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View Tree for Edward III Plantagenet King of EnglandEdward III Plantagenet King of England (b. November 13, 1312, d. June 21, 1377)

Edward III Plantagenet King of England (son of Edward II of Caernarvon King of England and Isabella of France) was born November 13, 1312 in Windsor Castle, Berkshire, England , and died June 21, 1377 in Sheen Palace, Richmond, Surrey of Stroke.. He married Phillipa of Hainault on January 24, 1327/28 in York Minster, England .

 Includes NotesNotes for Edward III Plantagenet King of England:
Reigned 1327-1377. Edward assumed effective power in 1330 after imprisoning his mother and executing her lover Roger de Mortimer who had murdered his father; therafter his reign was dominated by military adventures. His victory in Scotland, especially at Haildon Hill 1333 encouraged him to plan (1363) the union of England and Scotland. Through his mother he claimed the French throne thus starting (1337) the Hundred years war. His son John of Gaunt dominated the government during his last years. Died of a Stroke.

Edward III, byname EDWARD OF WINDSOR (b. Nov. 13, 1312, Windsor, Berkshire, Eng.--d. June 21, 1377, Sheen, Surrey), king of England from 1327 to 1377, who led England into the Hundred Years' War with France. The descendants of his seven sons and five daughters contested the throne for generations, climaxing in the Wars of the Roses (1455-85).

Early years

The eldest son of Edward II and Isabella of France, Edward III was summoned to Parliament as earl of Chester (1320) and was made duke of Aquitaine (1325), but, contrary to tradition, he never received the title of prince of Wales.

Edward III grew up amid struggles between his father and a number of barons who were attempting to limit the king's power and to strengthen their own role in governing England. His mother, repelled by her husband's treatment of the nobles and disaffected by the confiscation of her English estates by his supporters, played an important role in this conflict. In 1325 she left England to return to France to intervene in the dispute between her brother, Charles IV of France, and her husband over the latter's French possessions, Guyenne, Gascony, and Ponthieu. She was successful; the land was secured for England on condition that the English king pay homage to Charles. This was performed on the King's behalf by his young son.

The heir apparent was secure at his mother's side. With Roger Mortimer, an influential baron who had escaped to France in 1323 and had become her lover, Isabella now began preparations to invade England to depose her husband. To raise funds for this enterprise, Edward III was betrothed to Philippa, daughter of William, count of Hainaut and Holland.

Within five months of their invasion of England, the Queen and the nobles, who had much popular support, overpowered the King's forces. Edward II, charged with incompetence and breaking his coronation oath, was forced to resign, and on Jan. 29, 1327, Edward III, aged 15, was crowned king of England.

During the next four years Isabella and Mortimer governed in his name, though nominally his guardian was Henry, earl of Lancaster. In the summer of 1327 he took part in an abortive campaign against the Scots, which resulted in the Treaty of Northampton (1328), making Scotland an independent realm. Edward was deeply troubled by the settlement and signed it only after much persuasion by Isabella and Mortimer. He married Philippa at York on Jan. 24, 1328. Soon afterward, Edward made a successful effort to throw off his degrading dependence on his mother and Mortimer. While a council was being held at Nottingham, he entered the castle by night, through a subterranean passage, took Mortimer prisoner, and had him executed (November 1330). Edward had discreetly ignored his mother's liaison with Mortimer and treated her with every respect, but her political influence was at an end.

Edward III now began to rule as well as to reign. Young, ardent, and active, he sought to remake England into the powerful nation it had been under Edward I. He still resented the concession of independence made to Scotland by the Treaty of Northampton; and the death of Robert I, the Bruce, king of Scotland, in 1329 gave him a chance of retrieving his position. The new king of Scots, his brother-in-law, David II, was a mere boy, and Edward took advantage of his weakness to aid the Scottish barons who had been exiled by Bruce to place their leader, Edward Balliol, on the Scottish throne. David II fled to France, but Balliol was despised as a puppet of the English king, and David returned in 1341.

Hundred Years' War

During the 1330s England gradually drifted into a state of hostility with France, for which the most obvious reason was the dispute over English rule in Gascony. Contributory causes were France's new king Philip VI's support of the Scots, Edward's alliance with the Flemish cities--then on bad terms with their French overlord--and the revival, in 1337, of Edward's claim, first made in 1328, to the French crown. Edward twice attempted to invade France from the north (1339, 1340), but the only result of his campaigns was to reduce him to bankruptcy. In January 1340 he assumed the title of king of France. At first he may have done this to gratify the Flemings, whose scruples in fighting the French king disappeared when they persuaded themselves that Edward was the rightful king of France. But his pretensions to the French crown gradually became more important, and the persistence with which he and his successors urged them made stable peace impossible for more than a century. This was the struggle famous in history as the Hundred Years' War. Until 1801 every English king also called himself king of France.

