would likely have gone back on his trade if he could have done so. Had I not acted promptly, on the spur of the moment, we would not have got him. You will therefore understand that promptness is one of the essentials to success.

Brown was unable to collect on the note, [so he] consequently took for security the patent right himself, and went to work and sold a lot of the choppers, trying to get his money back.

I was obliged to give my time now to manufacturing the choppers to supply the demand, but not having the needed facilities, I concluded to look around and see if I could locate in some place where I could get water power and more capital.

In going about for this purpose, I chanced to meet John Hill of Athol on the train between Boston and Leominster [Massachusetts]. I had a small chopper with me, and he came along and made inquiry about it. He seemed to be much interested[,] and I said to him -- “I don’t know anything about what business you are engaged in, but you look like a business man. If you have not all the business you want and are looking for more, I may be able to give you a chance to interest yourself in this chopper. I am looking [a]round to find a place where I can manufacture them to better advantage than is now being done in Newburyport.” Hill replied, -- “By George, if you was the best friend I had in the world I would advise you by all means to come to Athol [Massachusetts]. We have enterprising men there who no doubt would like to go into this with you. If you will come to Athol it won’t cost you anything to stay at my house [for] a week. I have horses and a boy to drive you [a]round.” I promised him I would come up the next week. This was in March, 1868. At the appointed time I started for Athol. Not knowing anything about Hill, I took occasion as soon as I left the [railroad] cars at Athol to make inquiry of some men who were engaged in framing a building in the depot yard. I asked them[,] “Do you know a man here in Athol by the name of John Hill?” They glanced at each other and then at me, and the spokesman said, “I guess we do.” I said, “I am a stranger here, and it is possible I may have occasion to do some business with him before I leave, and would like to know what sort of a man he is to deal with.” This caused a smile to pass around, and the spokesman said, “Well, if you are a stranger and have any dealings with John Hill and get out of town with a whole skin you will do better than anybody else ever did.” “Thank you,” I replied, [“]he is just the man I want to deal with.” My reason for this was that he would not be able to get my confidence and soak me, for now I would have to look out for myself. Well, Hill proved to be a very sharp, shrewd man, but he was the best friend I ever had in Athol. He respected me more because he thought me enterprising, and that I had sense enough not to let him get the best of me.

To emphasize this statement: After the company was formed and I had been here [for] a year or so, I found [that] I was unable to carry out the improvements I wanted to make, on account of the conservatism of the directors, who did not understand mechanical business at all. In a director’s meeting I told them that I was much disappointed at the help they were giving me; that I came to Athol with the expectation of doing something worth while [sic; i.e., worthwhile], but “you fellows have held me back as if I had a millstone tied to my neck.” They then discussed whether it would or would not be safe to let Mr. Starrett have more rope, and manage the Company’s business without so much hinderance [sic; i.e., hindrance]. Hill replied by bringing his fist down on the desk with the explanation, “Thunder, I’ll risk him. If he is as sharp for the Company as he has always been with me, I’ll risk the Company. I never could do anything with him.” It was unfortunate that the people didn’t know me here, and I was obliged to build my reputation all over, but was unable to make much of a success in a business way until I left the Athol Machine Co. and started in business for myself. When I did so, those connected with the Athol Machine Company[,] learning what I was doing, got their eyes open, and sent a committee of three promiment [sic; i.e., prominent] men to induce me to go back, offering to give me full control if I would do so. I thanked them for the offer but told them I was willing to give Newton and Bellows the privilege of managing it, that I did not want to. Failing in this, I was asked if I would consent to form a new close Company with them, each putting in $5000 apiece. I told them I was doing very well, and felt safer to paddle my own canoe. They did not like this, and on leaving[,] one of them remarked, “Well, it is all turkey now, but it may be something else by and by.”

After this[,] those connected with the Athol Machine Co. (not of this committee) copied my inventions, infringed my patents, brought unjust suits against me, and I was obliged to fight to protect my rights. Still, instead of making me eat crow[,] I have continued to prosper and have been able to provide (if I did not eat) turkey ever since. As to successful results since I started in business for myself[,] I wish to say [that] by no means does all of the credit belong to me, but a large share of it to my good, faithful and efficient help, who have cooperated with me, but some of the potent factors insuring our success are:

1. Inventive ingenuity in designing new and improved tools[.]

2. Improved methods of manufacturing.

3. Valuable trade secrets which we have discovered and improved upon in producing some lines of our productions.

The above coupled with the reputation for honorable dealings with all men, serving to inspire confidence in those with whom we deal, together with our well organized system of selling our tools at home and abroad, are some of the factors that have aided us in achieving the success we are credited with having achieved. And behind all this, I have been inspired beyond any pecuniary benefits that I hoped might come to myself by the desire to do all the good I could in the interest of my fellow men, in the belief that I could do no greater than to furnish people with needed tools and build up a business that would give people a chance to earn an honest living. How well I have succeeded in this direction I will leave it for you to judge.

My friends, you may have observed that in youth I had the benefit of Scripture reading and learned from the Bible the woes that befell those disregarding the Commandments and teachings of God, and the blessings which came to those who obeyed and followed his teachings, all of which appealed to me as good, sound, common sense. I have always felt that no greater boon was ever given to man than the life, example and teachings of our Saviour. None can err who will read understandingly, and practice the instructions given by Jesus, who speaks as the mouth piece of God, our Father. No man can disregard nature’s laws or God’s laws without suffering evil consequences. Disregarding the laws of nature begets disease which, as Jesus has said, is visited (meaning transmitted) to our children to the third and fourth generation. With a realization of these things, it behooves all men and boys to beware of unwise indulgences of every nature, and to study the Bible as our guide. The most cruel and uncalled for war that ever cursed the world is now going on Had those in authority followed the teachings of Jesus, peace and good will would have reigned where now there is death and suffering of untold millions. Moral: Let all men learn of Jesus and practice His teachings, that health, happiness, peace and good will may reign on earth.

L. S. STARRETT.

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