Edward was present in person at the great naval battle off the Flemish city of Sluis in June 1340, in which he all but destroyed the French navy. Despite this victory his resources were exhausted by his land campaign, and he was forced to make a truce (which was broken two years later) and return to England. During the years after 1342 he spent much time and money in rebuilding Windsor Castle and instituting the Order of the Garter, which became Britain's highest order of knighthood. A new phase of the French war began when Edward landed in Normandy in July 1346, accompanied by his eldest son, Prince Edward, later known as the Black Prince (born 1330). At first the King showed some lack of strategic purpose, engaging in little more than a large-scale plundering raid to the gates of Paris. The campaign was made memorable by his decisive victory over the French at Crécy in Ponthieu (August 26), where he scattered the army with which Philip VI sought to cut off his retreat to the northeast. Edward laid siege to the French port of Calais in September 1346 and received its surrender in August 1347. Other victories in Gascony and Brittany, and the defeat and capture of David II at Neville's Cross near Durham (October 1346), gave further proof of Edward's power, but Calais was to be his only lasting conquest. He ejected most of its French inhabitants, colonizing the town with Englishmen and establishing there a base from which to conduct further invasions of France. Nevertheless, in the midst of his successes, want of money forced him to make a new truce in September 1347.

Edward returned to England in October 1347. He celebrated his triumph by a series of splendid tournaments. In 1348 he rejected an offer to become Holy Roman emperor. In the same year the bubonic plague known as the Black Death first appeared in England and raged until the end of 1349. Its horrors hardly checked the magnificent revels of Edward's court, and neither the plague nor the truce stayed the slow course of the French war, though the fighting was indecisive and on a small scale. Edward's martial exploits during the next years were those of a gallant knight rather than of a responsible general. Although the English House of Commons was now weary of the war, efforts to make peace came to nothing, and large-scale operations began again in 1355, when Edward led an unsuccessful raid out of Calais. He harried the Lothians, part of southeastern Scotland, in the expedition famous as the Burned Candlemas (January and February 1356), and in the same year he received a formal surrender of the Kingdom of Scotland from Balliol. His exploits were, however, eclipsed by those of his son Edward, whose victory at Poitiers (Sept. 19, 1356), resulting in the capture of the French king, John II (who had succeeded Philip VI in 1350), forced the French to accept a new truce. Edward entertained his captive magnificently but forced him by the Treaty of London (1359) to surrender so much territory that the agreement was repudiated in France. In an effort to compel acceptance, Edward landed at Calais (October 28) and besieged Reims, where he planned to be crowned king of France. The strenuous resistance of the citizens frustrated this scheme, and Edward marched into Burgundy, eventually returning toward Paris. After this unsuccessful campaign he was glad to conclude preliminaries of peace at Brittany (May 8, 1360). This treaty, less onerous to France than that of London, took its final form in the Treaty of Calais, ratified by both kings (October 1360). By it, Edward renounced his claim to the French crown in return for the whole of Aquitaine, a rich area in southwestern France.

The years of decline: 1360-77

The Treaty of Calais did not bring rest or prosperity to either England or France. Fresh visitations of the Black Death in England in 1361 and 1369 intensified social and economic disturbances, and desperate but not very successful efforts were made to enforce the Statute of Labourers (1351), which was intended to maintain prices and wages as they had been before the pestilence. Other famous laws enacted during the 1350s had been the Statutes of Provisors (1351) and Praemunire (1353), which reflected popular hostility against foreign clergy. These measures were frequently reenacted, and Edward formally repudiated (1366) the feudal supremacy over England still claimed by the papacy.

When the French king Charles V, son of John II, repudiated the Treaty of Calais, Edward resumed the title of king of France, but he showed little of his former vigour in meeting this new trouble, leaving most of the fighting and the administration of his foreign territories to his sons Edward and John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster. While they were struggling with little success against the rising tide of French national feeling, Edward's want of money made him a willing participant in the attack on the wealth and privileges of the church. Meanwhile, Aquitaine was gradually lost, Prince Edward returned to England in broken health (1371), and John of Gaunt's march through France from Calais to Bordeaux (1373) achieved nothing. Edward's final attempt to lead an army abroad himself (1372) was frustrated when contrary winds prevented his landing his troops in France. In 1375 he was glad to make a truce, which lasted until his death. By it, the only important possessions remaining in English hands were Calais, Bordeaux, Bayonne, and Brest.

Edward was now sinking into his dotage. After the death of Queen Philippa in 1369 he fell entirely under the influence of his greedy mistress, Alice Perrers, while Prince Edward and John of Gaunt became the leaders of sharply divided parties in the royal court and council. John of Gaunt returned to England in April 1374 and with the help of Alice Perrers obtained the chief influence with his father, but his administration was neither honourable nor successful. At the famous so-called Good Parliament of 1376 popular indignation against John of Gaunt's ruling party came at last to a head. Alice Perrers was removed and some of Gaunt's followers were impeached. Before the Parliament had concluded its business, however, the death of Prince Edward (June 8, 1376) robbed the Commons of its strongest support. John of Gaunt regained power, and the acts of the Good Parliament had been reversed when Edward III died.

Edward's character

Edward III possessed extraordinary vigour and energy of temperament; he was an admirable tactician and a consummate knight. His court was the most brilliant in contemporary Europe, and he was himself well fitted to be the head of the gallant knights who obtained fame in the French wars. Though his main ambition was military glory, he was not a bad ruler of England, being liberal, kindly, good-tempered, and easy of access. His need to obtain supplies for carrying on the French wars made him favourable to his subjects' petitions and contributed to the growing strength of Parliament. His weak points were his wanton breaches of good faith, his extravagance, his frivolity, and his self-indulgence. His ambition ultimately transcended his resources, and before he died even his subjects had sensed his failure. [Encyclopædia Britannica CD '97, EDWARD III]

REFN: 4079
Edward III (reigned 1327-77) was 14 when he was crowned King and assumed government in his own right in 1330 after imprisoning his mother and executing her lover Roger de Mortimer who had murdered his father. In 1337, Edward created the Duchy of Cornwall to provide the heir to the throne with a n income independent of the sovereign or the state. An able soldier, and an inspiring leader, Edward founded the Order of the Garter in 1348. At the beginning of the Hundred Years War in 1337, actual campaigning started when the King invaded France in 1339 and laid claim to the throne of France. Following a sea victory at Sluys in 1340, Edward overran Brittany in 1342 and in 1346 h e landed in Normandy defeating the French King, Philip IV, at the Battle of Crécy and his son Edward (the Black Prince) repeated his success at Poitiers ( 1356). By 1360 Edward controlled over a quarter of France. His successes consolidated the support of the nobles, lessened criticism of the taxes, and improved relations with Parliament. However, under the 1375 Treaty of Bruges the French King, Charles V, reversed most of the English conquests; Calais and a coastal strip near Bordeaux were Edward's only lasting gain. Failure abroad provoked criticism at home. The Black Death plague outbreaks of 1348-9, 1361- 2 and 1369 inflicted severe social dislocation
(the King lost a daughter to t he plague) and caused deflation; severe laws were introduced to attempt to fi x wages and prices. In 1376, the
'Good Parliament' (which saw the election of the first Speaker to represent the Commons) attacked the high taxes and criticised the King's
advisers. The ageing King withdrew to Windsor for the rest of his reign, eventually dying at Sheen Palace of a stroke. His son John of G aunt dominated the government during his last years. The Matter at Issue: The Throne of France The English Position of the Throne of France

Milords:
We here set forth the genealogy of the Kings of France and why we, Edward III cl aim justly, and why Philippe VI claim unjustly the Throne of France. The Valoi s Family Tree Good Philippe III Valois, King of France, had three sons. And on his death the throne passed to his eldest son, Philippe IV. Philippe IV having issue, at his death the throne passed not to his younger brothers but to this issue, and the branch of the Valois tree from which springs our current Philippe was then passed over. This issue of Philippe IV included three sons, and each ruled in turn (as well, briefly, as the son of the eldest, who though crowned as Infant King died before the end of his first year of life). And now, all Philippe IV's sons have died, and none of these sons have left him a living grandson. But Philippe IV had also a daughter, and this daughter, Is abella, has issue. And this son of hers is the only living grandson of Philippe IV, and the sister of France's last previous Valois king and this son is t he only living nephew of his three sons, three Kings of France. And this daughter of Philippe IV is our own mother and this son of hers, grandson of Philippe and Valois heir is OURSELF, EDWARD III PLANTAGENET. Salic Law But why should Philippe VI claim that now this vital trunk of the Valois Tree, which produced in our grandfather, our uncles and our cousin the last five kings of France be now disregarded? And why should he claim that the throne should pass not directly to us through our mother, but back through several generations and younger sons to that long bypassed twig of which he is the meager fruit? He calls upon the ancient "Salic Law" of King Pharamond. Salic Law: "In ter ram Salicam muliers ne succedant" (In Salic lands no woman shall inherit) Th is "law Salique" to which Philippe appeals has no bearing on our claim of France for five reasons: 1)This law is not written for France, but for lands outs ide France's borders. The Land Salique lies not

Most of the information on Kings & Queens of Scotland, Ireland, Wales, England and other parts of the British Isles & Europe and on the various Royal & Noble families in this family tree has come from one or more of the following sources:

BURKE'S Genealogical and Heraldic History of the PEERAGE BARONETAGE AND KNIGHTAGE.
Edited by Peter Townend. Burke's Peerage Limited, London
"Burke's Peerage" popular name.

Also information from
Burke's Landed Gentry
Burke's Peerage Limited, London

Debrett's Peerage and Baronetage,
ISBN: 0312125577
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For further information on Debrett's
e-mail people@debretts.co.uk
Phone # +44 (0)171 916 9633.
http://www.debretts.co.uk/index.html


Directory of Royal Genealogical Data (Edinburgh Mirror)
http://www.tardis.ed.ac.uk/~bct/public/genealogy/royal/
Version: 29 Jul 99 Author: Brian Tompsett
Back: Royal and Noble genealogy Copyright (c) 1994 - 1999

This is part of Royal and Noble Genealogical Data on the Web at
http://www.dcs.hull.ac.uk/public/genealogy/gedcom.html,


Royal Genealogies -- Menu
http://ftp.cac.psu.edu/~saw/royal/royalgen.html
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Burke's possibly now published or distributed by
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REF: British Monarchy Official Website: Edward III (reigned 1327-77) was 14 when he was crowned king and assumed government in his own right in 1330. An able soldier, and an inspiring leader, Edward founded the Order of the Garter in1348. At the beginning of the Hundred Years War, the king invaded France in 1338. At first, Edward was unsuccessful, but in 1346 he landed in
Normandy defeating the French king, Philip IV, at the Battle of Crecy and again at Poitiers (1356). By 1360 Edward controlled over a quarter of France. His successes consolidated the support of the nobles, lessened criticism of the taxes, and improved relations with Parliament. However, by 1374 the French king, Charles V, had reversed most of the English conquests. Failure abroad
provoked criticism at home. In 1376, the 'Good Parliament' (which saw the election of the first Speaker to represent the Commons) attacked the high taxes and criticised the king's advisers. The ageing king withdrew to Windsor for the rest of his reign.

REF: "Royal Descents of Famous People" Mark Humphreys: Edward III is "often described as the ancestor of the British upper middle class" (Steve Jones' estimate, Burkes Press)...I have seen it quoted that 80% of the population of England is descended from Edward III, but Steve Jones' estimate (for Britain) above would imply the figure is considerably lower. Jones book "In the Blood: God, Genes, & Destiny" 1996, estimates that 25% of the population of Britain is descended from William the Conqueror. Consider you need two parents, four grandparents, etc. Assuming an average of abt 25 years per generation, you only need go back to 1200, quite within historical times, to need more separate ancestors than the population of the world. Therefor we all must descend from cousin marriages, many times over, even within the last few hundred years. Davenport claimed "no people of English descent are more distantly related than 30th cousins".


REF: British Monarchy Official Website: Edward III (reigned 1327-77) was 14 when he was crowned king and assumed government in his own right in 1330. An able soldier, and an inspiring leader, Edward founded the Order of the Garter in1348. At the beginning of the Hundred Years War, the king invaded France in 1338. At first, Edward was unsuccessful, but in 1346 he landed in
Normandy defeating the French king, Philip IV, at the Battle of Crecy and again at Poitiers (1356). By 1360 Edward controlled over a quarter of France. His successes consolidated the support of the nobles, lessened criticism of the taxes, and improved relations with Parliament. However, by 1374 the French king, Charles V, had reversed most of the English conquests. Failure abroad
provoked criticism at home. In 1376, the 'Good Parliament' (which saw the election of the first Speaker to represent the Commons) attacked the high taxes and criticised the king's advisers. The ageing king withdrew to Windsor for the rest of his reign.

REF: "Royal Descents of Famous People" Mark Humphreys: Edward III is "often described as the ancestor of the British upper middle class" (Steve Jones' estimate, Burkes Press)...I have seen it quoted that 80% of the population of England is descended from Edward III, but Steve Jones' estimate (for Britain) above would imply the figure is considerably lower. Jones book "In the Blood: God, Genes, & Destiny" 1996, estimates that 25% of the population of Britain is descended from William the Conqueror. Consider you need two parents, four grandparents, etc. Assuming an average of abt 25 years per generation, you only need go back to 1200, quite within historical times, to need more separate ancestors than the population of the world. Therefor we all must descend from cousin marriages, many times over, even within the last few hundred years. Davenport claimed "no people of English descent are more distantly related than 30th cousins".



More About Edward III Plantagenet King of England and Phillipa of Hainault:
Marriage: January 24, 1327/28, York Minster, England .

Children of Edward III Plantagenet King of England and Phillipa of Hainault are:
  1. +John "of GAUNT", d. date unknown.
Created with Family Tree Maker


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